G. M. Williamson's scientific contributions

Citations

... (3) the Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) (Cohen & Williamson, 1988) to assess perceived stress. The PSS-4 is a self-report measure that contains four items which were rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 0 to 4, with those on the positive subscale scored in reverse and the total score being calculated as a sum of these items. ...
... The four-item version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) was used to assess stress levels on a five-point Likert-scale, assessing the occurrence of symptoms from 1=never to 5=very often (Cohen & Williamson, 1988). The negatively coded (reversed) items were recoded before analysis. ...