Fikret Berkes's research while affiliated with University of Manitoba and other places

Publications (281)

Article
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Commons (or common-pool resources) are inherently dynamic. Factors that appear to contribute to the evolution of a stable commons regime at one time and place may undergo change that results in the collapse of the commons at another. The factors involved can be very diverse. Economic, social, environmental and political conditions and various drive...
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Purpose The plethora of contributions to social learning has resulted in a wide range of interpretations, meanings and applications of social learning, both within and across disciplines. However, advancing the concept and using social learning methods and tools in areas like disaster-shocks requires interdisciplinary consolidation of understanding...
Article
Despite decades of progress in disaster risk reduction, efforts to enhance risk awareness and influence behavioral change still seem to be falling short. When we reflect on the experience and envision the future of disaster risk reduction programs, we find promise in approaches that implicitly treat knowledge as not just something transmitted but a...
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Monitoring methods based on Indigenous knowledge have the potential to contribute to our understanding of large watersheds. Research in large, complex, and dynamic ecosystems suggests a participatory approach to monitoring—that builds on the diverse knowledges, practices, and beliefs of local people—can yield more meaningful outcomes than a “one-si...
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The continuing interest and progress in indigenous communities and local economies based on traditional, cultural, and ecological knowledge contributes to indigenous resilience. Here we report on an ongoing collaborative project investigating the process of renewal of cultural heritage through strengthening the roots of indigenous cultural traditio...
Article
Climate change is having a significant influence on global fish production as well as on small-scale fishers' livelihoods, nutrition, and food security. We compared two climate-sensitive small-scale fisheries (SSFs)-an Inuit community in the Canadian Arctic and the Coastal-Vedda in Sri Lanka-to broaden our understanding of how fisheries-dependent I...
Chapter
This article is about religions and attitudes toward the natural environment as relevant to biodiversity conservation. Religious traditions have little to say specifically about biodiversity, but they provide the values, worldviews, or environmental ethics that shape the way in which different societies interact with biological diversity and nature...
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Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) around the world are increasingly asserting ‘Indigenous agency’ to engage with government institutions and other partners to collaboratively steward ancestral Places. Case studies in Hawai‘i suggest that ‘community-driven collaborative management’ is a viable and robust pathway for IPLCs to lead in t...
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There is an increasing recognition globally of the role to be played by community science –scientific research and monitoring driven and controlled by local communities, and characterized by place-based knowledge, social learning, collective action and empowerment. In particular, community science can support social-ecological system transformation...
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Working with indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) is vital for inclusive assessments of nature and nature’s linkages with people. Indigenous peoples’ concepts about what constitutes sustainability, for example, differ markedly from dominant sustainability discourses. The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services (IPBES) is...
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Based on their world view, indigenous and local communities may have their own concepts of conservation, which may be different from Western ideas of conservation. Here we report the results of a photovoice study with a Caiçara community in the Juatinga Ecological Reserve, a protected area in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region. Participants were...
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Here, we expand on the term “ecomimicry” to be an umbrella concept for an approach to adaptive ecosystem-based management of social-ecological systems that simultaneously optimizes multiple ecosystem services for the benefit of people and place. In this context, we define ecomimicry as a strategy for developing and managing cultural landscapes, bui...
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Our research on Caiçara ethnoecology in the Juatinga Ecological Reserve, in Paraty, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on basket, canoe, and paddle making to understand Caiçara knowledge and stewardship of the landscape. Caiçara differentiate individual plants within a given species to select suitable specimens for a specific cultural product. C...
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Coastal fishery systems in the Arctic are undergoing rapid change. This paper examines the ways in which Inuit fishers experience and respond to such change, using a case study from Pangnirtung, Canada. The work is based on over two years of fieldwork, during which semi-structured interviews (n = 62), focus group discussions (n = 6, 31 participants...
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Resilience is recognized as a multilevel phenomenon, yet few studies have examined how the levels interact. This is partly because individual-level resilience and social-ecological systems resilience have developed in different fields. Here we explore the shocks and stresses experienced by a fishing community and its members, their responses, and h...
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Social–ecological memory (SEM) is an analytical construct used to consider the ways by which people can draw upon biological materials and social memory to reorganize following a disturbance. Since its introduction into the literature, there have been few cases that have considered its use. We use ethnographic methods to study Bribri people’s comme...
Chapter
In Brazil, during the past 20 years, several dynamic collaborative coastal management (CCM) arrangements have emerged in response to a variety of changing social and ecological conditions. These arrangements have led to an equally large range of outcomes, such as the fishing agreements in the Amazon basin and marine extractive reserves in coastal a...
Chapter
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Important but neglected, small-scale fisheries remain vulnerable to a range of direct challenges, despite long-standing recognition of their multiple contributions to the economy and society. Global drivers contribute to vulnerabilities at local and regional levels, creating adverse changes, but these changes in turn may act as drivers that impact...
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Are coastal communities relevant in fisheries management? Starting from what Svein Jentoft has had to say about the topic, we explore the idea that viable fishing communities require viable fish stocks, and viable fish stocks require viable fishing communities. To elaborate and expand on Jentoft’s arguments, first, we discuss values as a key attrib...
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Social-ecological system theory draws upon concepts established within the discipline of ecology, and applies them to a more holistic view of a human-in-nature system. We incorporated the keystone concept into social-ecological system theory, and used the quantum co-evolution unit (QCU) to quantify biocultural elements as either keystone components...
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Biodiversity loss undermines the long-term maintenance of ecosystem functions and the well-being of human populations. Global-scale policy initiatives, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, have failed to curb the loss of biodiversity. This failure has led to contentious debates over alternative solutions that represent opposing visions...
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Cenotes are sinkholes through which groundwater may be accessed from the Yucatan Peninsula Aquifer. Historically and culturally, cenotes are also important cultural and spiritual natural sites for the Maya, but they have been contaminated and degraded. We ask the following: What are the present-day meanings, understanding, and values of cenotes for...
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Social scientists have long recognized that fishing is perceived by many coastal communities as a way of life that does much more than just provide material benefits. A corollary to this is that fishers are often reluctant to quit fishing. Marine fisheries are complex and dynamic, and are often subject to classic commons dilemmas. These dilemmas ha...
Article
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Social scientists have long recognized that fishing is perceived by many coastal communities as a way of life that does much more than just provide material benefits. A corollary to this is that fishers are often reluctant to quit fishing. Marine fisheries are complex and dynamic, and are often subject to classic commons dilemmas. These dilemmas ha...
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Purpose The objective was to investigate the function of an Indigenous commercial fishery at Norway House Cree Nation as a social enterprise, and to examine its potential to enhance community economic development. Design/methodology/approach The research was conducted in three phases and outcome of each phase was used as an input for the next ph...
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Conservation and development are often framed as a dichotomy, requiring trade-offs. But trade-offs can be due to the particular political situation and to relationships of domination, and are not necessarily the inevitable result of an intractable situation. Environmental governance in Brazil is in transition, with growing tension between those who...
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The Anthropocene is characterized by rapid global change, necessitating adaptive governance. But how can such adaptive governance be operationalized? The article offers a three-point argument to approach this question. First, people and environment need to be considered together, as social (human) and ecological (biophysical) subsystems are linked...
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Traditional food harvesting is an integral part of culture and food security for Indigenous people in Canada and elsewhere. However, new generations are more inclined to consuming market foods rather than traditional foods. We report on a project in Norway House Cree Nation, northern Manitoba, Canada, to engage youth to express their thoughts about...
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Traditional food harvesting is an integral part of culture and food security for Indigenous people in Canada and elsewhere. However, new generations are more inclined to consuming market foods rather than traditional foods. We report on a project in Norway House Cree Nation, northern Manitoba, Canada, to engage youth to express their thoughts about...
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"Coastal grab" refers to the contested appropriation of coastal (shore and inshore) space and resources by outside interests. This paper explores the phenomenon of coastal grabbing and the effects of such appropriation on community-based conservation of local resources and environment. The approach combines social-ecological systems analysis with s...
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We analyze sacred sites in Ysyk-Köl Biosphere Reserve, Kyrgyzstan, from the commons perspective. There are some 130 sacred sites in the region, and these fit into the subcategory of cultural/spiritual commons within the broader category of new commons. They can be classified according to their biophysical characteristics, and the reasons why people...
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This perspective documents current thinking around climate actions in Canada by synthesizing scholarly proposals made by Sustainable Canada Dialogues (SCD), an informal network of scholars from all 10 provinces, and by reviewing responses from civil society representatives to the scholars’ proposals. Motivated by Canada’s recent history of repeated...
Article
This paper analyzes the social and collaborative dynamic of coastal community response to severe weather events associated with the changing climate. Community emergencies arising from severe storms are considered to be exogenous events that affect community social activity. We developed a system dynamics model to depict the dynamic activity of the...
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Traditional livestock management has historically been blamed for the mismanagement of rangelands, but there is a growing recognition of the importance of extensive herding strategies and the local knowledge embedded in these practices. Here, we apply the lens of continuity and change to understand how local herders interpret environmental change....
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Here I discuss Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries as a region undergoing rapid change, resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and admission of some of the states into the European Union. These events brought changes in governance and ecosystem management, triggering impacts on land use and biodiversity. What are some of the polic...
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Indigenous peoples in northern Canada (at least the off-reserve part of the population) experience food insecurity at a rate which is more than double that of all Canadian households. The Cree community of Norway House in northern Manitoba, which harvests and consumes a great deal of fish, may be an exception and may offer some lessons. The objecti...
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How does the resilience concept of nested relationships (panarchy) contribute to sustainability science and policy? Resilience at a particular level of organization, the community level in our case, is influenced by internal processes at that level. But it is also impacted by actions at lower levels of organization (individuals, households), and by...
Article
Over the past ten years, efforts have been made in the Paraty region of Brazil towards more active state governance of coastal resources through the implementation and enforcement of various types of protected areas. Trindade is one of the communities making efforts to advocate for themselves as the key stakeholders in a negotiation process for a n...
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Most small-scale fisheries throughout the world are based primarily on fisher knowledge, which is essentially experiential knowledge consisting of a replicable, verbally transmitted set of skills. Even though fisher knowledge is well documented for some fisheries, there are only a few studies that explain how it actually works as a management syste...
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Subsistence (or food) fisheries are under-studied, and the interaction between subsistence and commercial fisheries have not been studied systematically. Addressing this gap is the main contribution of the present paper, which focuses on how to deal with the challenge of overlapping commercial and subsistence fisheries. The study was conducted in N...
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The literature on commons has established the validity and significance of Elinor Ostrom’s design principles for collective action. Can these principles be used to guide policies and initiatives towards adaptive co-management? We analyze this idea by using two case studies, Piriápolis (Uruguay) and Paraty (Brazil). Both cases are small-scale fisher...
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We offer a typology of settings to bridge scientific and indigenous knowledge systems and to enhance governance of the environmental commons in contexts of change. We contribute to a need for further clarity on how to incorporate diverse knowledge systems and in ways that contribute to planning, management, monitoring and assessment from local to g...
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We offer a typology of settings to bridge scientific and indigenous knowledge systems and to enhance governance of the environmental commons in contexts of change. We contribute to a need for further clarity on how to incorporate diverse knowledge systems and in ways that contribute to planning, management, monitoring and assessment from local to g...
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Based on a study of collaborative governance (Spanish cogobierno, literally co-government) in Makuira National Park overlapping with an Indigenous collective territory of the Wayúu people recognised by the Government of Colombia, we analyse how Indigenous rights and conservation interests are negotiated between the national parks authority and loca...
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Aquaculture, and shrimp aquaculture in particular, can have major social and environmental impacts. However, aquaculture remains an understudied area in commons research. Can aspects of commons theory be applied to solve problems of aquaculture? We examined three coastal community-based shrimp aquaculture operations in northwestern Sri Lanka using...
Article
Issues of sustainability and increased competition over coastal resources are changing practices of resource management. Societal concerns about environmental degradation and loss of coastal resources have steadily increased, while other issues like food security, biodiversity, and climate change, have emerged. A full set of social, ecological and...
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Small-scale fishers in coastal areas of Brazil face numerous challenges, including marginalization by large-scale industrial operations, poor market access, lack of working capital, and pressure to diversify their livelihood base. From the perspective of adaptive capacity, this investigation was carried out in three communities in the municipality...
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We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, socia...
Article
Accelerated growth of tourism in the Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh in the Himalaya over the past decade has had substantial impact on the local society, economy and environment. Based on research focused in Manali and environs over this period, growth, development and impacts are described and explained by the unusual geopolitical and other fa...
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Large-scale shrimp aquaculture can have major social and environmental impacts. Can community-based approaches be used instead? We examined three coastal community-based shrimp aquaculture operations in northwestern Sri Lanka using a case study approach. These shrimp farms were individually owned by small producers and managed under community-level...
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Global scale drivers such as international markets for shrimp can trigger large changes at local and regional scales. But there is also a poorly appreciated reverse process, operating from the bottom up, with potential for triggering changes at higher scales. Thus, effects of drivers can be seen as a two-way process in which global drivers and loca...
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Although several frameworks have been developed to identify and value ecosystem services, few studies have focused on the perceptions of individuals about how they relate to their surroundings and how they value ecosystem services. We investigated the extent to which the concepts and categories of ecosystem services are able to accommodate peoples'...
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To understand the interplay of factors that shape changes in management strategies, we tracked the evolution of beluga whale co-management involving the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC), and the Tuktoyaktuk Hunter and Trapper Committee from its beginnings in the mid-1980s to the present. The...
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In this study we examine poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In assessing why "fishery may rhyme with poverty", Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes, which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation, and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelera...
Conference Paper
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The paper examines poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In examining why “fishery may rhyme with poverty”, Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelerate pover...
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The growing interest in the understanding of community resilience suggests a need for improving research approaches. This article reviews methods used to date, and suggests opportunities for expanding the range and efficacy of approaches used to understand, improve, and monitor the coupled social and ecological aspects of community resilience. We e...
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Place-specific knowledge systems, combined with hands-on resource use and a long-term commitment to sustaining resources and ecosystems, are vitally important in restoring the planet to health. This approach is already an integral part of the resource use and management systems of many Indigenous and tribal peoples worldwide, whose knowledge and pr...
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The marine aquarium trade has played an important role in shaping the ecological state of coral reefs in Indonesia and much of the Asia-Pacific. The use of cyanide by ornamental fishers in Buleleng District, Bali, in the 1980s and 1990s has resulted in a precipitous decline in the ecological health of reefs. Cyanide-free harvesting techniques were...
Article
This article is about religions and attitudes toward the natural environment as relevant to biodiversity conservation. Religious traditions have little to say specifically about biodiversity, but they provide the values, worldviews, or environmental ethics that shape the way in which different societies interact with biological diversity and nature...
Article
Full-text available
We aim to explore how indigenous peoples observe and ascribe meaning to change. The case study involves two Quechua-speaking farmer communities from mountainous areas near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Taking climate change as a starting point, we found that, first, farmers often associate their observations of climate change with other social and environme...