Gabriela Cristina Chire-Fajardo's research while affiliated with Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina and other places

Publications (10)

Article
The refining‐conching stage is crucial in the chocolate manufacturing process for the development of sensory and quality characteristics. However, this stage requires the longest amount of operation time. Thus, the objective of this research was to reduce the refining‐conching time of dark chocolate in a Macintyre refiner/conche in a Peruvian mediu...
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In this research, the maximum retention of ascorbic acid was determined in the Puka Ambrosio potato subjected to frying using the response surface method (33). Retention was tested at 160, 170 and 180 °C for 150, 180 and 210 seconds and with a flake thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm. In 2 mm flakes at 170 °C and 200 seconds of frying, 87.3% ascorbic acid...
Article
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La pandemia actual del COVID-19 es una enfermedad que afecta a toda la humanidad. El gobierno peruano ha promovido el uso de las barreras físicas, sin embargo, el sistema inmunitario es una importante defensa contra el virus que no se ha motivado aún. Los objetivos fueron: conocer la enfermedad del COVID-19 y su comportamiento; conocer la alimentac...
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Cocoa is used in the manufacturing of different products. Fermenting microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria use the high nutrient content of cocoa. This research evaluated physicochemical properties and microbial group behavior of fresh cocoa bean and four treatments to compare among them (A, A-farmer, B, and B-farmer). Moisture content, mold an...
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La eflorescencia de la grasa es un proceso de recristalización que da como resultado un chocolate de superficie opaca y blanca. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la cinética de aparición de este fenómeno evaluando el Indice de Blancura (IB) en chocolate comercial peruano con 45 y 70% de cacao. La cinética fue determinada por el método acel...
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Using technical procedures, the fatty acid (FA) profile and solid fat content (SFC) of the Peruvian cultivar cacao beans CCN 51 and ICS 6 and the “optimal chocolate”, obtained from the mixture of the first two, were determined to assess their quality. These cacao beans were found to have important nutritional values. The FA profile of the cacao bea...
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The Biostructured Process Control Method (BCPM) is a new method similar to the Balance Score Card dashboard with a quantitative control based on compliance with standards which was applied in the industrial manufacture of cookies. The control biostructure, designed considering the characteristics of the process, was made up of five sub-processes (m...
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El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las propiedades físicas y químicas de los granos de cacao Nacional fino de aroma y CCN 51 procedentes de Ecuador, así como ICS 6 y CCN 51 originarios de Perú para la elaboración de chocolate de calidad. Se determinaron índice de grano (g), porcentaje de testa, dimensiones de grano (mm), porosidad (%), índice...
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En esta investigación se buscó optimizar la formulación de chocolate oscuro a partir de la mezcla de granos de cacao peruano y el contenido de cacao en ella, teniendo como criterio de optimización la mejora de las propiedades físicas del chocolate: color, tamaño de partícula, propiedades reológicas y textura, aplicando la metodología de superficie...
Article
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The quality of the main chocolates marketed in Peru was determined. The physical aspect: color (C *, H *, IB), hardness and particle size, as well as physicochemical: water activity (aw), moisture, fat and ash, correlating with the declaration of ingredients presented in the packaging. We evaluated 30 experimental units of chocolates (imported, dom...

Citations

... During refining, temperatures can reach 60 • C because of viscous dissipation, but cooling is applied to reduce the temperatures so that adequate viscosity is maintained throughout the process [14]; (3) The chocolate is then conched, which is a stirring operation at temperatures above 50 • C for a few hours to remove undesirable volatile compounds to reduce acidity and further develop flavor as well as viscosity and texture [41]. Conching is crucial in chocolate processing for the development of sensory and quality characteristics [42]; (4) The chocolate undergoes tempering to promote adequate fat crystallization in cocoa butter's most thermodynamically stable form [16,39]. Fat crystallization and its control are critical in defining chocolate quality [43]. During tempering, chocolate is first heated above 50 • C to ensure that all the crystals are melted, then cooled to approximately 27 • C, where both stable and unstable crystals are formed, then reheated to 30-32 • C, so that the unstable crystals melt and only the stable crystals remain. ...
... There are different varieties adapted to extreme conditions with unique properties that are undervalued by agribusiness; that is why it is necessary to study processing alternatives to reduce poverty and food insecurity in the country's poorest areas [1]. Native potato clones contain bioactive compounds that prevent various degenerative diseases due to their high content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins C, B 3 , and B 6 ; they also contain minerals, such as potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium, as well as various flavors, colors, and shapes, which are valued in the preparation of different foods [2][3][4][5][6][7]. The cultivation and conservation of native pigmented potatoes in Peru are rooted in the ancestral culture of the high Andean populations [8], and the participation of men and women in agricultural work is differentiated [9]. ...
... Quarantine measures (for 3 months) and curfew (until January 2022) were established. The use of masks was enforced, it was suggested to keep a minimum distance of one meter, to wash hands frequently with soap and water and to avoid crowded spaces without natural ventilation (Velásquez-Quispe et al., 2021). A large number of health professionals were hired, and intensive care beds and equipment were acquired for cases of severe symptomatology (Benítez et al., 2020;Romero, 2020). ...
... Salazar et al. [122] conducted observations of microbiological properties in postharvest handling of cocoa beans, where 4 types of treatment were carried out, namely, treatment A and A-farmer, treatment B and B-farmer. Treatments A and A-farmer (performed by farmers directly in the field) were carried out by drying cocoa beans through an artificial process, while treatments B and B-farmers (carried out by farmers directly in the field) were performed using sunlight. ...
... These groups of compounds are attributed beneficial properties for human health, mainly in the prevention of cardiac problems [12]. Moreover, the fats in chocolates determine not only their nutritional quality, but also their industrial quality [13]. The prevention of their deterioration due to the technology used in processing could determine the quality of the product. ...
... El comportamiento del contenido de proteína osciló entre 11,21 -14,19 %; estos resultados guardan relación con los obtenidos en Perú para granos de cacao de la variedad CCN51 (14,23 %) y ICS 6 (15,53 %) (28). La tendencia del contenido proteico desciende a medida que transcurren los días de fermentación, debido a la difusión e hidrólisis de las proteínas contenidas en el cotiledón, lo cual es ocasionado por el metabolismo de las bacterias acéticas involucradas en la fermentación (23). ...
... These were ground into cocoa mass by refining for 5 h in 3-kg-capacity stone refiners (Premier, India). To obtain the cocoa mass in tablets, tempering was performed by fluctuating temperatures following the procedure described by Chire-Fajardo et al. (2019). First, the temperature was increased to 50 • C, then cooled to 28 • C and at 32 • C. ...
... These values were typical for this dark chocolate products. According to some reports the average ash content for dark chocolates was 1.92 ± 0.43%, while in other samples values were regulated within the range of 1.00 to 2.35% [12][13]. The ash content are connected with origin of cocoa beans and their processing. ...