Francis M. Hult's research while affiliated with University of Maryland, Baltimore County and other places

Publications (45)

Article
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This article presents English-medium instruction (EMI) in higher education (HE) from a language policy and planning (LPP) perspective. Based on a review of EMI policy research in diverse higher education contexts, we address several key contemporary policy tensions in EMI such as English native-speakerism, English monolingualism, and language educa...
Article
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The advancement of English as an instrument for the internationalization of higher education has foregrounded English as an academic lingua franca (EALF), and the case of China is no exception. This study focuses on the process by which EALF has been interpreted and negotiated across university policies and local practices in China’s internationali...
Article
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This article seeks to explore intercultural communication among a group of students with diverse linguistic and sociocultural backgrounds in an English-medium transnational university in China, focusing on multilingual students’ practices and perceptions of English as a lingua franca (ELF). Informed by an expanded understanding of translanguaging f...
Chapter
In the Nordic countries, university language policy and planning centres on balancing the use of the national language(s) vis-à-vis English, whereas less attention has been paid to the roles played by other languages. This study focuses on how space was negotiated for languages other than Swedish and English during language policy negotiations at a...
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A tailor shop located in Singapore’s Chinatown is explored as a case of creative linguistic marketing practice, examining how such practice can be understood in relation to the interaction of local and global forces on the linguistic landscape. The shop uses a range of Scandinavian semiotic resources (language and artefacts) which for us, coming up...
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In the purportedly egalitarian society of Sweden, with a self-proclaimed feminist government stressing that any inequalities should be minimized, and democratic values taught, one of the roles of pre-service teachers is to teach the values of Swedish society entextualized in the national curriculum. This implies teaching democracy and equal/human r...
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The original version of this chapter was inadvertently published with incorrect chapter author’s affiliation.
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Teachers have the potential to be active agents in language policy and planning (LPP) processes when designing lessons or managing linguistic resources in their classrooms. A key consideration, then, is to guide pre-service educators towards an understanding of LPP principles and how they can be applied in practice. The present study documents an i...
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The present chapter traces the development of language acquisition planning. It begins by considering the work of Robert L. Cooper, who placed language acquisition planning alongside corpus planning and status planning as a fundamental type of language planning. While corpus planning focuses on language form and status planning on language function...
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Language policy has developed into a major area of research that continues to expand and develop. This article examines potential directions for cross-pollination between the fields of language policy and foreign language education. First, publication trends are examined. Database searches were conducted for the journals Foreign Language Annals, Mo...
Book
In the sociopolitics of language, sometimes yesterday’s solution is tomorrow’s problem. This volume examines the evolving nature of language acquisition planning through a collection of papers that consider how decisions about language learning and teaching are mediated by a confluence of psychological, ideological, and historical forces. The first...
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The Swedish educational policy for upper secondary English, which took effect in 2011 and adopts a globalised perspective on language, is explored with respect to how skills and awareness related to local, national, and international roles of English are represented in policy documents. A discourse analytic approach to language policy is used to of...
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What is today recognized as a discursive approach to policy might appear to be a fashionable innovation; however, it has been cultivated over time as the field of language planning and policy (LPP) has matured. This contribution traces the early foundations of an approach to LPP that focuses on the interplay between human agency and societally circ...
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In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upo...
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In this paper, the language policies of three Swedish universities are examined as instances of language planning in local contexts. Although Sweden has the national Language Act of 2009 (SFS 2009:600) as well as a general Higher Education Ordinance (SFS 1993:100; SFS 2014:1096), language planning for higher education is left to the purview of indi...
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Nexus analysis provides a systematic approach to the principled eclecticism of methods needed to investigate such questions using different kinds of data across multiple settings. The primary aim of nexus analysis is to facilitate mapping of how discourses from multiple scales intersect in a social phenomenon in nexus terms, a “nexus of practice” s...
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What is today recognized as a discursive approach to policy might appear to be a fashionable innovation; however, it has been cultivated over time as the field of language planning and policy (LPP) has matured. This contribution traces the early foundations of an approach to LPP that focuses on the interplay between human agency and societally circ...
Article
In the wake of the enactment of Sweden's Language Act in 2009 and in the face of the growing presence of English, Swedish universities have been called upon by the Swedish Higher Education Authority to craft their own language policy documents. This study focuses on the discursive negotiation of institutional bilingualism by a language policy commi...
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The ideological (re)construction of the position of Swedish in Finland is examined as it took shape during a major year-long debate about the role of Swedish in Finnish education. Data were collected through archival research of the leading national newspapers in the two official languages of Finland: Helsingin Sanomat (Finnish) and Hufvudstadsblad...
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Despite the rich societal multilingualism of the United States, the ideological construction of English dominance continues to cast a shadow over other languages. Among the mechanisms that contribute to this state of affairs (e.g. educational policy and conservative language activism), visual language use in public spaces plays a salient role. A gr...
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Bilinguals often face the challenge of negotiating a range of insider/outsider subject positions when interacting in transnational and intercultural settings. This article takes up the concept of symbolic competence, the awareness of socially situated symbolic resources and the ability to use them to shape interactional contexts, to examine how the...
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Nancy Hughes Hornberger (b. 1951) is an internationally recognized scholar in language planning and policy, bilingual education, and biliteracy. Keywords: bilingualism; educational linguistics; language maintenance; language planning; language policy; literacy
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The ecology of language has its foundation in the work of sociolinguists and linguistic anthropologists in the late 1950s and early 1960s Keywords: bilingualism; educational linguistics; language teaching; multilingualism
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The present study offers a cross-national, comparative analysis of deafeducation policies in Sweden and the United States and examines the ways in which these countries address status planning and acquisition planning for sign languages. Major policy documents were selected from each polity, reflecting key national legislative policies, as well as...
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The globalization of English in Sweden is examined as it takes shape in educational policy and practice. Following in the tradition of a “new wave” of language policy and planning research that emphasizes connections between policy and how it is interpreted by local stakeholders, this investigation focuses on textual data from Swedish national curr...
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In the wake of conversations about integrating macro- and micro-levels of linguistic analysis over the last 50 years, and following theoretical and methodological debates in the 1990s about investigating the dynamics of entire social systems, complexity theory is coming of age in educational linguistics. Central to the application of complexity the...
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This chapter considers the intellectual benefits and challenges of transdisciplinarity for educational linguistics. Building on earlier work about the nature of educational linguistics, Halliday’s notion of theme in transdisciplines is expanded upon. The concept of theme is presented as foundational for the problem-oriented nature of educational li...
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The function of the public service broadcasting company Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) as a component of the Swedish ecology of language planning and policy is examined. Analysis of recent policy documents as well as data about television programming illuminates how television serves as a language planning mechanism. It is shown that tele...
Article
The ecology of language has been put forward as a useful orientation to the holistic investigation of multilingual language policies because it draws attention to relationships among speakers, languages, policies, and social contexts at varying dimensions of social organization. As such, it is an orientation that stands to facilitate the integratio...
Book
“This anthology is a testament to the vitality of Educational Linguistics and its transdisciplinary, problem-posing approach. With chapters ranging from the ethnopoetics of oral narrative to the use of eye-tracking technology to study recasts in CMC, this collection extends the boundaries of educational linguistics in significant, interesting, and...
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Principles of Language EcologyContributions of Language Ecology to the Study of Educational Language Planning and PolicyExamples of an Ecological Approach to Educational Language PolicyConclusion
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IntroductionApplied Linguistics and the Precursors of Educational LinguisticsThe Emergence of Educational LinguisticsThe Nature of Educational LinguisticsThe Scope of Educational LinguisticsConclusion
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The Handbook of Educational Linguistics is a dynamic, scientifically grounded overview revealing the complexity of this growing field while remaining accessible for students, researchers, language educators, curriculum developers, and educational policy makers. A single volume overview of educational linguistics, written by leading specialists in i...
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The position of English vis-à-vis Swedish in Sweden is gaining attention because of a growing concern that the encroachment of English in certain domains may result in Swedish losing ground. A current language policy proposal, entitled Mål i mun, commissioned by the Swedish Government, addresses this concern, in part, by outlining recommendations f...
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As the presence of English in Europe continues to grow, there is a mounting interest in the position of national languages among European institutions, societies, and people. Swedish, like many national languages in Europe and throughout the world, is in an awkward position. It is at the same time a strong national language with the potential to do...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates how and to what degree English is used in specific elite domains in Sweden through analysis of (1) language requirements to participate in undergraduate and graduate programs at competitive institutions; and (2) language qualifications and language use patterns in elite professions. We find that English is used pervasively,...

Citations

... In contrast, a growing body of empirical investigations has shown that successful communication in EMI classrooms is often performed through a diverse use of English as a lingua franca (Björkman, 2013;Mauranen, 2012). Recent translanguaging/translingual studies also demonstrate that communication in EMI-HE contexts is also carried out using linguistic and non-linguistic resources embedded in the material ecologies of teaching and learning (e.g., Canagarajah, 2018b;He et al., 2016;Ou et al., 2021). Norms of interaction in EMI do not hinge only on one language but involve other communicative strategies and cultural elements that enable speakers to interact (Inbar-Lourie & Donitsa-Schmidt, 2020; Leung et al., 2016;Rincon-Mendoza & Canagarajah, 2020). ...
... We know from published research and from our personal experiences as teachers that translanguaging, code-switching and translation are not uncommon within the classroom. Several studies on EMI, for example, clearly evoke translanguaging practices among students and teachers for diverse purposes like clarifying concepts, illustrating by analogy etc. (Jenkins & Mauranen, 2019;Lin, 2019;Mortensen, 2014;Ou et al., 2020;Piccardo, 2019). More recent research trends at tertiary education are advocating for the adoption of translanguaging as a pedagogical approach mainly in settings where students have different L1 or are pluringual like in contexts with ISs. ...
... The study of languages on public signs has been growing in the last two decades in the area of the linguistic landscape. Various studies have been conducted in different parts of the world, which are primarily concentrated in city areas (see Hult & Kelly-holmes, 2019;Matwick & Matwick, 2019) or other melting pot places like touristic places (see Bilá & Vanková, 2019;Prasert & Zilli, 2019), international airports (see Woo & Nora Riget, 2020), in the education sector (see Helm & Dalziel, 2017;Jocuns, 2019), cyberspace (see Biró, 2018;Ivkovic & Lotherington, 2009) and other places. Those research range from multilingualism and language contestation, reflecting social, political, cultural, and economic phenomena in certain territories. ...
... For educational legislations, the focus is limited to those for general schools, as they constitute mainstream education. 4 Hult and Johnson (2015) declare that language policy study incorporates theories and methods from various disciplines, such as law, linguistics, political science, social psychology, and sociology of language, to investigate problems on various policy aspects. Both scholars point out the significance of political theory and law, whether an investigator selects political or legal orientation or employ other methods. ...
... In recent decades, the acceleration of EMI in higher education (HE) and its overarching impact on teaching, learning, and the languages and cultures of local societies have drawn increasing scholarly attention to language-in-education policies and practices in EMI programs (e.g., Hamid et al., 2013;Tollefson & Tsui, 2004). Research has extensively explored EMI as a sociopolitical process and its impact on linguistic diversity and ethnocultural identity (e.g., Coleman, 2006;Phillipson, 2009) and the tension between English and multilingualism in EMI policies, especially with respect to different stakeholders (i.e., students, teaching staff, and administration personnel) and their language needs (e.g., Airey, 2012;Källkvist & Hult, 2020;Zhang, 2018). Crossregional studies foreground "the situatedness of medium-of-instruction policies" (cf. ...
... While the psychological-cognitive and the sociocultural perspectives may be conceived as opposite, authors like Cobb (1994), Danish and Gresalfi (2018), Hult (2019), Masuda and Arnett (2015), Purcell-Gates, Jacobsen, and Degener (2004); Russ, Lee and Sherin (2012), Sfard (1998), Stobart and Hopfenbeck (2014) propose synergies between them and see the contrasts and differences as an important starting point to build models that integrate cognitive science while also accounting for the importance of context and social-historical issues. For example, to understand situated learning, Billet (1996) proposes that learning cannot be understood without considering the social contribution to the mutually transforming process of appropriation; while Purcell-Gates, Jacobsen and Degener (2004) reject the notion that "the social and the cognitive are independent and incommensurable" (p. ...
... The language orientations can be employed to guide deductive analysis about the values that are embedded in messy policy debate and negotiation to help foster understandings of 'what is thinkable about language in society' (Hult & Hornberger, 2016, p. 43). According to Hult and Hornberger (2016), the notion of orientation proposed by Ruíz (1984) is believed to be compatible with the concept of discourse made by Gee (1999, p. 13). Ruíz (1984) clarifies that 'orientation' refers to a 'complex of dispositions toward language and its role, and toward languages and their role in society' (p. ...
... Focusing on L2 literacy development, Hornberger's (1994) integrative framework on language planning also includes acquisition planning, which appears alongside status and corpus planning, a point that is also emphasized in Lo Bianco (2010). More recently, in June 2015, a Bridging Language Acquisition and Language Policy Symposium was convened at Lund University, Sweden (http://konfe rens.ht.lu.se/lpp-sympo sium/), suggests that an exploration of how to bridge LPP and SLA is much needed (see also Maarja et al. 2018). ...
... One locus where such contextualization may take place most easily is teacher training, whether directed at pre-service or in-service ELT practitioners. Developing language policy awareness among practitioners is a key goal for teacher education in general, both because it encourages them to reflect critically on policy texts such as CEFR but also because it highlights to them the importance of their own agency as policy arbiters in their own classrooms (Hult 2018). With CEFR, such awareness is particularly key because the framework itself is rather cumbersome-its many scales and descriptors can easily become overwhelming for anyone but expert readers, particularly in the case of CEFR 2001-and because, as I have highlighted above, so much of its meaning is implicit, dependent upon who it is being used by, in what context, and for what purpose. ...
... Despite policy structures that aspire to reinstate Indigenous languages in education, at the practical level the meaningful participation of native communities in educational policymaking remains essential. In addition, as language education is a complex, socially situated terrain (Hult, 2018;Poudel and Choi, 2021a), it is also imperative to explore the outcomes of Indigenous community movements, government initiatives and implications of external agencies' support in collectively correcting for historical and systematic exclusions and minoritisation of ethnic/Indigenous languages in education. ...