# Frédéric Giroire's research while affiliated with French National Centre for Scientific Research and other places

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## Publications (103)

Numerous works have been proposed to generate random graphs preserving the same properties as real-life large-scale networks. However, many real networks are better represented by hypergraphs. Few models for generating random hypergraphs exist, and also, just a few models allow to both preserve a power-law degree distribution and a high modularity...

In federated learning, clients such as mobile devices or data silos (e.g. hospitals and banks) collaboratively improve a shared model, while maintaining their data locally. Multiple recent works show that client's private information can still be disclosed to an adversary who just eavesdrops the messages exchanged between the targeted client and th...

In this paper, we initiate the study of local model reconstruction attacks for federated learning, where a honest-but-curious adversary eavesdrops the messages exchanged between a targeted client and the server, and then reconstructs the local/personalized model of the victim. The local model reconstruction attack allows the adversary to trigger ot...

The degree distributions of complex networks are usually considered to follow a power law distribution. However, it is not the case for a large number of them. We thus propose a new model able to build random growing networks with (almost) any wanted degree distribution. The degree distribution can either be theoretical or extracted from a real-wor...

We study opinion dynamics in multi-agent networks where agents hold binary opinions and are influenced by their neighbors while being biased towards one of the two opinions, called the superior opinion. The dynamics is modeled by the following process: at each round, a randomly selected agent chooses the superior opinion with some probability α, an...

The average properties of the well-known \emph{Subset Sum Problem} can be studied by the means of its randomised version, where we are given a target value $z$, random variables $X\_1, \ldots, X\_n$, and an error parameter $\varepsilon > 0$, and we seek a subset of the $X\_i$'s whose sum approximates $z$ up to error~$\varepsilon$.In this setup, it...

In the area of complex networks so far hypergraph models have received significantly less attention than the graphs. However, many real-life networks feature multiary relations (co-authorship, protein reactions) thus may be modeled way better by hypergraphs. Also, recent study by Broido and Clauset suggests that a power-law degree distribution is n...

The clustering coefficient has been introduced to capture the social phenomena that a friend of a friend tends to be my friend. This metric has been widely studied and has shown to be of great interest to describe the characteristics of a social graph. But, the clustering coefficient is originally defined for a graph in which the links are undirect...

Modern 5G networks promise more bandwidth, less delay and more flexibility for an ever increasing number of users and applications, with Software Defined Networking, Network Function Virtualization and Network Slicing as key enablers. Within that context, efficiently provisioning the network and cloud resources of a wide variety of applications wit...

More than ever, data networks have demonstrated their central role in the world economy, but also in the well-being of humanity that needs fast and reliable networks. In parallel, with the emergence of Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN), efficient network algorithms considered too hard to be put in practice...

Numerous works have been proposed to generate random graphs preserving the same properties as real-life large scale networks. However, many real networks are better represented by hypergraphs. Few models for generating random hypergraphs exist and no general model allows to both preserve a power-law degree distribution and a high modularity indicat...

Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are complementary and core components of modernized networks. In this paper, we consider the problem of reconfiguring Service Function Chains (SFC) with the goal of bringing the network from a sub-optimal to an optimal operational state. We propose optimization models based...

Networks have become complex systems that combine various concepts, techniques, and technologies. As a consequence, modelling or simulating them now is extremely complicated and researchers massively resort to prototyping techniques. Mininet is the most popular tool when it comes to evaluate SDN propositions. Mininet allows to emulate SDN networks...

We study here the clustering of directed social graphs. The clustering coefficient has been introduced to capture the social phenomena that a friend of a friend tends to be my friend. This metric has been widely studied and has shown to be of great interest to describe the characteristics of a social graph. In fact, the clustering coefficient is ad...

The degree distributions of complex networks are usually considered to be power law. However, it is not the case for a large number of them. We thus propose a new model able to build random growing networks with (almost) any wanted degree distribution. The degree distribution can either be theoretical or extracted from a real-world network. The mai...

The degree distributions of complex networks are usually considered to be power law. However, it is not the case for a large number of them. We thus propose a new model able to build random growing networks with (almost) any wanted degree distribution. The degree distribution can either be theoretical or extracted from a real-world network. The mai...

We study here the clustering of directed social graphs. The clustering coefficient has been introduced to capture the social phenomena that a friend of a friend tends to be my friend. This metric has been widely studied and has shown to be of great interest to describe the characteristics of a social graph. In fact, the clustering coefficient is ad...

In peer-to-peer networks for video live streaming, peers can share the forwarding load in two types of systems: unstructured and structured. In unstructured overlays, the graph structure is not well-defined, and a peer can obtain the stream from many sources. In structured overlays, the graph is organized as a tree rooted at the server and parent-c...

Networks became so complex and technical that it is now hard if not impossible to model or simulate them. Consequently, more and more researchers rely on prototypes emulated in controlled environments and Mininet is by far the most popular tool. Mininet implements a simple, yet powerful API to define and run network experiments on a single machine....

Data collection is an important mechanism for wireless sensor networks to be viable. This paper addresses the Aerial Data Collection Problem (ADCP) from a set of mobile wireless sensors located on the ground, using a fleet of flying devices. The objective is i) to deploy a set of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a 3D space to cover and collect da...

Software-defined Network (SDN) is a new networking paradigm enabling innovation through network programmability. Over past few years, many applications have been built using SDN such as server load balancing, virtual-machine migration, traffic engineering and access control. In this paper, we focus on using SDN for energy-aware routing (EAR). Since...

Energy-aware routing aims at reducing the energy consumption of Internet Service Provider (ISP) networks. The idea is to adapt routing to the traffic load to turn off some hardware. However, it implies to make dynamic changes to routing configurations which is almost impossible with legacy protocols. The Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigm bear...

Service chains consist of a set of network services, such as firewalls or application delivery controllers, which are interconnected through a network to support various applications. While it is not a new concept, there has been an extremely important new trend with the rise of software-defined network (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NF...

Network function virtualization (NFV) is a promising network architecture concept to reduce operational costs. In legacy networks, network functions, such as firewall or TCP optimization, are performed by specific hardware. In networks enabling NFV coupled with the software defined network (SDN) paradigm, virtual network functions (VNFs) can be imp...

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is a promising network architecture concept to reduce operational costs. In legacy networks, network functions, such as firewall or TCP optimization, are performed by specific hardware. In networks enabling NFV coupled with the Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigm, network functions can be implemented dynami...

In this paper, we propose and analyze a simple local algorithm to balance a tree. The motivation comes from live distributed streaming systems in which a source diffuses a content to peers via a tree, a node forwarding the data to its children. Such systems are subject to a high churn, peers frequently joining and leaving the system. It is thus cru...

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is gaining momentum with the support of major manufacturers. While it brings flexibility to the management of flows within the data center fabric, this flexibility comes at the cost of smaller routing table capacities. Indeed, the Ternary Content-Addressable Memory (TCAM) needed by SDN devices has smaller capacitie...

Motivated by routing in telecommunication network using Software Defined Network (SDN) technologies, we consider the following problem of finding short routing lists using aggregation rules. We are given a set of communications \(\mathcal {X}\), which are distinct pairs \((s,t)\subseteq S\times T\), (typically S is the set of sources and T the set...

The (edge) forwarding index of a graph is the minimum, over all possible routings of all the demands, of the maximum load of an edge. This metric is of a great interest since it captures the notion of global congestion in a precise way: the lesser the forwarding-index, the lesser the congestion. In this paper, we study the following design question...

In order to optimize energy efficiency, network operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently, there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impac...

A routing R of a connected graph G is a collection that contains simple paths connecting every ordered pair of vertices in G. The edge-forwarding index with respect to R (or simply the forwarding index with respect to R) π(G,R) of G is the maximum number of paths in R passing through any edge of G. The forwarding index π(G) of G is the minimum π(G,...

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is gaining momentum with the support of major manufacturers. While it brings flexibility in the management of flows within the data center fabric, this flexibility comes at the cost of smaller routing table capacities. In this paper, we investigate compression techniques to reduce the forwarding information base (F...

—We study distributed systems for live video streaming. These systems can be of two types: structured and un-structured. In an unstructured system, the diffusion is done opportunistically. The advantage is that it handles churn, that is the arrival and departure of users, which is very high in live streaming systems, in a smooth way. On the opposit...

The (edge) forwarding index of a graph is the minimum, over all possible rout-ings of all the demands, of the maximum load of an edge. This metric is of a great interest since it captures the notion of global congestion in a precise way: the lesser the forwarding-index, the lesser the congestion. In this paper, we study the following design questio...

The (edge) forwarding index of a graph is the minimum, over all possible routings of all the demands, of the maximum load of an edge. This metric is of a great interest since it captures the notion of global congestion in a precise way: the lesser the forwarding-index, the lesser the congestion. In this paper, we study the following design question...

A communication in a network is a pair of nodes (s, t). The node s is called the source source and t the destination. A communication set is a set of distinct communications, i.e. two communications might have the same source or the same destination, but they cannot have both same source and same destination. A routing of a communication (s, t) is...

In telecommunication networks, packets are carried from a source to a destination on a path determined by the underlying routing protocol. Most routing protocols belong to the class of shortest path routing protocols. In such protocols, the network operator assigns a length to each link. A packet going from to follows a shortest path according to t...

In a P2P storage system using erasure codes, a data block is encoded in many redundancy fragments. These fragments are then sent to distinct peers of the network. In this work, we study the impact of different placement policies of these fragments on the performance of storage systems. Several practical factors (easier control, software reuse, late...

A routing R of a connected graph G is a collection that contains simple paths connecting every ordered pair of vertices in G. The edge-forwarding index with respect to R (or simply the forwarding index with respect to R) π(G, R) of G is the maximum number of paths in R passing through any edge of G. The forwarding index π(G) of G is the minimum π(G...

The surveillance game [Fomin et al., 2012] models the problem of web-page prefetching as a pursuit evasion game played on a graph. This two-player game is played turn-by-turn. The first player, called the observer, can mark a fixed amount of vertices at each turn. The second one controls a surfer that stands at vertices of the graph and can slide a...

Several studies exhibit that the traffic load of the routers only has a small
influence on their energy consumption. Hence, the power consumption in networks
is strongly related to the number of active network elements, such as
interfaces, line cards, base chassis,... The goal thus is to find a routing
that minimizes the (weighted) number of active...

Software-defined Networks (SDN), in particular OpenFlow, is a new networking paradigm enabling innovation through network programmability. Over past few years, many applications have been built using SDN such as server load balancing, virtual-machine migration, traffic engineering and access control. In this paper, we focus on using SDN as an appro...

Prefetching is a basic mechanism for faster data access and efficient computing. An important issue in prefetching is the tradeoff between the amount of network’s resources wasted by the prefetching and the gain of time. For instance, in the Web, browsers may download documents in advance while a Web surfer is surfing on the Web. Since the Web surf...

A method and system for detecting and reducing botnet activity includes tracking the number of connections to a destination address over predetermined periods of time. A persistence value is assigned to the destination address based on the number of time periods during which the destination address was connected. The persistence value is compared t...

We study the problem of reducing power consumption in an Internet Service Provider (ISP) network by designing the content distribution infrastructure managed by the operator. We propose an algorithm to optimally decide where to cache the content inside the ISP network. We evaluate our solution over two case studies driven by operators feedback. Res...

During the last decades, many combinatorial games involving two persons playing on a (directed) graph have received a lot of attention. Some examples of such games are the Angel problem, the Cops and Robbers, the Surveillance game, the Eternal Dominating Set and Eternal Set Cover. One of the main questions in these games is to decide if a given pla...

In this paper, we analyze a highly distributed backup storage system realized by means of nano datacenters (NaDa). NaDa have been recently proposed as a way to mitigate the growing energy, bandwidth and device costs of traditional data centers, following the popularity of cloud computing. These service provider-controlled peer-to-peer systems take...

In telecommunication networks packets are carried from a source s to a destination t on a path that is determined by the underlying routing protocol. Most routing protocols belong to the class of shortest path routing protocols. In such protocols, the network operator assigns a length to each link. A packet going from s to t follows a shortest path...

In order to optimize energy efficiency, network operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently,
there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving
the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impac...

In this paper, we propose and study analytical models of self-repairing peer-to-peer storage systems subject to failures. The failures correspond to the simultaneous loss of multiple data blocks due to the definitive loss of a peer (or following a disk crash). In the system we consider that such failures happen continuously, hence the necessity of...

In this paper, we propose and analyze a simple localized algorithm to balance a tree. The motivation comes from live distributed streaming systems in which a source diffuses a content to peers via a tree, a node forwarding the data to its children. Such systems are subject to a high churn, peers frequently joining and leaving the system. It is thus...

With one third of the world population online in 2013 and an international Internet bandwidth multiplied by more than eight since 2006, the ICT sector is a non-negligible contributor of worldwide greenhouse gases emissions and power consumption. Indeed, power consumption of telecommunication networks has become a major concern for all the actors of...

Given a graph $G = (V,E)$, the {\em closed interval} of a pair of vertices $u,v \in V$, denoted by $I[u,v]$, is the set of vertices that belongs to some shortest $(u,v)$-path. For a given $S\subseteq V$, let $I[S] = \bigcup_{u,v\in S} I[u,v]$. We say that $S\subseteq V$ is a {\em convex set} if $I[S] = S$. The {\em convex hull} $I_h[S]$ of a subset...

Les réseaux de communications sont devenus très complexes de nos jours. Cependant, depuis leur tout début avec ARPANET, les chercheurs et les ingénieurs ont conçu plusieurs protocoles aux divers équipements de ces réseaux afin de réduire cette complexité et d'atteindre la meilleure performance possible du réseau. OSPF ("Open Shortest Path First") e...

In this paper, we study a new colouring problem up to our best knowledge inspired by the imperative of practical networks. In real-life wireless networks, nodes interfere with one another with various intensities depending on numerous parameters: distance between them, the geographical topography, obstacles, etc. We model this with a noise matrix....

Recently, energy-aware routing has gained increasing popularity in the networking research community. The idea is that traffic demands are aggregated over a subset of the network links, allowing other links to be turned off to save energy. In this paper, we propose GreenRE - a new energy-aware routing model with the support of the new technique of...

Distributed or peer-to-peer storage solutions rely on the introduction of redundant data to be fault-tolerant and to achieve high reliability. One way to introduce redundancy is by simple replication. This strategy allows an easy and fast access to data, and a good bandwidth efficiency to repair the missing redundancy when a peer leaves or fails in...

Several studies exhibit that the traffic load of the routers only has a small influence on their energy consumption. Hence, the power consumption in networks is strongly related to the number of active network elements, such as interfaces, line cards, base chassis,... The goal thus is to find a routing that minimizes the (weighted) number of active...

Distributed and peer-to-peer storage systems are foreseen as an alternative to the traditional data centers and in-house backup solutions. In the past few years many peer-to-peer storage systems have been proposed. Most of them rely on the use of erasure codes to introduce redundancy to the data. This kind of system depends on many parameters that...