Fabio Muleri's research while affiliated with Università Degli Studi Roma Tre and other places

Publications (172)

Preprint
Full-text available
We report on the first observation of a radio-quiet Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) using polarized X-rays: the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-16. This source was pointed with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) starting on May 14, 2022 for a net observing time of 486 ks, simultaneously with XMM-Newton (58 ks) and NuSTAR (83 ks). A polarizati...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present measurements of the polarization of X-rays in the $2-8 \thinspace \mathrm{keV}$ band from the nucleus of the radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A), using a 100ks observation from the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). Nearly simultaneous observations of Cen A were also taken with the Swift, NuSTAR, and INTEGRAL observatories. No stati...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Crab pulsar and its nebula are among the most studied astrophysical systems, and constitute one of the most promising environments where high energy processes and particle acceleration can be investigated. They are the only objects for which previous X-ray polarisation has been reported. We present here the first Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explo...
Preprint
Using observations of X-ray pulsar Her X-1 by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, we report on a highly significant detection of the polarization signal from an accreting neutron star. The observed degree of the linear polarization of ∼ 10% is found to be far below theoretical expectations for this object, and stays low throughout the spin cycl...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a black hole X-ray binary (XRB) system, gas accreted from a normal star onto a black hole glows brightly in X-rays. We report on an observation of the XRB Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer IXPE) yielding the first highly significant detection of X-ray polarization from an accreting black hole. The electric vector pol...
Preprint
Full-text available
IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer) is a NASA Small Explorer mission -- in partnership with the Italian Space Agency (ASI) -- dedicated to X-ray polarimetry in the 2--8 keV energy band. The IXPE telescope comprises three grazing incidence mirror modules coupled to three detector units hosting each one a Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), a gas detecto...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using observations of X-ray pulsar Her X-1 by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, we report on a highly significant detection of the polarization signal from an accreting neutron star. The observed degree of the polarization of $\sim10$% is found to be far below theoretical expectations for this object, and stays low throughout the spin cycle o...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on a 5$\sigma$ detection of polarized 3-6 keV X-ray emission from the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) mission. The overall polarization degree of 1.8 $\pm$ 0.3% is detected by summing over a large region assuming circular symmetry for the polarization vectors. Correcting for thermal X-ray...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on the first detection of linearly polarized x-ray emission from an ultra-magnetized neutron star with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). The IXPE 35 observations of the anomalous x-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 reveal a linear polarization degree of $(12\pm 1)\%$ throughout the IXPE 2--8 keV band. We detect a substantial variation of...
Preprint
We review the tools and procedures for the analysis of the data collected by X-ray photoelectric gas polarimeters, like the ones on-board the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). Although many of such tools are in principle common with polarimeters working at other energy bands, the peculiar characteristics and performance of these devices re...
Article
Full-text available
Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a Small Explorer mission that was launched at the end of 2021 to measure the polarization of X-ray emission from tens of astronomical sources. Its focal-plane detectors are based on the Gas Pixel Detector, which measures the polarization by imaging photoelectron tracks in a gas mixture and reconstructing...
Preprint
Full-text available
IXPE is a Small Explorer mission that was launched at the end of 2021 to measure the polarization of X-ray emission from tens of astronomical sources. Its focal plane detectors are based on the Gas Pixel Detector, which measures the polarization by imaging photoelectron tracks in a gas mixture and reconstructing their initial directions. The qualit...
Article
Full-text available
The Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) is an X-ray polarimeter to fly onboard IXPE and other missions. To correctly measure the source polarization, the response of IXPE’s GPDs to unpolarized radiation has to be calibrated and corrected. In this paper, we describe the way such response is measured with laboratory sources and the algorithm to apply such corre...
Article
Full-text available
We report the detection of X-ray polarization in the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius (Sco) X-1 with PolarLight. The result is energy-dependent, with a nondetection in 3–4 keV but a 4σ detection in 4–8 keV; it is also flux-dependent in the 4–8 keV band, with a nondetection when the source displays low fluxes but a 5σ detection during hig...
Preprint
We report the detection of X-ray polarization in the neutron star low mass X-ray binary Scorpius (Sco) X-1 with PolarLight. The result is energy dependent, with a non-detection in 3-4 keV but a 4$\sigma$ detection in 4-8 keV; it is also flux dependent in the 4-8 keV band, with a non-detection when the source displays low fluxes but a 5$\sigma$ dete...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scheduled to launch in late 2021, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a NASA Small Explorer Mission in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The mission will open a new window of investigation - imaging X-ray polarimetry. The observatory features 3 identical telescopes each consisting of a mirror module assembly with a pol...
Preprint
Full-text available
IXPE scientific payload comprises of three telescopes, each composed of a mirror and a photoelectric polarimeter based on the Gas Pixel Detector design. The three focal plane detectors, together with the unit which interfaces them to the spacecraft, are named IXPE Instrument and they will be built and calibrated in Italy; in this proceeding, we wil...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Gas Pixel Detector is an X-ray polarimeter to fly on-board IXPE and other missions. To correctly measure the source polarization, the response of IXPE's GPDs to unpolarized radiation has to be calibrated and corrected. In this paper we describe the way such response is measured with laboratory sources and the algorithm to apply such correction...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer is a mission dedicated to the measurement of X-ray polarization from tens of astrophysical sources belonging to different classes. Expected to be launched at the end of 2021, the payload comprises three mirrors and three focal plane imaging polarimeters, the latter being designed and built in Italy. While cali...
Article
The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer is a mission dedicated to the measurement of X-ray polarization from tens of astrophysical sources belonging to different classes. Expected to be launched at the end of 2021, the payload comprises three mirrors and three focal plane imaging polarimeters, the latter being designed and built in Italy. While cali...
Article
Context. The X-ray polarization degree of the molecular clouds surrounding Sgr A* is expected to be greatly reduced due to the mixing of the polarized reflection emission with the unpolarized thermal emission that pervades the Galactic center region. This makes this type of observation a challenging experiment for the upcoming Imaging X-ray Polarim...
Preprint
Full-text available
The X-ray polarization degree of the molecular clouds that surround Sgr A* is expected to be greatly lowered because the polarized reflection emission is mixed with the unpolarized thermal emission that pervades the Galactic center region. Hence, this will be a challenging observation for the upcoming Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE). We a...
Preprint
Full-text available
While X-ray Spectroscopy, Timing and Imaging have improved verymuch since 1962, when the first astronomical non-solar source was discovered, especially with the launch of Newton/X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, Rossi/X-ray Timing Explorer and Chandra/Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, the progress of X-ray polarimetry has been meager. This is in part...
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to be launched in late 2021, the Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a NASA Small Explorer mission designed to perform polarization measurements in the 2-8 keV band, complemented with imaging, spectroscopy and timing capabilities. At the heart of the focal plane is a set of three polarization-sensitive Gas Pixel Detectors (GPD), each b...
Article
Due to be launched in late 2021, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a NASA Small Explorer mission designed to perform polarization measurements in the 2–8 keV band, complemented with imaging, spectroscopy and timing capabilities. At the heart of the focal plane is a set of three polarization-sensitive Gas Pixel Detectors (GPD), each b...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray polarimetry has long been considered the ‘holy grail’ of X-ray astronomy. Fortunately, after a silence of more than 40 years, the field is now rejuvenating. In fact, an X-ray polarimeter onboard a Cube-sat nano-satellite has been recently successfully operated. IXPE, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, will be launched in 2021 while eXTP,...
Preprint
We report follow-up observations of the Crab nebula with the PolarLight X-ray polarimeter, which revealed a possible variation in polarization associated with a pulsar glitch in 2019. The new observations confirm that the polarization has recovered roughly 100 days after the glitch. With the new observations, we find that the polarization angle (PA...
Preprint
PolarLight is a space-borne X-ray polarimeter that measures the X-ray polarization via electron tracking in an ionization chamber. It is a collimated instrument and thus suffers from the background on the whole detector plane. The majority of background events are induced by high energy charged particles and show ionization morphologies distinct fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Focal plane X-ray polarimetry is intended for relatively bright sources with a negligible impact of background. However this might not be always possible for IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer) when observing faint extended sources like supernova remnants. We present for the first time the expected background of IXPE by Monte Carlo simulation...
Article
Focal plane X-ray polarimetry is intended for relatively bright sources with a negligible impact of background. However this might not be always possible for IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer) when observing faint extended sources like supernova remnants. We present for the first time the expected background of IXPE by Monte Carlo simulation...
Preprint
PolarLight is a gas pixel X-ray polarimeter mounted on a CubeSat, which was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit in October 2018. We build a mass model of the whole CubeSat with the Geant4 toolkit to simulate the background induced by the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) and high energy charged particles in the orbit. The simulated energy spectra and...
Preprint
The Crab nebula is so far the only celestial object with a statistically significant detection in soft x-ray polarimetry, a window that has not been explored in astronomy since the 1970s. However, soft x-ray polarimetry is expected to be a sensitive probe of magnetic fields in high energy astrophysical objects including rotation-powered pulsars and...
Article
Full-text available
The NASA/ASI Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, which will be launched in 2021, will be the first instrument to perform spatially resolved X-ray polarimetry on several astronomical sources in the 2-8 keV energy band. These measurements are made possible owing to the use of a gas pixel detector (GPD) at the focus of three X-ray telescopes. The GPD...
Preprint
Full-text available
The NASA/ASI Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, which will be launched in 2021, will be the first instrument to perform spatially resolved X-ray polarimetry on several astronomical sources in the 2-8 keV energy band. These measurements are made possible owing to the use of a gas pixel detector (GPD) at the focus of three X-ray telescopes. The GPD...
Preprint
PolarLight is a compact soft X-ray polarimeter onboard a CubeSat, which was launched into a low-Earth orbit on October 29, 2018. In March 2019, PolarLight started full operation, and since then, regular observations with the Crab nebula, Sco X-1, and background regions have been conducted. Here we report the operation, calibration, and performance...
Article
PolarLight is a compact soft X-ray polarimeter onboard a CubeSat, which was launched into a low-Earth orbit on October 29, 2018. In March 2019, PolarLight started full operation, and since then, regular observations with the Crab nebula, Sco X-1, and background regions have been conducted. Here we report the operation, calibration, and performance...
Article
Full-text available
The X-ray polarization properties of the reflection nebulae in the Galactic center inform us about the direction of the illuminating source (through the polarization angle) and the cloud position along the line of sight (through the polarization degree). However, the detected polarization degree is expected to be lowered because the polarized emiss...
Preprint
Full-text available
The X-ray polarization of the reflection nebulae in the Galactic Center inform us about the direction of the illuminating source (through the polarization angle) and the cloud position along the line of sight (through the polarization degree). However, the detected polarization degree is expected to be lowered because of the mixing of the emission...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
The Crab nebula is so far the only celestial object with a statistically significant detection in soft X-ray polarimetry1–4, a window that has not been explored in astronomy since the 1970s. However, soft X-ray polarimetry is expected to be a sensitive probe of magnetic fields in high-energy astrophysical objects, including rotation-powered pulsars...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since the birth of X-ray Astronomy, spectacular advances have been seen in the imaging, spectroscopic and timing studies of the hot and violent X-ray Universe, and further leaps forward are expected in the future. On the other hand, polarimetry is very much lagging behind: after the measurements of the Crab Nebula and Scorpius X-1, obtained by OSO-...
Article
Full-text available
The gas pixel detector (GPD) is designed and developed for high-sensitivity astronomical X-ray polarimetry, which is a new window about to open in a few years. Due to the small mass, low power, and compact geometry of the GPD, we propose a CubeSat mission Polarimeter Light (PolarLight) to demonstrate and test the technology directly in space. There...
Preprint
Full-text available
The gas pixel detector (GPD) is designed and developed for high-sensitivity astronomical X-ray polarimetry, which is a new window about to open in a few years. Due to the small mass, low power, and compact geometry of the GPD, we propose a CubeSat mission Polarimeter Light (PolarLight) to demonstrate and test the technology directly in space. There...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we present the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry mission - eXTP. eXTP is a space science mission designed to study fundamental physics under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. The mission aims at determining the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, measuring effects of QED, and understanding the...
Article
In this paper we present the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry mission. eXTP is a space science mission designed to study fundamental physics under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. The mission aims at determining the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, measuring effects of QED, and understanding the dynami...
Article
In this paper, we report the results of the characterization campaign of two prototypes of Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs), designed as the X-ray collimators for the Large Area Detector on board the eXTP mission. The devices were developed ad-hoc by North Night Vision Technology Co., Ltd. (Nanjing, China). Measurements involved the study of the angular...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The eXTP (enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry) mission is a major project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and China National Space Administration (CNSA) currently performing an extended phase A study and proposed for a launch by 2025 in a low-earth orbit. The eXTP scientific payload envisages a suite of instruments (Spectroscopy Focusing...