Fred Paas's research while affiliated with University of Wollongong and other places

Publications (98)

Article
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The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of different instructional strategies on student teachers’ confirmation bias. Confirmation bias refers to the selectivity in finding and using evidence that fits one’s own beliefs or hypotheses while neglecting evidence that is opposite to one’s own beliefs or hypotheses (Nickerson, 1998). Dutch...
Article
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Nudging is one of the strategies from behavioral economics that aims to influence behavior by changing the environment. We propose that it could also be a valuable means to influence behavior in educational contexts. However, implementation of nudging in education is yet sparse. We describe the relevant issues to consider when applying nudging in e...
Article
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Many large scale, school-based interventions have attempted to improve academic performance through promoting students' growth mindset, defined as the belief that one's intellectual ability can increase with practice and time. However, most have shown weak to no effects. Thus, it is important to examine how growth mindset might affect retention and...
Article
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Although people seem to be concerned about climate change, few are pro-actively engaged in attempting to mitigate it. This discrepancy between environmental view and action has been recognized as a great challenge. This empirical study examines that disparity by investigating people's mindsets about the world. Such mindsets concern the degree to wh...
Article
Unbiased reasoning is considered an essential critical thinking skill that students need to possess to face the future challenges in their work and life. Confirmation bias, which is the tendency to selectively attend to information that is consistent with held beliefs, presents a significant thread to unbiased reasoning. An effective strategy to re...
Preprint
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Research on grit indicates that perseverance positively predicts academic achievement. Yet, the mechanisms through which perseverance might lead to academic success remain less explored, particularly in cross-cultural research. The current study investigated such mechanisms by examining the possible mediating effects of self-regulated learning stra...
Article
Computer-mediated dictionaries have been important and widely used aids in the comprehension of, and learning from online texts. However, despite the convenience of computer-mediated dictionaries in retrieving word meaning, its use may reduce the time that readers spend reading each word and negatively affect word retention. In addition, readers’ v...
Article
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Depletion of limited working memory resources may occur following extensive mental effort resulting in decreased performance compared to conditions requiring less extensive mental effort. This “depletion effect” can be incorporated into cognitive load theory that is concerned with using the properties of human cognitive architecture, especially wor...
Conference Paper
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A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a type of online learning environment that has the potential to increase students' access to education. However, the low completion rates in MOOCs suggest that student engagement and progression in the courses are problematic. Following the increasing adoption of gamification in education, it is possible that...
Chapter
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Videos are often the core content in open online education, such as in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Students spend most of their time in a MOOC on watching educational videos. However, merely watching a video is a relatively passive learning activity. To increase the educational benefits of online videos, students could benefit from more ac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Videos are often the core content in open online education, such as in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Students spend most of their time in a MOOC on watching educational videos. However, merely watching a video is a relatively passive learning activity. To increase the educational benefits of online videos, students could benefit from more ac...
Article
Full-text available
Students' ability to accurately self-assess their performance and select a suitable subsequent learning task in response is imperative for effective self-regulated learning. Video modeling examples have proven effective for training self-assessment and task-selection skills, and—importantly—such training fostered self-regulated learning outcomes. I...
Article
The ability to learn in a self-regulated way is important for adolescents' academic achievements. Monitoring one's own learning is a prerequisite skill for successful self-regulated learning. However, accurate monitoring has been found to be difficult for adolescents, especially for learning problem-solving tasks such as can be found in math and bi...
Article
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Computer-based spell checkers help to correct misspells instantly. Almost all the word processing devices are now equipped with a spell-check function that either automatically corrects errors or provides a list of intended words. However, it is not clear on how the reliance on this convenient technological solution affects spelling learning. Accor...
Article
Human movement has been found to have positive effects on learning performance. This study examined the effects of using Dynamic Geometry Software (DGS) CABRI to manipulate geometric properties of triangles or observing those manipulations made by an instructor on learning geometric properties with DGS-CABRI. Participants were 60 year 5 students, w...
Article
Research on either cognitive load theory or self-regulated learning usually proceeds without reference to the other theory. In this commentary, we have commented on the editorial introduction and the six papers included in this Special Issue intended to indicate possible links between the two theories. To assist in this process, we have analysed so...
Article
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. Open online education has become increasingly popular. In Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) videos are generally the most used method of teaching. While most MOOCs are offered in English, the global availability of these courses has attracted many non-native English speakers. To ensure not only the availability, but also the accessibility of op...
Chapter
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of combining realistic and schematic dynamic visualizations of mitosis. Ninety-two students from four different biology classes were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants in the simultaneous condition studied both a realistic and a schematic visualization of mitosis that wer...