Francisco E. Fontúrbel's research while affiliated with Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso and other places

Publications (132)

Article
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Background Habitat fragmentation and degradation processes affect biodiversity by reducing habitat quantity and quality, with differential effects on the resident species. However, their consequences are not always noticeable as some ecological processes affected involve idiosyncratic responses among different animal groups. The Valdivian temperate...
Article
We consider the mechanistic basis and functional significance of the pervasive influence of parasitic plants on productivity and diversity, synthesizing recent findings on their responses to drought, heat waves, and fire. Although parasites represent just 1% of all angiosperms, the ecophysiological traits associated with parasitism confer pronounce...
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Deforestation and forest degradation are among the main biodiversity loss drivers worldwide. The expansion of productive activities, such as forest plantations, often results in the loss and degradation of native forests, affecting native species in many ways. While many studies have assessed the effects of habitat degradation on taxonomic diversit...
Article
Insectivorous birds provide key ecosystem services for agricultural production, such as biological pest control. However, habitat loss and degradation by agriculture are among the main causes of biodiversity loss globally, including the recent decline in bird populations. Habitat loss has particularly affected insectivorous birds due to the associa...
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Aim Aggregated species occurrence data are increasingly accessible through public databases for the analysis of temporal trends in the geographic distributions of species. However, biases in these data present challenges for statistical inference. We assessed potential biases in data available through GBIF on the occurrences of four flower‐visiting...
Article
Plants are involved in different interactions with animals that may have contrasting effects on their reproductive output. However, as multitrophic interactions are resource-mediated and density-dependent, the frequency at which these interactions occur is modulated by the demographical characteristics of the populations of interacting species. For...
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During the past 60 years, mammalian hibernation (i.e., seasonal torpor) has been interpreted as a physiological adaptation for energy economy. However, direct field comparisons of energy expenditure and torpor use in hibernating and active free-ranging animals are scarce. Here, we followed the complete hibernation cycle of a fat-storing hibernator,...
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Anthropogenic disturbance has dramatically degraded and reduced the extension of the temperate rainforests of southern South America, negatively affecting forest animals that depend on habitat attributes at local and landscape scales. We conducted a multi-scale assessment (from 1 to 4000 m) to understand better how local and landscape attributes in...
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Background: Animal pollination is an important ecosystem function and service, ensuring both the integrity of natural systems and human well-being. Although many knowledge shortfalls remain, some high-quality data sets on biological interactions are now available. The development and adoption of standards for biodiversity data and metadata has pro...
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Drought severity has pervasive impacts on honey production via direct impacts on water resources and nectar availability. The current mega-drought in Chile has impacts on water resources and forest vigor, particularly in the Mediterranean and Temperate regions where honey production is concentrated. While honey production plays an important role in...
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Pollinators and pollination services provide invaluable ecosystem services to agriculture and contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity. In Chile, pollination contributes greatly to the diversity of native ecosystems and provides ecosystem services to crops, but local pollinator abundance and diversity, as well as plant-animal interactions, rem...
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Birds provide important ecosystem services in many ecosystems, including important pest control effects on productive systems. The typically low bird diversity observed in intensive agricultural landscapes renders them more susceptible to pests that cause important economic losses. Although these pests have traditionally been controlled using chemi...
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The arboreal marsupial monito del monte (genus Dromiciops, with two recognized species) is a paradigmatic mammal. It is the sole living representative of the order Microbiotheria, the ancestor lineage of Australian marsupials. Also, this marsupial is the unique frugivorous mammal in the temperate rainforest, being the main seed disperser of several...
Preprint
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Aim: Aggregated species occurrence data are increasingly accessible through public databases for the analysis of temporal trends in species’ distributions. However, biases in these data present challenges for robust statistical inference. We assessed potential biases in data available through GBIF on the occurrences of four flower-visiting taxa: be...
Article
Genetic differentiation depends on ecological and evolutionary processes that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. While the geographical context is likely to determine large-scale genetic variation patterns, habitat disturbance events will likely influence small-scale genetic diversity and gene flow patterns. Therefore, the genetic di...
Chapter
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A Contagem Cronometrada de Visitantes Florais (daqui em diante denominaremos de FIT Count) é um protocolo de ciência cidadã simples que tem como objetivo coletar dados sobre visitação de flores por toda a gama de grupos de polinizadores, incluindo mamangavas, abelhas sem ferrão, abelhas melíferas, moscas e beija‑flores. Cada FIT Count é padronizado...
Chapter
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El Conteo Cronometrado de Visitantes Florales (de aquí en adelante denominado como FIT Count) es un sencillo protocolo de ciencia ciudadana que tiene como objetivo colectar datos sobre eventos de visita en flores por una amplia gama de polinizadores, incluyendo abejorros, abejas sin aguijón, abejas melíferas, moscas y picaflores. Cada FIT Count est...
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Seed dispersal is a critical process for plant reproduction and regeneration. Successful recruitment depends on pre-and post-dispersal processes that complete a seed's journey until becoming a new plant. However, anthropogenic stressors may disrupt the seed dispersal process at some stages, collapsing plant regeneration and hampering its long-term...
Preprint
Full-text available
The arboreal marsupial Monito del Monte (genus Dromiciops, with two recognized species) is a paradigmatic mammal. It is the sole living representative of the order Microbiotheria, the ancestor lineage of Australian marsupials. Also, this marsupial is the unique frugivorous mammal in the temperate rainforest, being the main seed disperser of several...
Article
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In the last decades, pollinators have drastically declined as a consequence of anthropogenic activities that have local and global impacts. The food industry has been expanding intensive agriculture crops, many of them dependent on animal pollination, but simultaneously reducing native pollinator habitats. Chile is a good example of this situation....
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Ecological interactions are the backbone of biodiversity. Like individual species, interactions are threatened by drivers of biodiversity loss, among which climate change operates at a broader scale and can exacerbate the effects of land-use change, overharvesting, and invasive species. As temperature increases, we expect that some species may alte...
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Dams are crucial for water supply in human populations and are becoming more common globally for hydroelectric power generation. Dams alter natural habitats and their biodiversity; however, studies are inconclusive about their effects on them. This study aimed to examine the effects of dams on vertebrates and the determinants of changes in global b...
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Agricultural systems have increased in extension and intensity worldwide, altering vertebrate functional diversity, ecosystem functioning, and ecosystemic services. However, the effects of open monoculture crops on bird functional diversity remain little explored, particularly in highly biodiverse regions such as the tropical Andes. We aim to asses...
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Land-use change is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Large-scale disturbances such as habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are known to have negative consequences for native biota, but the effects of small-scale disturbances such as selective logging are less well known. We compared three sites with different regimes of selective logging...
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Habitat disturbance and particularly land-use change from natural habitats to forest plantations, croplands, and urban expansion have caused a rapid biodiversity loss in southern South America's temperate rainforests. In those forests, bryophytes constitute a crucial component, with important ecosystem roles. We evaluated bryophyte diversity and sp...
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Exotic species can threaten biodiversity by disrupting ecological interactions among native species. Highly-attractive exotic species can exert a ‘magnet effect’ by attracting native pollinators, which may have either competitive or facilitative effects on co-flowering native plants. However, those effects may be context-dependent. We used a mistle...
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Invasive species are one of the main biodiversity loss drivers. Some species can establish and thrive in novel habitats, impacting local communities, as is the case of managed pollinators. In this regard, an invasive species' expansion process over time is critical for its control and management. A good example is the European bumblebee Bombus terr...
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Hibernation (i.e., multiday torpor) is considered an adaptive strategy of mammals to face seasonal environmental challenges such as food, cold, and/or water shortage. It has been considered functionally different from daily torpor, a physiological strategy to cope with unpredictable environments. However, recent studies have shown large variability...
Article
Different interactions occur simultaneously, affecting the ecological and evolutionary outcome of the species within a community. Mutualisms are particularly relevant for maintaining and generating biodiversity, and among them, pollination and seed dispersal play a central role in plant regeneration. Due to its parasitic life-form and ecological sp...
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Bees are a diverse group of insects that have tremendous importance as pollinators. In the last decades, there was a global decline in bee populations due to land‐use change, intensive agriculture, and climate change. Unfortunately, our knowledge of native bees' ecology is rather scarce, and such knowledge gaps are also a major threat to its conser...
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Identifying natural selection in wild plant populations is a challenging task, as the reliability of selection coefficients depends, among other factors, on the critical assumption of data independence. While rarely examined, selection coefficients may be influenced by the spatial and genetic dependence among plants, which violates the independence...
Article
Despite forests are a biodiversity reservoir and a wellbeing source for the humankind, they have been largely disturbed in the past decades. Disturbed and naturally-regenerated forests and forest plantations represent 75% of the world forested area, stressing the need of managing non-pristine forests. While we know that habitat disturbance alters f...
Article
Point counts are widely used to assess bird diversity. However, this method has some limitations and can be affected by observer bias. For this reason, it is commonly complemented with other methods (e.g., mist-nets, sound recordings). Surprisingly, camera traps are rarely used on birds, despite being a common approach for wildlife monitoring. This...
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Biodiversity loss is a central issue in conservation biology, with protected areas being the primary approach to stop biodiversity loss. However, education has been identified as an important factor in this regard. Based on a database of threatened species and socioeconomic features for 138 countries, we tested whether more protected areas or more...
Article
Ecological interactions are the glue of biodiversity, structuring communities and determining their functionality. However, our knowledge about ecological interactions is usually biased against cryptic interactions (i.e. overlooked interactions involving inconspicuous species). Mosses are a neglected component in community ecology despite being div...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biodiversity loss is a central issue in conservation biology, being protected areas the primary approach to stop biodiversity loss. However, education has been identified as an important factor in this regard. Based on a database of threatened species and socio-economic features for 138 countries, we tested whether more protected areas or more educ...
Article
Habitat structure may have a significant influence on the occurrence, abundance, and activity patterns of forest mammals. However, anthropogenic habitat disturbance changes habitat structure, which may alter those patterns of activity. We assessed occurrence, relative abundance, and activity patterns of Dromiciops gliroides, an arboreal marsupial e...
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Many birds around the world use plant material to build nests that allow for hatching eggs and keeps chicks safe (Healy et al. 2015). Despite being a common phe- nomenon in nature, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying how and why specific plants are selected for nest building is somewhat limited. Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in particular depen...
Preprint
Full-text available
During the last sixty years, mammalian hibernation (i.e., seasonal torpor) has been interpreted as a physiological adaptation for energy economy. However -and crucially for validating this idea - direct field comparisons of energy expenditure in hibernating and active free-ranging animals are scarce. Using replicated mesocosms and a combination of...
Article
Many birds around the world use plant material to build nests that allow for hatching eggs and keeps chicks safe (Healy et al. 2015). Despite being a common phenomenon in nature, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying how and why specific plants are selected for nest building is somewhat limited. Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in particular depend...
Article
Vector-borne infectious disease dynamics result mainly from the intertwined effect of the diversity, abundance, and behaviour of hosts and vectors. Most studies, however, have analysed the relationship between host-species diversity and infection risk, focusing on vector population instead of individuals, probably dismissing the level at which the...
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The Colombian Tropical Andes are one of the regions with highest bird diversity on Earth. However, information on bird morphology, reproductive phenology, and molt is particularly scarce in this region. Also, this region is heavily impacted by deforestation, and it is vulnerable to climate change. Hence, providing baseline information on life histo...
Article
Mistletoes are a group of flowering plants that have developed a parasitic lifeform through complex eco-evolutionary processes. Despite being considered as a pest, mistletoes represent a keystone forest resource and are involved in complex plant-plant and plant-animal interactions. Their parasitic lifeform and specialized ecological interactions ma...
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The geographic range of a species is often limited by sampling approaches, underestimating the actual distribution. This is likely the case of Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria), an endemic marsupial from southern South America. We used camera-traps to record D. gliroides for the first time in Chaitén and Futaleufú (southern Chile), expanding it...
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Background: Behavior and activity patterns largely determine animal's fitness and their ecological roles. Those patterns depend on many factors, being body mass, sex and age the most relevant in mammals. Particularly, those factors altogether with environmental conditions could influence movement behavior of mammals that hibernate, such as the Moni...
Article
The increasing expansion of productive lands around the world during the last decades constitutes a strong driver of biodiversity loss, as they are usually established nearby of high diversity areas. Despite many studies have compared bird diversity between natural and productive systems, a global synthesis is still missing to understand how biodiv...
Preprint
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Aiming to understand the low D. gliroides capture rates at the Valdivian Coastal Reserve, we disposed camera-traps at two contrasting forest habitats: a native forest habitat and a transformed habitat composed by a Eucalyptus globulus plantation with native understory vegetation. Camera-trap survey was conducted before and during live-trap operatio...
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Genetic diversity is a key factor for population survival and evolution. However, anthropogenic habitat disturbance can erode it, making populations more prone to extinction. Aiming to assess the global effects of habitat disturbance on plant genetic variation, we conducted a meta-analysis based on 92 case studies obtained from published literature...
Chapter
Habitat transformation due to the replacement of native forests by exotic tree plantations is a strong biodiversity loss driver. However, the effects on ecological and evolutionary processes remain little understood. We used a highly specialized tripartite mutualistic system, composed of a mistletoe, its pollinator and its seed disperser, to study...
Article
RESUMEN Puya coerulea presenta una distribución agregada característica, formando densos parches, los cuales están determinados principalmente por la cobertura rocosa más que por otras variables abióticas. Así mismo, la composición de la flora acompañante de P. coerulea es significativamente diferente a la composición de plantas donde esta bromeliá...
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La manipulación con fines científicos de vertebrados terrestres en poblaciones naturales chilenas se debe realizar previa autorización del SAG y de Comités de Bioética institucionales. Obtener dichas autorizaciones es cada vez más complejo; los trámites no se adecúan al quehacer científi co ni al conocimiento sobre el efecto de la manipulación en l...
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RESUMEN La manipulación con fi nes científi cos de vertebrados terrestres en poblaciones naturales chilenas se debe realizar previa autorización del SAG y de Comités de Bioética institucionales. Obtener dichas autorizaciones es cada vez más complejo; los trámites no se adecúan al quehacer científi co ni al conocimiento sobre el efecto de la manipul...
Article
Planted forests are becoming increasingly common worldwide, replacing natural forests and compromising their associated biodiversity. However, not all forest plantations are the same. Aiming to identify key plantation features that could be managed to improve bird diversity, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the differential effects of several...
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Many deforested areas worldwide have been planted with Alnus spp. to protect watersheds and soils. However, the effects of these plantations on biodiversity are little known yet. Contrasting forest types may impose strong environmental filters to some behavioural traits, leading to dissimilar communities. Insectivorous birds are known to be sensiti...
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The global pollination crisis is not only produced by loss of pollinators but also by their homogenization, both processes caused by humans. This crisis impacts the persistence of many native plants species worldwide. In this document we analyze the ecological impacts that warrant the prohibition of new income of commercial bumblebee, Bombus terres...
Article
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Climate change is triggering ecological responses all over the world as a result of frequent, prolonged droughts. It could also affect ecological interactions, particularly pollination and seed dispersal, which play a key role in plant reproduction. We used a tripartite interaction with a mistletoe, its pollinator and its disperser animals to gain...
Article
Full-text available
The global pollination crisis is not only produced by loss of pollinators but also by their homogenization, both processes caused by humans. This crisis impacts the persistence of many native plants species worldwide. In this document we analyze the ecological impacts that warrant the prohibition of new income of commercial bumblebee, Bombus terres...
Article
Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) I.M. Johnst., Cupressaceae), known as Lahuan by the Mapuche people, is the most iconic endemic conifer of southern Chile and adjacent Argentina (Fig. 1). It can reach monumental dimensions (up to 5 m in diameter and over 50 m in height) and has remarkable longevity (Lara et al. 1999, Clement et al. 2001, Donos...
Article
RESUMEN Las condiciones microclimáticas pueden alterar rasgos en las plantas, como la geometría del fruto, que es importante para las interacciones planta-frugívoro. Mediante morfometría geométrica se examinó el efecto del reemplazo del bosque sobre la forma de los frutos de Tristerix corymbosus, cuya forma cambió significativamente de alargada a r...
Article
Land use change is one of the most important anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity loss. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary consequences of habitat transformation remain less understood than those from habitat fragmentation. Transformed habitats are structurally simpler, altering species composition and their ecological interactions, pot...
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1. Insects exhibiting parental care usually can discriminate between kin and non-kin individuals, allowing parents to avoid investment in foreign offspring. 2. This study investigated the occurrence of kin recognition in the sap-feeding insect Alchisme grossa Fairmaire (Membracidae) through bioassays assessing median female distance to nymphs and d...