Frédéric Mérand's research while affiliated with Université de Montréal and other places

Publications (62)

Article
While most scholars analyze European Union politicization as a process that shapes public opinion, little attention has been paid to political strategies. In this article, I focus on politicization as an outcome of political work, the practice of carving out a space for agency in an environment that is constrained by institutional rules and intergo...
Article
When thinking about Euro-Russian relations, IR scholars focus on why conflict has replaced cooperation. The “geostrategic debate” excludes the possible coexistence of cooperation and conflict. In this Introduction to the special issue, we track the evolution of conflict and cooperation patterns in three zones of contact (Estonia, Kaliningrad, Moldo...
Article
This paper takes a bottom-up perspective on the “boundary issues” that emerged between the EU and Russia with and since the end of the Cold War: the mobility of people and goods, energy and natural resources, security, and protection of minorities. This paper compares three zones of contact: Estonia, Moldova and Kaliningrad. Our starting point is t...
Article
Bilateral relations between France and either Germany or the United Kingdom are the backbone of European security and defence cooperation. From a strategic and cultural point of view, these formalized bilateral relations are not self‐evident. In this article, we track the memory‐framing processes accompanying the creation of major bilateral initiat...
Article
Full-text available
Cette note de recherche propose un état des connaissances sur les rapports entre multinationales, compagnies privées de sécurité et autorités publiques dans le secteur de l’extraction minière ou pétrolière. Les sites que gèrent les entreprises extractives sont souvent situés dans des zones de conflits, des territoires contestés ou sujets à l’instab...
Article
Full-text available
The “frozen” conflict between Moldova and its separatist Transnistrian region—which developed into a de facto state—is dynamic. Despite an active nation-building project to support Transnistria’s independence and a stated willingness to join Russia, Transnistria is juggling between Russia and Europe. While economically dependent on the former’s sub...
Article
If a European organisation decides to deploy a military force in Mali or a police mission in Afghanistan, member states probably believe that collective security is a public good that benefits them all. But who will lead the mission? Who will staff it? Who will pay for it? Who will risk casualties? While rational-choice theorists expect little burd...
Article
Cette contribution propose une analyse du sommaire des 47 numéros thématiques de Politique européenne au regard des sous-disciplines qui y sont mobilisées. La place dominante de la sociologie politique, l’importance des politiques publiques, de l’analyse institutionnelle et de l’épistémologie, ainsi que la place réduite des relations internationale...
Article
The procurement of Canada's next fighter jet is a hot potato for the next government. While it was contested on strategic and economic grounds, few observers had doubted before the election of Justin Trudeau that Canada would end up buying the F-35 made by Lockheed Martin. In this paper, we analyze three European programs (the Eurofighter, Saab's G...
Article
Fighter Jets: Why is there no Europeanization? This article questions Bastien Irondelle’s “Europeanization without the EU” thesis (2003) and shows its limits in the case of fighter jets. Starting from the observation that, when it comes to choosing their fighter jets, European governments remain divided between four different aircraft (the Eurofigh...
Article
This article identifies previously ignored determinants of public support for the European Union's security and defence ambitions. In contrast to public opinion vis-à-vis the EU in general, the literature on attitudes towards a putative European army or the existing Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) suggests that the explanatory power of so...
Article
If the issues of Politique européenne could speak… This contribution analyzes 47 special issues of Politique européenne in terms of the sub-disciplines covered. We observe the dominant position of political sociology, the significant space occupied by public policies analysis, institutional approaches and epistemology, but a limited interest for in...
Chapter
This chapter looks at the conceptual innovations and bureaucratic struggles that led to the partial integration of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) structures in the European External Action Service (EEAS).1 What we call the ‘EEAS project’ is not only an attempt at creating a European foreign ministry; it is also spearheading a new way of...
Article
The purpose of this article is to review and refine the notion of ‘liberal militarism’. It is based on the assumption that no society, even a democratic one, can do without militarism as all of them consent to considerable budgetary efforts to provide for their defence. But this consent and the ways in which it is expressed are prone to variations....
Article
This article explores the paradox of constructive ambiguity. Based on a focused, longitudinal comparison of the European Union's energy and defence policies, it analyses the role played by strategies of ambiguity in European integration. Ambiguity is found to be an attractive strategy for political entrepreneurs when member state preferences are he...
Article
Les témoignages qui affluent depuis la disparition de Bastien Irondelle soulignent la générosité, l’intégrité et l’engagement intellectuel du jeune professeur de Sciences Po Paris. Ces qualités, reconnues de tous ne doivent pas nous faire oublier qu’il a aussi été un chercheur prolifique au CERI. En une décennie, Bastien Irondelle a publié pas moin...
Article
Defence policy and varieties of liberal militarism Scholarship on the transformation of defense policies over the past 30 years has mostly emphasized technological and strategic factors. The aim of the article is to highlight the role political and social changes also play in shaping these policies. In most developed countries the different dimensi...
Article
Historically associated with transatlantic discords about the Atlantic alliance,burden-sharing is a term that comes and goes on the policy agenda.1 Last year,Robert Gates made the headlines when he chastised most of his Europeancounterparts for not shouldering enough of the burden in the NATO-ledoperation in Libya (...).
Article
Regional transformation has emerged as a major topic of research during the past few decades, much of it seeking to understand how a region changes into a zone of conflict or cooperation and how and why some regions remain in perpetual conflict. Although the leading theoretical paradigms of international relations have something to say about region...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel ist ein Versuch, die problématique der Europäisierung mit den Mitteln der Feldanalyse neu zu denken. In der politikwissenschaftlichen Literatur bezieht sich Europäisierung auf einen Prozess institutioneller Konvergenz zwischen Mitgliedstaaten, der entweder top-down (Europäisierung als ‚downloading‘ von EU-Regeln in nationale Politik)...
Chapter
In this chapter, I analyse the institutional emergence of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) between 1998 and 2003 as a specific kind of social practice. I argue that the formative years of ESDP, as the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) was then known, cannot be assumed, like most rationalist approaches do, to have been driven...
Book
Full-text available
There have been dramatic changes to the landscape of European security in the twenty years since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The essays in European Security Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall collectively take stock of how approaches to security in Europe have changed, both in practice and in theory, since the end of the Cold War. Organized into th...
Article
A growing number of scholars argue that the development of the common security and defence policy (CSDP) should be analysed as the institutionalization of a system of security governance. Although governance approaches carry the promise of a sophisticated, empirically grounded picture of CSDP, they have been criticized for their lack of attention t...
Article
An increasing number of authors describe the European Union as an advanced form of transgovernmentalism. Whether called Europeanization, supranational intergovernmentalism, multilevel governance, administrative fusion or Brusselisation, the transgovernmentalist thesis states that European politics is shaped by the growing interaction of national go...
Article
This paper uses an analytical framework derived from Pierre Bourdieu's sociology to explain the genesis of the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP). Long-term social and institutional processes at work in the making of ESDP are addressed through an emphasis on the institutionalization of social fields, the impact of structural crises, and th...
Article
European Union (EU) studies are dominated by a narrow form of institutionalism. The focus on formal organizations and asocial norms begs for a more sociological approach to the EU that would encompass the informal practices, symbolic representations and power relations of social actors involved in European society as well as the broad polity. This...
Article
Full-text available
In this introduction to the special issue, we make the case for a greater use of sociological theories and methods across major approaches in European integration theory, a strategy which we call ‘mainstreaming sociology’. Although sociology as a discipline has, in contrast to political science, shown a late and so far modest interest in the Europe...
Article
Our article focuses on the likely impact of France's return to NATO's integrated military command on the future of the European security and defense policy (ESDP). First, we describe the triangular relationship between France's defense, NATO and European defense policies that dominated the era of the Gaullist–Mitterrandist consensus (1958–95) and i...
Article
Résumé S’ appuyant sur la notion de culture stratégique, cet article démontre l’existence d’ une tension historique entre européanisme, continentalisme et internationalisme dans la politique étrangère canadienne. Cette tension fondatrice est explorée sur le plan conceptuel, mais également dans les prises de position concrètes des gouvernements et d...
Article
This paper analyzes the preferences of European defense actors vis-à-vis the European security and defense policy (ESDP) with a view to identifying the main ideational points of convergence and fault lines that structure this policy domain. In an exploratory analysis that relies on an original data-set compiled from systematic interviews conducted...
Article
Baptism of fire. The EU force in Chad and the Central African Republic Can the European Union be both a strategic and a neutral actor in sub-Saharan Africa ? Eufor Tchad/RCA, whose 3 700 troops were sent to protect of Sudanese refugees and internally displaced persons in Chad and the Central African Republic, has the most difficult military operati...
Article
Résumé. Cet article jette un regard original sur les débats contemporains en Relations internationales (RI) à la lumière de la sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu. Sa riche théorie sociale permet d'établir des ponts entre les approches conventionnelles et celles qui sont issues de la mouvance critique en RI. Plus précisément, nous identifions six contrib...
Article
Cet article traite des accords et desaccords entre le neo-institutionnalisme et la sociologie politique d'inspiration bourdieusienne dans l'etude de l'Union europeenne. L’objectif est d’avancer des facons concretes d'integrer l'acquis sociologique dans le corpus neo-institutionnaliste. Pour ce faire, je demontre d'abord comment l'importance accorde...
Article
This book explains the creation of the European Union's Security and Defense Policy-to this day the most ambitious project of peacetime military integration. Whether hailed as a vital step in the integration of Europe or berated as a wasteful threat to US power, European citizens are increasingly interested in the common defense policy. Today, "Eur...
Chapter
On 30 August 1954, the French National Assembly dealt a final blow to the project of a European Defence Community. The EDC, agreed upon by the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community in Paris two years before, would have been composed of multinational military forces overseen by a supranational authority. The French rejection...
Article
Why are international institutions designed in one way and not another? Using the European security and defence policy (ESDP) as a case study, this article suggests that the social representations dominat-ing the national and organizational world of institution-makers are key to our understanding the shape and content of an emerging institution of...
Article
La consolidation de la Politique européenne de sécurité et de défense (PESD) entraîne une reconfiguration des relations transatlantiques en matière de défense, désormais appréhendées sous l'angle d'un rapport direct entre les États‐Unis et l'Union européenne. Cet article s'intéresse aux conséquences pour le Canada de sa marginalisation en matière d...
Article
In spite of the vagaries of the common foreign and security policy and the enduring domination of NATO, there now exist a fairly large number of West European military structures. Recently, European countries pledged substantial units towards the creation of a 60,000-strong EU Rapid Reaction Capability, due to be fully operational by the mid-2000s....
Article
La politique europeenne de securite et de defense est plus que jamais a l’ordre du jour. Pourtant, on se demande rarement ce que les principaux interesses, les militaires, en pensent. Par une analyse de la presse militaire francaise de 1972 a 1998, cet article tente d’evaluer l’opinion et l’evolution de l’intelligentsia militaire francaise face a l...
Article
Canada's defence policy: between culture and geography The dilemma of Canada's defence policy is familiar to policy-makers and international relations scholars: Culturally, we may be from Venus. But geopolitically, we cannot forget that we live next to Mars. Canadian security is inextricably tied to continental defence. It is and should be the prio...

Citations

... 58 ECB Official, personal interview, 18/10/2018. economic stagnation inside the Eurozone and exacerbating social inequalities (Schmidt 2016;Coman et al. 2020;Miró 2021;Mérand 2021). According to Crespy and Vanheuverzwijn (2019, p. 108), this incremental change is an instance of 'strategic adaptation to discontent with austerity', whereby ideational change was allowed by the ambiguity and fuzziness underpinning the notion of structural reforms. ...
... Moreover, the concept of stigma offers a productive lens for analyzing the events in question and their importance to international security, bridging insights from different literatures. The Ukraine crisis as a whole and the broader Russian-Western rivalry are frequently discussed from the perspective of their impact on European security, whether approached from a "traditional" or "critical" geopolitical perspective or somewhere in between (e.g., Averre and Wolczuk 2016 ;Toal 2017 ;Malyarenko and Wolff 2018 ;Mérand, Dembi ńska, and Kunertova 2020 ). Some literature focuses particularly on the symbolic aspect of normative contestation that is also central to stigmatization processes, although usually with the frame of what norms should be applicable in the Russian-European neighborhood rather than the broader question of the norms of international society as a whole (e.g., Raik 2019 ). ...
... This dynamic is a new episode in the long saga of the EU-Russia relationship (that has been occurring since the fall of the Soviet Union) centred around trying to navigate mutual and simultaneous tendencies to cooperate but also compete. This state of limbo has been more commonly presented in the literature as the 'conflict and cooperation dichotomy' (Nitoiu 2017;Dembińska, Mérand, and Shtaltovna 2020). The discourse of PD developed by the EU and Russia has been one of the tools employed during the post-Cold War period in preserving the conflict and cooperation dichotomy, namely by providing the appearance of willingness to cooperate on both sides. ...
... It is also important to learn about the defining failure and success stories of the group (Haslam et al., 2020). In this respect, Hofmann and Mérand (2020) argue that the construction of collective memory frames (i.e., the creation of a community of fate) was and continues to be an important driver of Europeanized cooperation. With a future-facing perspective, identity stewards may identify areas where discrepancies between "who we are" and "who we want to be" exist. ...
... Our empirical evidence suggests that Transnistria continues to pursue a dual alignment, which actually helps to solidify its self-proclaimed statehood. Scholars and practitioners alike often refer to the Transnistrian leadership as being pragmatic, balancing between Russia and the EU, making sure to say and do just enough to placate each as necessary, and choosing strategies that would allow this de facto state to benefit from both (Dembińska and Frédéric 2019;Istomin and Bolgova 2016;Kosienkowski 2012). The current Transnistrian leadership acknowledges the necessity of the DCFTA, with the hope that despite somewhat difficult reforms, the benefits received from the European markets will help to alleviate its economic woes in the long run. ...
... 12 Scholars have emphasized the reasons for both parties to start these negotiations. In addition to the above-mentioned lack of appreciation of the internal dynamics in either entity, both parties were keen to diversify away from too much focus on the US (Croci and Verdun 2004;Haglund and Mérand 2010). On the European side a factor of importance was to try out a transatlantic comprehensive second-generation trade agreement with the smaller industrialised G-7 North American partner, rather than focusing immediately on such an agreement with the US (Drache and Trew 2011). ...
... It is on this basis that despite the lack of such accounts, practice approaches to security communities sell their potential to provide different, thicker, descriptions (see Geertz 1973) of dynamics in micro-practices, including within security communities. Practice theorists explore how security communities emerge, exist and endure in and through practice (see Pouliot 2010;Mérand and Rayroux 2016;Kavalski 2007;Graeger 2016;Bremberg 2015;Bremberg, Sonnsjö and Mobjörk 2019;Bicchi 2011;Bicchi and Bremberg 2016). It is on this basis that I would argue that scholars of security communities of practice have a troubled relationship with the question of order; it predetermines the object of analysis, it arguably stems from the preoccupation with mundane everyday activities (mostly of diplomats or other elites), neglect of struggles over legitimate claims to authority, as well as the structural conditions within which these struggles take place (Martin-Mazé 2017). ...
... 4 A second strand in the literature analyses the decision-making processes and the institutional arrangements of the CSDP. This body of research aims to assess whether Europe's institutional architecture in the field of defence and security is intergovernmental, supra-national or consists of a multilevel security governance (Howorth, 2012;Irondelle et al., 2010;Mattelaer, 2014;Mérand, 2012;Webber et al., 2004). A third cluster focuses on the aggregation of military capabilities under the CSDP, on intra-European arms cooperation and on the persistence of the so-called 'capabilities-expectations gap' (Hill, 1993;1998). ...
... With the fall of the Soviet Union and the emergence of a multitude of unconventional and asymmetric challenges to individual and collective security, the concept of threat itself has acquired different meanings to the public, with significant variations across countries and over time (Manigart 2003;Foucault et al. 2011). Much of this variation depends on previous experience and proximity to the threat (Nacos et al. 2011). ...
... Concerning the first requirement, a growing body of literature underlines the multifold horizontal processes of Europeanization, which December are conceived as the core of sociological approaches to Europeanization (Pernicka & Lahusen, 2018). In particular, the concept of social fields based on Bourdieu's field theory, Weber's value spheres or Fligstein's Strategic Action Fields, moved to the fore of the debate on the societal component of Europeanization (Bernhard & Schmidt-Wellenburg, 2012;Kauppi, 2012;Lahusen & Pernicka, 2016;Mérand, 2012). Within this emerging paradigm, research has been focusing on the emergence of a European civil society and solidarity across Europe (Lahusen, Kousis, Zschache, & Loukakis, 2018;Liebert & Trenz, 2009) and on transnational communication and public spheres (Büttner, Leopold, & Mau, 2016;Eder, 2010;Liebert & Trenz, 2011). ...