Filip Smit's research while affiliated with Amsterdam University Medical Center and other places

Publications (262)

Article
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Background Depression is a major public health concern, which is most pronounced in population segments with a lower social-economic status (SES). E-health interventions for depressive complaints are proven to be effective, but their reach needs to be improved, especially among people with a lower socioeconomic status (SES). Implementing e-health i...
Article
Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a form of non-invasive neuromodulation that is increasingly used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). However, treatment with rTMS could be optimized by identifying optimal treatment parameters or characteristics of patients that are most likely to benefit. This meta-analysis an...
Article
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Background Prevalence rates of anxiety and depression in adolescence are rising markedly in early adolescence. It is important to quantify the non-fatal disease burden of anxiety and depression, such that early interventions can be well targeted, and resources can be allocated in a just and optimal way. This study aimed to estimate the non-fatal di...
Article
Background Smoking cessation (SC) interventions may contribute to better treatment outcomes and the general well-being of cancer survivors. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of a digital interactive SC intervention compared with a noninteractive web-based information brochure for cancer s...
Article
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Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, however, current treatment options are insufficiently effective for about 35% of patients, resulting in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a form of non-invasive neuromodulation that is effective in t...
Article
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Background: A previous randomized controlled trial in older adults with anxiety symptoms found no differences between a brief blended Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention and brief face-to-face Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) regarding anxiety symptom severity at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. A health-economic evaluation c...
Article
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Background Stigma and limited mental health literacy impede adolescents getting the help they need for depressive symptoms. A serious game coupled with a classroom session led by lived experience workers (LEWs) might help to overcome these barriers. The school-based Strong Teens and Resilient Minds (STORM) preventive program employed this strategy...
Article
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Background Already a major health concern, late-life depression (LLD) is expected to form an increasing problem in the aging population. Moreover, despite current treatments, LLD is associated with a poor long-term prognosis and high rate of chronicity. Treatment provision and treatment accordingly warrant improvement, where add-on treatments might...
Article
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Background Cognitive deficits may be characteristic for only a subgroup of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the link with clinical and functional outcomes is less profound than previously thought. This study aimed to identify cognitive subgroups in a large sample of FEP using a clustering approach with healthy controls as a reference group, subseq...
Article
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Aims: To perform an economic evaluation of guided and unguided internet-based interventions to reduce problematic alcohol consumption in employees compared with a waitlist control condition (WLC) with unrestricted access to treatment-as-usual. Design: A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA) from a societal and a cost-...
Article
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Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) was dismantled into four modules of three sessions each: cognitive restructuring (Think), behavioral activation (Act), problem solving (Solve) and relaxation (Relax). We investigated the modules' relative effectiveness in indicated depression prevention for adolescents and examined variations in sequen...
Article
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Background Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) among adolescents have hardly decreased despite preventative efforts. School-based prevention programs could have a great reach, yet suicide prevention is not an easy topic to address. To increase acceptability of school-based suicide prevention, it is important to evaluate whether programs that tar...
Article
Purpose Public health campaigns are still relatively rare in mental health. This paper aims to find consensus on the preventive self-management actions (i.e. “healthy behaviors”) for common mental health problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) that should be recommended in mental health campaigns directed at the general public. Approach A 3-round D...
Article
BACKGROUND To translate and linguistically validate the Assessment of Quality of Life 8-dimensions (AQoL-8D) for use in the Netherlands and to compare the psychometric properties of AQoL-8D with the EuroQol 5-dimensions 5-levels (EQ-5D-5L) in two patient samples. METHODS AQoL-8D was translated from English into Dutch. The translated AQoL-8D was th...
Article
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Psychological problems like procrastination, perfectionism, low self-esteem, test anxiety and stress are common among college students. There are evidence-based interventions available for these problems that not only have direct effects on these problems, but also indirect effects on mental disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders. Targe...
Article
Psychological interventions have been proven to be effective to prevent depression, however, little is known on the cost-effectiveness of psychological interventions for the prevention of depression in various populations. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial...
Article
Background The evidence base for internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (iCBT-I) is firm; however, little is known about iCBT-I’s health-economic effects. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost–utility of iCBT-I in reducing insomnia among schoolteachers. Methods Schoolteachers (N=128) with clinica...
Article
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Background Anxiety symptoms in older adults are prevalent and disabling but often go untreated. Most trials on psychological interventions for anxiety in later life have examined the effectiveness of face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To bridge the current treatment gap, other treatment approaches and delivery formats should also be e...
Article
Intervention at the earliest illness stage, in ultra or clinical high-risk individuals, or indicated prevention, currently represents the most promising strategy to ameliorate, delay or prevent psychosis. We review the current state of evidence and conduct a broad-spectrum meta-analysis of various outcomes: transition to psychosis, attenuated posit...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Smoking cessation (SC) interventions may contribute to better treatment outcomes and the general well-being of cancer survivors. OBJECTIVE This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of a digital interactive SC intervention compared with a noninteractive web-based information brochure for cancer s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a considerable public health concern. In spite of evidence-based treatments for MDD, many patients do not improve and relapse is common. Therefore, improving treatment outcomes is much needed and adjunct exercise treatment may have great potential. Exercise was shown to be effective as monotherapy for d...
Article
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Previous research shows that crises can have both negative and positive mental health effects on the population. The current study explored these effects in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic after relaxation of governmental measures. An online survey was administered among a representative sample of the Dutch population (n = 1519) in June 2020,...
Article
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Background/objective: To describe the design of ‘DepMod,’ a health-economic Markov model for assessing cost-effectiveness and budget impact of user-defined preventive interventions and treatments in depressive disorders. Methods: DepMod has an epidemiological layer describing how a cohort of people can transition between health states (sub-threshol...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The evidence base for internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (iCBT-I) is firm; however, little is known about iCBT-I’s health-economic effects. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost–utility of iCBT-I in reducing insomnia among schoolteachers. METHODS Schoolteachers (N=128) with clinica...
Article
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Introduction: According to the network perspective, psychopathology is the result of interactions between symptoms. A previous study used network analysis to identify central symptoms of adolescent depression. The aim of the current study was replicate and extend this study by including suicide ideation as a symptom of depression and evaluating wh...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Anxiety symptoms in older adults are prevalent and disabling but often go untreated. Most trials on psychological interventions for anxiety in later life have examined the effectiveness of face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To bridge the current treatment gap, other treatment approaches and delivery formats should also be e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research shows that crises can produce both negative and positive mental health effects. The current study explored these effects in context of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey was administered among a representative sample of the Dutch population (n = 1519) in June 2020, when the peak of COVID-19 cases was ten weeks past. Participa...
Article
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Background: Suicide is a major public health challenge globally and specifically in India where 36.6% and 24.3% of all suicides worldwide occur in women and men, respectively. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals uses suicide rate as one of two indicators for Target 3.4, aimed at reducing these deaths by one third by 2030. India has no...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling and the use of these interventions could b...
Article
Background The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Evidence was found for the effectiveness of virtual reality-based cognitive behavioral therapy (VR-CBT) for treating paranoia in psychosis, but health-economic evaluations are lacking. Objective: This study aimed to determine the short-term cost-effectiveness of VR-CBT. Methods: The health-economic evaluation was embedded in a rand...
Article
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Background: Substantial strides have been made around the world in reforming mental health systems by shifting away from institutional care towards community-based services. Despite an extensive evidence base on what constitutes effective care for people with severe mental ill-health, many people in Europe do not have access to optimal mental heal...
Article
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Objective: Following 2 decades of research on cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), it is relevant to consider at which point the evidence base is considered sufficient. We completed a cumulative meta-analysis to assess the sufficiency and stability of the evidence base for hallucinations and delusions. Method: We updated the system...
Article
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Background: Depression is a major public health concern. E-health interventions for preventing and reducing depressive complaints have proven to be effective, and have the potential to make (mental) health care more accessible and efficient. However, the reach of these interventions needs to be improved, especially among people with a lower socioe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The Stress-Prevention@Work implementation strategy has been demonstrated to be successful in reducing stress in employees. Now, we assess the economic return-on-investment to see if it would make for a favourable business case for employers. Methods Data were collected from 303 health-care workers assigned to either a waitlisted control co...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Community-based recovery-oriented mental health services for people with severe mental disorders have not been fully implemented in Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Romania. The Recover-E project facilitates the implementation of specialised mental health care delivered by setting up, implementing their services and evaluatin...
Article
Background: Community-based recovery-oriented mental health services for people with severe mental disorders have not been fully implemented in Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Romania. The RECOVER-E project facilitates the implementation of specialized mental health care delivered by setting up services, implementing the services, an...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Evidence was found for the effectiveness of virtual reality-based cognitive behavioral therapy (VR-CBT) for treating paranoia in psychosis, but health-economic evaluations are lacking. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine the short-term cost-effectiveness of VR-CBT. METHODS The health-economic evaluation was embedded in a randomized...
Article
Background: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment, but access is often restricted due to costs and limited availability of trained therapists. Blending online and face-to-face CBT for depression might improve cost-effectiveness and treatment availability. Objective: This pilot study aimed to examine the costs and effective...
Method
Machine learning wordt steeds vaker genoemd in het kader van het streven naar een meer effectief, doelmatig en gepersonaliseerd zorgsysteem1. De gedachte is daarbij dat wanneer we voor elke specifieke patiënt de optimale behandeling kunnen identificeren, de geboden zorg effectiever en doelmatiger wordt. Ook binnen de geestelijke gezondheidszorg (GG...
Article
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Aim The current research was conducted in the context of an ongoing reform of mental health services in the Republic of Moldova since 2014, where efforts have been devoted to creating community-based mental health services. This article presents a snapshot of the needs of mental health service users in the Republic of Moldova and helps to understan...
Article
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Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) contribute significantly to global rates of morbidity and mortality. Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) have been suggested as an adjunct to face-to-face health services. However, the evidence for the cost-effectiveness of IMIs for SUDs is scant. Methods: A comprehensive literature search i...
Article
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Background: Both depressive disorder and subclinical depressive symptoms during adolescence are a major public health concern. Therefore, it is important that depression is detected at an early stage and is treated preventively. Prevention based on the principles of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has proven to be the most effective, however r...
Article
Background: This study aims to report on the design of a model to determine the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of early psychosis (PsyMod) and to estimate ten-year cost-effectiveness and budget impact of interventions targeting individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis or with first episode psychosis (FEP). Meth...
Article
Background Studies of psychological interventions for the prevention of depression have found significant effects in the short-term, but the long-term efficacy has yet to be determined. This study evaluated the 8-year effect of a randomized controlled trial for indicated prevention of depression in female caregivers. Methods A total of 173 non-pro...
Article
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Background Negative symptoms largely account for poor outcome in psychotic disorders but remain difficult to treat. A cognitive– behavioral approach to these symptoms showed promise in chronic schizophrenia patients. We explored whether a combination of group and individual treatment focused on social activation (CBTsa) could benefit patients recen...
Article
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Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are common mental disorders. A substantial part of patients does not achieve symptomatic remission after treatment in specialized services. Current care as usual (CAU) for these patients consists of long-term supportive contacts. Termination of CAU is often not considered to be an option due to persistent...
Article
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Background: Co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in psychosis (estimated as 12%) raises personal suffering and societal costs. Health–economic studies on PTSD treatments in patients with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder have not yet been conducted, but are needed for guideline development and implementation. This study aims to a...
Article
Objective: Negative symptoms largely account for poor outcome in psychotic disorders but remain difficult to treat. A cognitive-behavioral approach to these symptoms showed promise in chronic schizophrenia patients. We explored whether a combination of group and individual treatment focused on social activation (CBTsa) could benefit patients recen...
Article
Full-text available
Background Major depression is a prevalent mental disorder with a high risk of relapse or recurrence. Only few studies have focused on the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at the prevention of relapse or recurrence of depression in primary care. Aim To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a supported Self-help Preventive Cognitive Therapy (...
Article
Aims: There is an increasing interest in understanding patients’ preferences in the area of healthcare decision making to better match treatment with patients’ preferences and improve treatment uptake and adherence. The aim of this study was to elicit the preferences of patients with a depressive disorder regarding treatment modalities. Materials a...
Article
Aims: The aim of this study was to elicit the preference of patients with an anxiety disorder regarding treatment modalities. Understanding patients’ preferences could help optimise treatment uptake and adherence to therapeutic intervention. Materials and methods: A discrete-choice experiment was used to elicit patients’ preferences with regard to...
Article
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Background In schizophrenia spectrum disorders, negative symptoms (e.g. social withdrawal) may persist after initial treatment with antipsychotics, much affecting the quality of life (QOL) of patients. This health-economic study evaluated if a dedicated form of cognitive behaviour therapy for social activation (CBTsa) would reduce negative symptoms...
Data
Average per-patient baseline costs for CBTsa and ST group (one month; in 2015 Euro). (DOCX)
Article
Doel Preventieve cognitieve therapie (PCT) is een zelfhulptherapie voor de eerste lijn, ontwikkeld om terugval in een depressie te voorkomen. Methode Gerandomiseerd gecontroleerd onderzoek waarin gebruikelijke zorg (onder andere antidepressiva) werd vergeleken met gebruikelijke zorg plus PCT. Deelnemers waren 18 jaar of ouder, hadden minimaal twee...
Article
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Background: Anxiety is among the most prevalent and disabling mental health problems in older adults. Few older adults with mild to moderately severe anxiety symptoms receive adequate interventions, putting them at risk for developing anxiety disorders, depression, and various somatic problems. Effective, low-threshold interventions should be deve...