Franz Korf's research while affiliated with Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg and other places

Publications (57)

Preprint
Current designs of future In-Vehicle Networks (IVN) prepare for switched Ethernet backbones, which can host advanced LAN technologies such as IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN). In this work, we present an integrated Time-Sensitive Software-Defined Networking (TSSDN) architecture that simultaneously enables c...
Article
Current designs of future In-Vehicle Networks (IVN) prepare for switched Ethernet backbones, which can host advanced LAN technologies such as IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN). In this paper, we present an integrated Time-Sensitive Software-Defined Networking (TSSDN) architecture that simultaneously enables...
Preprint
Connected cars are vulnerable to cyber attacks. Security challenges arise from vehicular management uplinks, from signaling with roadside units or nearby cars, as well as from common Internet services. Major threats arrive from bogus traffic that enters the in-car backbone, which will comprise of Ethernet technologies in the near future. Various se...
Preprint
Real-time networks based on Ethernet require robust quality-of-service for time-critical traffic. The Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) collection of standards enables this in real-time environments like vehicle on-board networks. Runtime reconfigurations in TSN must respect the deadlines of real-time traffic. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) moves...
Conference Paper
Ethernet wird zunehmend Bestandteil moderner Fahrzeugnetze und bildet die aussichtsreichste Technologie für künftige Hochgeschwindigkeits-Backbones im Auto. ‘Connected Vehicles’ öffnen gleichzeitig ihre internen Fahrzeugnetzwerke nach außen und ermöglichen so eine Vielzahl neuer Angriffe, für die neue Sicherheitskonzepte entwickelt werden müssen. S...
Preprint
Current In-Vehicle Networks (IVNs) connect Electronic Control Units (ECUs) via domain busses. A gateway forwards messages between these domains. Automotive Ethernet emerges as a flat, high-speed backbone technology for IVNs that carries the various control flows within Ethernet frames. Recently, Software-Defined-Networking (SDN) has been identified...
Conference Paper
Ethernet is the most promising solution to reduce complexity and enhance the bandwidth in the next generation in-car networks. Dedicated Ethernet protocols enable the real-time aspects in such networks. One promising candidate is the IEEE 802.1Q Time-Sensitive Networking protocol suite. Common Ethernet technologies, however, increases the vulnerabi...
Conference Paper
Ethernet has become the next standard for automotive and industrial automation net- works. Standard extensions such as IEEE 802.1Q Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) have been proven to meet the real-time and robustness requirements of these environments. Augmenting the TSN switching by Software-Defined Networking functions promises additional benefit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is about to enter automotive networks based on the SOME/IP middleware and an Ethernet high-bandwidth communication layer. It promises to meet the growing demands on connectivity and flexibility for software components in modern cars. Largely heterogeneous service requirements and time-sensitive network functions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ethernet has become the next standard for automotive and industrial automation networks. Standard extensions such as IEEE 802.1Q Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) have been proven to meet the real-time and robustness requirements of these environments. Augmenting the TSN switching by Software-Defined Networking functions promises additional benefits:...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ethernet is the most promising solution to reduce complexity and enhance the bandwidth in the next generation in-car networks. Dedicated Ethernet protocols enable the real-time aspects in such networks. One promising candidate is the IEEE 802.1Q Time-Sensitive Networking protocol suite. Common Ethernet technologies, however, increases the vulnerabi...
Chapter
Future automotive applications ranging from advanced driver assistance to autonomous driving will largely increase demands on in-vehicular networks. Data flows of high bandwidth or low latency requirements, but in particular many additional communication relations will introduce a new level of complexity to the in-car communication system. It is ex...
Conference Paper
Future in-vehicular networks will be based on Ethernet. The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a promising candidate to satisfy real-time requirements in future car communication. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) extends the Ethernet control plane with a programming option that can add much value to the resilience, security, and adaptivity of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Future in-vehicular networks will be based on Ethernet. The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a promising candidate to satisfy real-time requirements in future car communication. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) extends the Ethernet control plane with a programming option that can add much value to the resilience, security, and adaptivity of...
Conference Paper
The communication infrastructure of industrial plants, vehicles and many other appli- cations must provide more and more bandwidth, sometimes with strict timing requirements for the transmission of critical data. Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of IEEE 802 Ethernet sub-standards that meet these requirements for a wide range of applications...
Preprint
Full-text available
Future automotive applications ranging from advanced driver assistance to autonomous driving will largely increase demands on in-vehicular networks. Data flows of high bandwidth or low latency requirements, but in particular many additional communication relations will introduce a new level of complexity to the in-car communication system. It is ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In-vehicle communication technologies are evolving. While today's cars are equipped with fieldbusses to interconnect the various electronic control units, next generation vehicles have timing and bandwidth requirements that exceed the capacities. In particular Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and automated driving using high bandwidth sens...
Conference Paper
The occupancy grid mapping technique is widely used for environmental mapping of moving vehicles. Occupancy grid maps with fixed cell size have been extended using the quadtree implementation with adaptive cell size. Adaptive grid maps have proven to be more resource efficient than fixed cell size grid maps. Dynamic cell sizes introduce the necessi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We show a network simulation environment for assessing Ethernet-based concepts and technologies of next generation in-car networks, as well as their protocols, and possible deployment. Among others, the simulation models contain the core concepts of AS6802 and AFDX, Ethernet AVB and IEEE 802.1Q as well as legacy fieldbus technologies like CAN and F...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Real-time Ethernet is expected to become the core technology of future in-car communication networks. Applications such as online diagnosis, data- and firmware updates over the air or data from the backend will introduce bursty high bandwidth communication to the sensitive core of the cars communication network. With this work we show that - even f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The communication infrastructure of today's automobiles forms a complex composition of heterogeneously interconnected components. At the same time, demands for higher bandwidth and low-latency communication are emerging from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established technologies. A n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing complexity of automotive networks, their challenging timing constraints and their high bandwidth demands require new concepts for future in-car communication. Real-time Ethernet is meant to be a suitable candidate for the next-generation in-car interconnection. However, model-based testing capabilities must be available as well. Appl...
Conference Paper
Autonomous driving is one of the most challenging tasks of the automotive industry. As a subtask, the estimation of driveable and non driveable space is often solved by applying occupancy grids. The information about non driveable space can be used to improve object tracking. This paper presents an approach for object tracking and modelling in an o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Real-time Ethernet variants are expected to build the future communication infrastructure in cars. First camera based driver assistance functions will communicate using IEEE 802.1 AVBs credit-based shaping. But for the strict timing requirements of automotive control-traffic, AVBs current timing guarantees are insufficient. The upcoming IEEE 802.1Q...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the increasing bandwidth and timing requirements, next generation communication backbones in cars will most likely base on real-time Ethernet variants that satisfy the demands of the new automotive applications. The upcoming IEEE 802.1Qbv standard shows communication approaches based on coordinated time devision multiple access (TDMA) to be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Real-time Ethernet variants gain importance for communication infrastructure of various time-critical domains, such as in-car networks. Synchronous time-triggered traffic guarantees strict timing but requires a detailed schedule for all participants. Designing these schedules by hand is extensive work and with increasing network size almost impossi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In-car networks based on Ethernet are expected to be the first choice for future applications in the domain of info- and entertainment. However, the full benefit of a technologically integrated in-car network will only become rewarding with an Ethernet-based backbone, unifying several automotive domains in a single infrastructure. Today, there is r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In modern cars the communication infrastructure consists of different application specific bus systems that are interconnected with each other. Due to the growing complexity of the communication infrastructure, the corresponding timing analysis at system level is currently a hot topic in the automotive industry. FlexRay is a state-of-the-art fieldb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High precision time synchronisation protocols are used in distributed real-time systems such as trains, planes, cars or industrial installations. In time-triggered systems, with a coordinated time division multiple access media allocation strategy, the achievable precision of time synchronisation among sending participants determines the quality of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cluster simulation is a popular method for supporting system integration in various distributed applications by simulating the environment of a subsystem under test. Particularly in real-time systems, the timing requirements of transmission and reception must be fulfilled, which is not easy to achieve. In this paper, we contribute a scheme for clus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ethernet-based in-car communication is currently a hot topic in the automotive industry. Soon Ethernet will start to oust MOST bus in its domain of info- and entertainment applications. However, the full benefit of a technologically integrated in-car network will only become rewarding with the deployment of an Ethernet-based backbone that integrate...
Article
Full-text available
Die Zunahme von elektronischen Systemen insbesondere im Fahrerassistenz- und Komfortbereich der Fahrzeuge drängt die etablierten Automotive-Kommunikationstechnologien an die Grenze ihrer Leistungsfähigkeit. Ein neuer Ansatz für die Kommunikation zwischen Steuergeräten ist Ethernet im Automobil. Echtzeiterweiterungen haben den Einsatzbereich von Sta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing number of driver assistance, info- tainment and entertainment systems in automobiles results in higher requirements for bandwidth, fault tolerance and timing behaviour concerning the in-vehicle communication structure. In future, in-vehicle networks based on current technologies will reach their limits due to insufficient scalability...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data networks of today's automobiles form a com-plex conglomerate of heterogeneously interconnected compo-nents. At the same time, high additional demands for future in-car communication systems are emerging from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established technologies. A new approach...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Durch die Zunahme von elektronischen Systemen, insbesondere im Fahrerassistenz- und Komfortbereich, kommen die etablierten Automotive-Kommunikationstechnologien an die Grenze ihrer Leistungsfähigkeit. Ein neuer Ansatz für die Kommunikation zwischen Steuergeräten im Automobil ist der Einsatz von Ethernet. Echtzeit-Erweiterungen haben den Einsatzbere...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The performance analysis and validation of distributed real-time systems poses significant challenges due to high accuracy requirements at the measurement tools. A fully synchronized time-scale at ultrafine granularity is not easy to generate. Even though there are several analyzer tools for standard switched Ethernet, these tools cannot be applied...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Real-time extensions to standard switched Ethernet widen the realm of computer networking into the time-critical domain. These technologies have started to establish in process automation, while Ethernet-based communication infrastructures in vehicles are novel and challenged by particularly hard real-time constraints. Simulation tools are of vital...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
FlexRay is considered the next generation state-of-the-art technology for in-car networks, while time-triggered Ethernet emerges with the promise to integrate real-time and best-effort traffic into one homogeneous backbone. This paper contributes a competitive analysis of FlexRay and time-triggered Ethernet. By showing that it is possible to transf...
Data
Full-text available
FlexRay is considered the next generation state-of- the-art technology for in-car networks, while time- triggered Ethernet (e.g. TTEthernet by TTTech) emerges with the promise to integrate real- time and best-effort traffic into one homogeneous backbone. By showing that it is possible to transfer a fully utilized FlexRay system to a system based on...
Chapter
Der Beitrag beschreibt ein Ausbildungs- und Entwicklungsprojekt am Department Informatik der Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften (HAW) Hamburg. Auf verschiedenen Fahrzeugplattformen werden Fahrerassistenz- und autonome Systeme entwickelt. Die zu erarbeitenden Inhalte umfassen die Themen verteilte Echtzeitsysteme, Sensordatenverarbeitung und Bi...

Citations

... Meyer et al. [10] worked on the detection of network anomalies, e.g., DDoS, by implementing their proposed scheme on the link layer. They also worked on the deployment of an SDN controller for reconfiguring the network when an attack is being carried out or in the case of an incident, conveying the information to a cloud infrastructure. ...
... In previous works, we demonstrated a prototype of an IVN that enables protection, monitoring, detection, incidence management, and countermeasures in a real production car [53]. The implementation uses SDN, AD, secure gateways, hypervisors, dynamic orchestration of applications and cloud services to enable protection and countermeasures. ...
... Haeberle et al. [7] presented an IVN concept that reduces the complexity of the vehicular E/E architecture based on SDN. In previous work [29], we evaluated the performance of existing SDN controller implementations with respect to IVN requirements and found that all implementations lack important safety requirements, such as guaranteed response times, but could confirm that SDN controllers can be used in vehicles with the right modifications. ...
... At present, SOME/IP is widely used by all the important players of the automotive market, being validated in multiple designs and architectures [24]. Although it satisfies the expectations for now, the rapid growth of the requirements, the complexity of future network topologies, and other available solutions should extend the vision toward mixed nodes based on different communication technologies inside the same architecture. ...
... Furthermore, Kugele et al. [42] provide a model-based methodology to analyze hardware resources and synthesize automotive SOAs. Concerning the network communication, Cakir et al. [43] present an approach for a SOA middleware enabling Quality-of-Service (QoS) agreements. ...
... Our evaluation is performed in a simulation environment (see [53]. Our simulation model Software-Defined Networking for Communication over Real-Time Ethernet (SDN4CoRE) [54] implements the proposed architecture, based on the INET framework [55], the OpenFlowOMNeTSuite [56], and our frameworks for IVNs [57]. The models outlined in red are maintained by our research group and published as open source at sim.core-rg.de ...
... We use four different types of ingress control in this case study:• Timing: This configuration uses the static TDMA schedule of the time control traffic to accordingly set the gate control list that drives the state of the stream gates. • Bandwidth: For the shaped data streams a metering is configured to enforce a maximum incoming bandwidth[44]. • Frame size: Because a prioritized CAN tunneling frame contains only one CAN message the size of these Ethernet frames is always 64 B. For the ingress control of this traffic a meter drops all frames larger than 64 B. • Undefined traffic: Ingress control drops traffic without a matching stream filter. ...
... Next, a set of network streams is established for which end-to-end latency is measured in order to perform a per-formance evaluation. These values are compared to the same values obtained for a TSSDN network configuration without risk class based clustering architecture and without integrity control mechanisms [10]. The topology of the AV under investigation includes 97 elements. ...
... Our evaluation is performed in a simulation environment (see [53]. Our simulation model Software-Defined Networking for Communication over Real-Time Ethernet (SDN4CoRE) [54] implements the proposed architecture, based on the INET framework [55], the OpenFlowOMNeTSuite [56], and our frameworks for IVNs [57]. The models outlined in red are maintained by our research group and published as open source at sim.core-rg.de ...
... In [9] there are two classifications of data frames: a frame for input data and another for output data. According to Szancer et al. [15], the master node issues two frames, classified as: Master Data Telegrams (MDT) and Acknowledge Telegrams (AT). A configuration of these telegrams in the Sercos communication cycle is shown in Figure 2 [16]. ...