# G. Monnet's research while affiliated with European Southern Observatory and other places

## Publications (160)

Article
Spectroscopic astronomical instrumentation has much evolved in the last 40years. Long-slit grating spectrographs with a photographic plate as the detector working in the 0.3–1μm range were prevalent up to the early 1970s. The replacement of photographic plates by two-dimensional digital detectors provided gains in sensitivity of two orders of magni...
Chapter
Three years ago, a group of European funding agencies, plus ESA and ESO, put forward the Astronet program to ensure close coordination of the astronomical developments within the Continent. One prime objective of this ERANET contract financed by the European Commission is to produce a long-term (∼20-year) strategic plan, similar in scope and conten...
Article
Full-text available
We report the first wide-field mapping of the kinematics and stellar populations in the E3 galaxy NGC 4365. The velocity maps extend previous long-slit work. They show two independent kinematic subsystems: the central 300 pc × 700 pc rotates about the projected minor axis, and the main body of the galaxy, 3 kpc × 4 kpc, rotates almost at right angl...
Article
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We report on 75 mas resolution, near-IR imaging spectroscopy within the central 30 lt-days of the Galactic center, taken with the new adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectrometer SINFONI on the ESO VLT. To a limiting magnitude of K ~ 16, 9 of 10 stars in the central 04, and 13 of 17 stars out to 07 from the central black hole have spectral...
Article
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The emission of the upper atmosphere introduces an additional variable component into observations of astronomical objects in the NIR 700–3,000nm range. The subtraction of this component is not easy because it varies during the night by as much as 100% and it is not homogeneous over the sky. A program aimed at measuring and understanding the main c...
Article
We present the spectrum of the galaxy companion to the z = 4.7 quasar BR 1202-0725 in the optical range 6000–9000 Å, corresponding to 1050–1580 Å in the rest frame. We detect a strong Lyα emission line at z = 4.702, with an integrated flux of 2 × 10-16 ergs cm-2 s-1, and a UV continuum longward of the Lyα emission at a flux level of 3 × 10-19 ergs...
Article
The status of the European Extremely Large Telescope programme will be reviewed with successively: 1) the Scientific Case, 2) the European/International context, 3) an outline of the Telescope and Instrument design, 4) the associated R&D programme and 5) the next steps towards first light and initial operation.
Article
The 100 m OWL ESO Concept Study has undergone a full review early November 2005. The development of the concept, the conclusions of the review panel and the planned post-review actions for the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) to be built by ESO in the next 10 years are presented and discussed.
Article
The European initiative for an Extremely Large Telescope is presented. During the past year the transition from the 100 m OWL concept to a 30 m to 42 m diameter telescope has been made. The history and the current status of this development is described.
Article
In December 2004 the ESO Council defined as ESO's highest priority strategic goal the retention of European astronomical leadership and excellence into the era of ELTs, asking that the construction of an ELT on a competitive time scale be addressed by radical strategic planning. Therefore the ESO activities towards the future European ELT underwent...
Chapter
ESO is developing the concept of a ground-based, 100-m class optical telescope with segmented large mirrors and an integrated diffraction limit capability, christened OWL for its keen night vision. At ten times the collecting area of every telescope ever built put together, OWL will have limiting magnitudes of 37-38, angular resolutions of 1-2 mill...
Chapter
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A large fraction of the present-day stellar mass was formed between z=0.5 and z ~ 3z\sim 3 and our understanding of the formation mechanisms at work at these epochs requires both high spatial and high spectral resolution: one shall simultaneously obtain images of objects with typical sizes as small as 1-2 kpc ( $\sim 0".1$\sim 0".1 ), while achiev...
Article
The 8-instrument suite studied by the ESO community in the frame of the conceptual study of the 100 m OWL telescope is briefly presented. Potential capability for unique science and the main technical challenges are identified.
Article
After more than two years of regular operation, a number of upgrades have recently been installed for NACO and offered to the community. The article describes the new observing modes and provides examples of astronomical applications in high-contrast imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry.
Article
The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) on Cerro Paranal (2635 m) in Northern Chile reached a major milestone in September 2003 when the mid infrared instrument MIDI was offered for scientific observations to the community. This was only nine months after MIDI had recorded first fringes. In the meantime, the near infrared instrument AMBER sa...
Conference Paper
The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) on Cerro Paranal (2635 m) in Northern Chile reached a major milestone in September 2003 when the mid infrared instrument MIDI was offered for scientific observations to the community. This was only nine months after MIDI had recorded first fringes. In the meantime, the near infrared instrument AMBER sa...
Article
Full-text available
Progress in the conceptual design phase of ESO's OWL 100-m optical and near-infrared telescope is reported, with emphasis on the development of the science case. The Phase A opto-mechanical design is now basically completed, and provides a clean, symmetrical geometry of the pupil, with a near-circular outer edge. We also report about the latest out...
Article
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SINFONI is an Adaptive Optics assisted cryogenic Near Infrared Spectrograph developed by ESO and MPE in collaboration with NOVA. It was successfully commissioned between June and August at the Cassegrain focus of VLT UT4 (Yepun). The instrument will be offered to the community from April 2005 onwards (period 75) and will provide a unique facility i...
Article
Based on expected Science Drivers for a 60 to 100-m diameter OWL-class telescope, we derive the basic instrumental capabilities that are needed to address them effectively. They come in three flavors -viz. an extremely high-contrast fully diffraction-limited spectro-imager, a cryogenic AO-assisted imager and multi-integral field spectrometer. Their...
Article
Designs for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) are quite well advanced, but the requirements of instruments have had limited impact. Since provision of a suitable environment for instruments is a critical aspect of all telescopes, we outline some well-known and some less-appreciated challenges of designing instruments for ELTs. A wide-field spectrom...
Article
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Putting an Adaptive Secondary on one of the VLT Unit Telescope would offer a significant boost in the observing efficiency of the Telescope and would also constitute an important step on the roadmap towards the future ESO Extremely Large Telescope. First evaluation is that such a system, when coupled to instruments with adequate performance and equ...
Article
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SINFONI is an adaptive optics assisted near-infrared integral field spectrometer for the ESO VLT. The Adaptive Optics Module (built by the ESO Adaptive Optics Group) is a 60-elements curvature-sensor based system, designed for operations with natural or sodium laser guide stars. The near-infrared integral field spectrometer SPIFFI (built by the Inf...
Article
Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) is working on the principle to perform wide field of view atmospheric turbulence correction using many Guide Stars located in and/or surrounding the observed target. The vertical distribution of the atmospheric turbulence is reconstructed by observing several guide stars and the correction is applied by some d...
Article
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SPIFFI is the infrared integral field spectrometer for the VLT. Here we report on early results from our first observations in 2003. This selection includes the stellar content and dynamics of the Galactic Centre and its geometric distance measurement, the dynamics and molecular emission of the Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6240, and the portr...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) is working on the principle to perform wide field of view atmospheric turbulence correction using many Guide Stars located in and/or surrounding the observed target. The vertical distribution of the atmospheric turbulence is reconstructed by observing several guide stars and the correction is applied by some d...
Article
Full-text available
Preliminary requirements and possible technological solutions for the next generation of ground-based optical telescopes were laid down at ESO in 1998. Since then, a phase A study has been commissioned, the objective of which is to produce a conceptual design compatible, to the maximum possible extent, with proven technology, and establish realisti...
Article
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NAOS+CONICA (hereafter NACO) saw first light on November 25, 2001, at VLT UT4 (YEPUN). NACO partially compensates the effects of atmospheric turbulence (seeing) and provides diffraction- limited resolution for observing wavelengths from 1 to 5 μm, resulting in a gain in spatial resolution by a factor of 5 to 15 (diffraction limit of an 8-m-class te...
Article
Early results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics and stellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sa galaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of the galaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a function of radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations,...
Article
Astrium GmbH together with Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Marseille is leading one of two competing consortia of European industry and scientific institutions tasked by ESA with carrying out detailed assessment and definition studies of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer for NGST. The current baseline instrument concept that has emerged from the assessmen...
Article
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Early results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics and stellar populations of nearby cluster and field E, S0, and Sa galaxies. We present maps of the Hbeta and [OIII] emission-line distribution and kinematics for NGC 5813 and NGC 7742.
Article
We present observations with the adaptive optics assisted integral field spectrograph OASIS of the M 31 double nucleus in the spectral domain around the Calcium triplet at a spatial resolution better than 0:"5 FW H M. These data are used to derive the two-dimensional stellar kinematics within the central 2 ". ArchivalWFPC2/HST images in the F300W,...
Article
A new integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, is described. It is based on the Tiger principle, and uses a lenslet array. SAURON has a large field of view and high throughput, and allows simultaneous sky subtraction. Its design is optimized for studies of the stellar kinematics, gas kinematics, and line-strength distributions of nearby early-type gala...
Article
We present the first results from a new and unique integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, for the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Based upon the TIGER concept, SAURON uses a lens array to obtain two-dimensional spectroscopy with complete spatial coverage over a field of 33″×41″ in low-resolution mode (0.94″ lenslets) and of 9″×11″ in hi...
Article
An H-alpha survey, using a focal reducer and narrow-band interference filters, has resulted in the detection of nearly a thousand HII regions in M31. The catalog gives their positions, dimensions, and surface brightnesses. The surface brightnesses are on an absolute scale; the photographic measures were calibrated by using photoelectric measures fr...
Article
Full-text available
We present observations with the adaptive optics assisted integral field spectrograph OASIS of the M 31 double nucleus in the spectral domain around the Calcium triplet at a spatial resolution better than 0farcs5 FWHM. These data are used to derive the two-dimensional stellar kinematics within the central 2 arcsec. Archival WFPC2/HST images in the...
Article
The SINFONI integral field spectrometer for the VLT will provide nearinfrared spatially resolved spectra at spatial resolutions close to the diffraction limit of the telescope ( 0¢¢.050^{\prime\prime}\hspace{-0.15cm}.05 at 2m2\mu m). 1024 spectra can be simultaneously obtained, covering a 32 x 32 pixel field of view with ~ 100\sim 100 % filling...
Article
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We briefly describe the SAURON project, aimed at determining the intrinsic shape and internal dynamics of spheroids. We focus here on the ability of SAURON to identify gaseous and stellar disks and to measure their morphology and kinematics. We illustrate some of our results with complete maps of NGC3377, NGC3623, and NGC4365.
Article
The VIRMOS consortium of French and Italian Institutes is manufacturing 2 wide field imaging multi-object spectrographs for the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, with emphasis on the ability to carry over spectroscopic surveys of large numbers of sources. The Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph, VIMOS, is covering the 0.37 to 1 micr...
Article
The paper deals with the global approach in place at ESO to optimize observing efficiency at the VLT. It involves not only the telescopes and their associated instrumentation, but as a mater of fact the whole observing process from proposals to data distribution. The ten main avenues pursued to reach that goal are presented, and early experience at...
Article
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We explore the scientific case and the conceptual feasibility of giant filled aperture telescopes, in the light of science goals needing an order of magnitude increase in aperture size, and investigate the requirements (and challenges) these imply for possible technical options in the case of a 100 m telescope. The 100-m f/6.4 telescope optical con...
Article
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In this paper, we describe a concept of multiple laser guide stars system based on tomographic reconstruction and multi-conjugate correction for 8-m class telescopes. We show that this type of adaptive optics (AO) systems can be considered as the next generation of A0 systems for 8-m telescopes and represents a necessary intermediate step toward A0...
Article
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In 1999, a new and unique integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, made its debut at the WHT. SAURON has a large field of view and high throughput, and was developed as a private instrument in a collaborative effort between groups at Observatoire de Lyon, Leiden Observatory, and the University of Durham for the systematic study of the stellar and gaseo...
Article
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In this paper, we present medium resolution spectra of the night-sky OH emission. The spectra cover the range 0.997 - 2.25 μm with a resolution of about 8000. Line wavelengths are computed from laboratory data and are given in vacuum. A few lines due to O_2 are also identified. This new set of data can be used to calibrate the wavelength scale of s...
Article
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Article
We present the first results from a new and unique integral-field spectrograph, SAURON. Based upon the TIGER concept, SAURON uses a lens array to obtain two-dimensional spectroscopy with complete spatial coverage over a field of 33"x41" in low-resolution mode (0.94" lenslets) and of 9"x11" in high-resolution mode (0.26" lenslets). The spectra cover...
Conference Paper
We describe the current activity at ESO on Curvature Adaptive Optics Systems. The strategy, aimed at implementing several system via a cloning process, will allow faster production time,lower costs and better maintenance. Curvature systems fulfill the performance requirements for NIR spectroscopy and interferometry at the VLT, for which AO is reque...
Article
SINFONI, the SINgle Faint Object Near-infrared Investigation, is an instrument for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), designed to provide spectroscopy at the telescope diffraction limit in the near-infrared. This unique capability is achieved by combining two state-of-the-art developments, an integral field spectrometer (SPIFFI) and a curvature sensor...
Article
SINFONI, the SINgle Faint Object Near-infrared Investigation, is a merger of two instruments: SPIFFI, an integral field spectrometer built by the Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), and an adaptive optics system, MACAO, built by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Combining two state of the art technologies, SINFONI will...
Article
Getting a competitive “cosmological” instrumentation package at the VLT Observatory (with eventually contribution from smaller telescopes than the 8m’s) is one of our most important goals. Both present and future instrumental capabilities are analyzed in that context, with special emphasis on providing a full complement of observational modes to pr...
Article
We present photometric (pre-COSTAR HST and ground-based) and new two-dimensional TIGER spectrographic data of the central region of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594, M 104). This gives B-V and V-R_C_ images, as well as 2D line strengths and kinematical maps (LOSVDs). Analysis of these data lets us draw a clearer picture of the morphology of the Sombre...
Article
During the summer of 1985, the CIGALE Perot-Fabry scanning interferometer of Marseilles Observatory was installed at the prime focus of the 2.6 m telescope of Byurakan Observatory. The long run (two new moons) was successful and gave matereial for numerous publications.
Article
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The instrument TIGER is the first prototype of an integral field spectrograph using a microlenses array to perform bidimensional high spatial resolution spectrographic observations. It has been in operation at CFHT for a few years and has been successfully used on a large variety of astrophysical objects, ranging from the planet Mars to distant rad...
Article
A photon counting wavefront curvature sensor (WFS) with 13 subapertures suitable for adaptive optics in astronomy has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This sensor is capable of using very faint point sources or slightly extended sources to derive the wavefront signal. The sensitivity of this sensor is continuously variable and can be adj...
Article
We introduce a new technique to build photometric and kinematical models of the stellar components of galaxies. This, so-called Multi-Gaussian Expansion method, generalizes the approach of Monnet et al. (1992). It provides accurate deconvolution of the observed surface brigthness for an arbitrary Point Spread Function, an analytical derivation of t...
Article
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Initial results of laboratory and on-sky tests of the new Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) multi-object spectrograph, metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)/superconducting / insulating / superconducting (SIS), are described. MOS/SIS contains two ways, one of which is primarily intended for imagery and spectroscopy of many tens of objects within a 10...
Conference Paper
A photon counting wavefront curvature sensor (WFS) with 13 subapertures suitable for adaptive optics in astronomy has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This sensor is capable of using very faint point sources or slightly extended sources to derive the wavefront signal. The sensitivity of this sensor is continuously variable and can be adj...
Article
We have applied the Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) technique for a photometric analysis of a new high resolution R' image of the central region of NGC 4594 (M 104). The deconvolved image reveals a nucleus offset by about 0.2 arcsec. from the bulge, and a bright unresolved nuclear disk. Oblate self-gravitating dynamical models have been derived, aga...
Article
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At the July 11, 1991 solar total eclipse, a modern large optical telescope, Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (CFHT), was used to probe the solar corona. The best possible pictures were obtained with the CFHT, using fast imaging techniques and post-facto image selection and processing. Several cameras were run during totality to acquire sub-arcsec spa...
Article
Sub-arcsecond imagery (HRCAM, 0".35 - 0".57 FWHM) and two-dimensional spectrography (TIGER, 0".9 FWHM) of the central nucleus of M31 have been obtained at CFHT. The photometric data clearly show the double-peaked nucleus, in excellent agreement with a recent HST image by Lauer et al. 1993. We built deconvolved surface brightness models, using the m...
Article
The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope has undertaken the development of an Adaptive Optic bonette for general use at its telescope. There will be separate mirrors for tip-tilt and for higher order corrections. A 19 element curvature wavefront sensor will be used with a bimorph (19 electrodes) deformable mirror. Modal control will be used in order to o...
Article
The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope has undertaken the development of an Adaptive Optic bonette for general use at its telescope. There will be separate mirrors for tip-tilt and for higher order corrections. A 19 element curvature wavefront sensor will be used with a bimorph (19 electrodes) deformable mirror. Modal control will be used in order to o...
Article
A critical discussion of recent results claiming the existence of supermassive black holes in the centers of some galaxies is presented. It is based on 2D high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic data obtained at CFHT with a high-resolution camera and the TIBER integral field spectrograph. Two cases - M32 and the Sombrero galaxy - are highlighted.
Article
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Observations of the solar corona with a large telescope at high altitude was fully exploited with the 3.60 m CFHT (Canada France Hawaii Telescope) in Hawaii, during the 11 Jul. 1991 eclipse, are reported. Different instruments set up for the eclipse and preliminary results are given. The moving feature in the corona is focused upon. Physical condit...
Article
The authors present a spectrometer with cross dispersion, which can cover the spectral range of grating with the high Fabry-Pérot resolution simultaneously for different points of a two-dimensional source. It is an "integral field" device with a multi-lens array, which can isolate contiguous points of the image. It is multichannel and integral spec...
Article
In this paper, it is shown that, if the spatial light intensity and angular velocity of a cylindrically-rotating elliptical galaxy are both represented by sums of centered Gaussians functions, constant on homothetic triaxial ellipsoids, then the observed isophotes and isoradial velocities, for an arbitrary line of sight and with a point-spread func...
Article
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A photometric catalog of 306 H II regions of NGC 7741 is presented with an analysis of the distribution of the fluxes. A total of 2500 radial velocities of the ionized gas have then been measured with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and a two-dimensional counting system. A dynamical model is derived, which reasonably fits the velocity field,...
Article
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The galaxy NGC 5728 has been observed with the integral field spectrograph TIGER. This galaxy is known as a Seyfert 2, and its nuclear regions exhibit a complex structure. The decomposition into Gaussian profiles of the spectra arising from the very central region was achieved, and maps associated with the different components found were then obtai...
Article
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Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the TIGER Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) strongly confirm the gravitational lens hypothesis. C III semiforbidden emission-line and Mg I absorption-line mappings are used to discriminate the quasar images and the galactic nucleus.
Article
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The separation of the gaseous layers belonging to the SNR N186D and to the superimposed H II region N186E is made from scanned interferometric observations. The velocity field and H-alpha intensity map of the SNR are established with a resolution of 10 x 10 arcsec over the 2 arcmin field, where soft X-rays are emitted. The SNR radial velocities are...
Article
TIGER is a new device designed for true bidimensional spectrography and imagery. Its main advantage is to obtain simultaneously spatial and spectrographic informations on the object. Observations of M51 nucleus with the 3.6 m CFHT telescope demonstrate its ability to perform bidimensional spectgrography with seeing-limited spatial resolution.
Chapter
To obtain both the space and spectrographic information simultaneously is the main advantage of the Integral Field Spectrograph named TIGER. The discrimination of the telescopic image elements is obtained with the use of an array of lenses. The matrix of exit pupils of those lenses is located in the plane of the slits of a conventional focal reduce...
Article
Full-text available
A 9arcmin×9arcmin sky area centered on the galactic nebula W58 G has been scanned at Hα wavelength with the CIGALE instrument at the prime focus of the 2.6 m Armenian telescope in Byurakan. Four distinct nebular emissions can be distinguished along the same line of sight. Two are related to the nearby Cygnus complex, one at VLSR = 9 km s-1 is assoc...
Article
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Based on observations made with a scanning Fabry-Perot spectrograph at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, a complete two-dimensional radial velocity field of ionized hydrogen in the late-type spiral NGC 6946 is given. A slight but definite displacement of the kinematical center with respect to the nucleus is found. A strong kinematical distu...
Article
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The radial velocities of the ionized gas in the double system of galaxies NGC 7752 - 53 have been measured with a scanning Perot-Fabry interferometer and a two-dimensional photon counting system (the CIGALE equipment). The velocity field shows that the pair is not so loose as previously thought. Both redshifts are now determined with an uncertainty...
Article
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A very high contrast monochromatic image and a two-dimensional radial velocity field in the 6584 Å line of ionized nitrogen have been obtained in the central 3arcmin×3arcmin of Messier 31, from the CIGALE experiment, a scanning Fabry-Perot spectrograph. The already known mottled appearance and the presence of 50 - 100 km s-1 chaotic motions are con...