Forest L. Reinhardt's research while affiliated with Harvard Medical School and other places

Publications (12)

Article
This case is about Colbun, Chile's second largest electricity generator, which is facing significant uncertainty regarding the cost and availability of alternative energy sources. Problems with the contracted supply of natural gas and the volatility of oil prices, coupled with regulatory changes made by the government, force Colbun to revise its bu...
Article
Global climate change is an increasingly prominent political and business problem. Design of market-based systems to reduce carbon emissions has proven difficult. More broadly, national attempts to comply with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol present both governments and firms with significant challenges. The design of international institution...
Article
The case describes CME Group, the world's largest commodities exchange, futures and options on futures contracts, history, regulation, and the strategic choices the company faced. CME Group was formed from the oldest and most well-known exchanges in the world. Traders on the exchange bought and sold contracts in order to hedge risk or speculate on...
Article
MME is a farmer-owned cooperative that produces ethanol from corn. The cooperative has performed well in comparison to other producers but margins in the industry had declined as industry production levels neared market demand limits. MME farmers needed to decide whether to take advantage of their success and expand through acquisitions, whether th...
Article
The Cosan case introduces students and executive education participants to political economy and business strategy in the biofuels industry. Cosan, based in Brazil, is the largest grower and processor of sugarcane in the world, and the largest sugar and ethanol producer in Brazil; it is also the world's largest exporter of ethanol for vehicle fuels...
Article
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We examine the concept of firms sacrificing profits in the social interest within the environmental realm, with particular focus on the case of the United States by addressing four key questions. May they do so within the scope of their fiduciary responsibilities to their shareholders? Can they do so on a sustainable basis, or will the forces of a...
Article
Arcadia Biosciences is an entrepreneurial California agricultural biotech company seeking to earn carbon credits by modifying commodity crops for use in China and India. Eric Rey, Arcadia's CEO, faced a strategic inflection point in early September, 2008. The company had a plan to share carbon credits allocated by the United Nations Clean Developme...
Article
"To shed light on individuals' willingness to pay for "green" goods (i.e., goods that are supposed to have lower adverse environmental impacts either in production or in use), we study data from the introduction by Patagonia, Inc., of organic cotton sportswear in the mid-1990s. Patagonia, a maker of high-end outdoor wear, substituted organic cotton...
Article
Presents data on opportunities to conserve energy in buildings, which account for about a third of all energy use. Encourages readers to think about the impediments to energy efficiency in the buildings sector and the ways in which entrepreneurs can profitably surmount the obstacles. Learning Objective: To understand the opportunities for profitabl...
Article
Business leaders, government officials, and academics are focusing considerable attention on the concept of "corporate social responsibility" (CSR), particularly in the realm of environmental protection. Beyond complete compliance with environmental regulations, do firms have additional moral or social responsibilities to commit resources to enviro...
Article
This paper is an inquiry into the circumstances under which the voluntary provision of environmental public goods might be sensible from a firm's point of view. If environmental externalities were the only departure from the economic assumptions of perfect competition, and if no firms had preferential access to superior (low-cost) stocks of natural...
Article
Success in a carbon-constrained world will be determined by innovation, acumen, and leadership. That will require companies to make bold moves.

Citations

... As principais fontes de tais pressões externas são os regulamentos governamentais e as pressões dos stakeholders. Reinhardt (2007) ressalta que as empresas precisam vencer a retórica do ganha-ganha e avançar em direção aos difíceis trade-offs decorrentes da mudança climática. ...
... Newell and Paterson likewise assert that voluntary standards such as the Gold Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard could conceivably someday 'close down' the space for unacceptable offsets (174) -ignoring the fact that since this space covers the entire offset field, the pretence of 'governance' can only make things worse (Lohmann, 2009b(Lohmann, , 2009d. (Not that business has ever taken much interest in such standards anyway; as of September 2010, only 97 out of 5,443 offset projects in the Kyoto Protocol carbon market pipeline were approved by the Gold Standard.) ...
... Buysse and Verbeke [49] categorize ENSs as those that strive to avoid and safeguard the environment via stakeholder management. ENSs are environmental conservation techniques that businesses use to impact employee behavior through management role models and by incorporating environmental concerns into company strategies [50]. ...
... Transgenic plants over-expressing this enzyme can increase nitrogen uptake especially at early stages of growth. This gene technology was licensed to a private biotechnology company, and is slated to be commercialized within the next six years [103]. A patent gave this biotechnology company the rights to use the nitrogen use efficiency gene technology in major cereals, as well as, in sugarcane. ...
... Productivity improvements commonly come from savings in materials and energy consumption; (Buchelli and Marín, 2011); raw materials account for approximately 40 per cent of total production costs, including energy, and this figure increases considerably (Prokopenko, 1989;Di Foggia, 2016), as better use of energy consumption will have a positive impact on their profitability (Herrera, 2012;Jafari, 2018). The indicator that allows us to measure the improvement in energy efficiency is energy intensity (Groover, 2014), which can be understood as how to obtain the same level of production with lower costs and less pollution (Reinhardt et al., 2011;Duran et al., 2015). ...
... -Thursday, December 01, 2016 4:34:16 AM -IP Address:192.30.84.3 The mills sell ethanol to distributers, a small number of firms are responsible for the retail of ethanol to consumers (Reinhardt et al., 2009). Since the 1990s, gas stations in Brazil are not required to have exclusive contracts with distributers. ...
... Ainsi, valoriser économiquement des attentes sociétales d'intérêt général dans une unique visée privée entre alors en contradiction avec une vision non-utilitariste de la RSE. De même, Reinhardt et Stavins (2010) estiment, d'après l'analyse du fonctionnement de différentes entreprises américaines, que, si le cadre juridique américain ne banni par le fait de « sacrifier des profits dans l'intérêt général » 30 , l'engagement responsable de ces entreprises ne s'inscrit pas dans le long-terme. Une telle démarche RSE répond à un objectif de rentabilité court-termiste au travers d'une logique de différenciation des produits, en dehors de toute considération éthique sociétale, environnementale et durable, s'inscrivant sur un temps long. ...
... While Sharfman et al. (2009) divided motivations for collaborative supply chain environmental management into economic, societal, and value-driven, we followed Paulraj et al. (2017), who divided motives into instrumental, relational, and moral. A company can have an instrumental motive to seek economic benefits, e.g., improved performance and increased shareholder value (Paulraj et al., 2017;Reinhardt et al., 2008). These benefits and strategic advantages are achieved by collaborating with suppliers and customers, e.g., by working together to develop environmentally friendly goods (Blome et al., 2014;Sharfman et al., 2009). ...
... Many studies in this literature use survey data or experimental/ quasi-experimental designs to capture the effects of CSR on various consumer responses. Casadesus-Masanell et al. (2009) and Elfenbein and McManus (2010) show that compared to standard products, consumers are willing to pay higher prices for organic products and charity-linked products, respectively. It is not just consumers' revealed willingness to pay that is affected by firm CSR efforts; consumers' purchasing intent is also raised by firm CSR [e.g., (Deng & Xu, 2017;Mohr & Webb, 2005)], indicating an effect at the extensive margin and not just at the intensive margin of consumer purchasing behavior. ...