Fabien Jobard's research while affiliated with InnoVision Deutschland and other places

Publications (55)

Chapter
Behandelt die französische Polizei alle Personen, die ihrem Zugriff unterliegen, gleich, auch wenn diese verschiedener Herkunft sind? Praktiziert die Strafjustiz gegenüber Menschen verschiedener Herkunft, die ihrer Gerichtsbarkeit unterworfen sind (Opfer, Beschuldigte und Verurteilte), einen diskriminierungsfreien Umgang?
Article
Revue du Centre national de documentation pédagogique
Chapter
Since the beginning of the 1980s, France has witnessed a series of small-scale urban riots, which have seemed to recur in a very similar fashion. A deadly encounter with the police (or the rumour thereof) in a deprived urban area is followed by the gathering of angry young men on the main square of the local estates (and not in the wealthier city c...
Article
The police usually enjoy a great amount of autonomy, of which two levels can be distinguished. The first level (micro level) is called police discretion, and is used by rank-and-file officers. Daily police matters call for quick if not split-second decisions by individual officers on the beat, like bringing someone to the police station, approachin...
Article
Since 1986 (if not 1968), youths’ demonstrations in France are often places of violent confrontations with police forces. Meanwhile, violence more and more occurs within the ranks of protestors, with scenes of stealing and beating of youths by other youths, under the impavide eyes of police forces which seem to avoid to use force at any cost. Aim o...
Article
This article revisits several arguments that Jean-Paul Brodeur developed for at least two decades on the role of the use of force in the definition and a general theory of policing. The author examines the theoretical project that characterizes The Policing Web, his last book, and assesses where “legal lawlessness”, the touchstone of the theory of...
Article
This article revisits several arguments that Jean-Paul Brodeur developed for at least two decades on the role of the use of force in the definition and a general theory of policing. The author examines the theoretical project that characterizes The Policing Web, his last book, and assesses where “legal lawlessness”, the touchstone of the theory of...
Article
This article sets out the main results of a survey conducted by the Centre for Sociological Research on Law and Criminal Justice Institutions (CESDIP; CI Survey) and the Open Society Institute (OSI) to establish whether the identity checks made by Parisian law enforcement officers reflect ethnic (or racial) profiling and, if so, to provide quantifi...
Article
Law enforcement offi cers in France are often accused of carrying out identity checks on the basis of physical appearance (controles au facies), singling out particular ethnic groups, or "visible minorities". To show that discrimination is taking place, it is not enough simply to demonstrate that police stops affect one group more than another. It...
Article
Measuring Appearance-Based Discrimination: an Analysis of Identity Checks in Pariss This article sets out the main results of a survey conducted by the Centre for Sociological Research on Law and Criminal Justice Institutions (CESDIP; CI Survey) and the Open Society Institute (OSI) to establish whether the identity checks made by Parisian law enfor...
Article
The controversy over racial profiling in policing that is explored within the pages of the Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice echoes the violent debates within French society regarding the police – debates that take place not only in specialized journals but in the outside world as well: One only has to think about the repeated re...
Article
La police est l'une des institutions dépositaires du monopole de la violence physique légitime. Cette définition de la police, inspirée de celle de l'Etat livrée au début du XXe siècle par Max Weber, réunit depuis les années 1950 l'immense majorité des sociologues de la police, principalement sous l'influence de l'ethnométhodologue Egon Bittner. El...
Article
Of all the prerogatives the French police forces exercise in public places, the identity check (IC) is certainly the one that draws the most frequent reproaches of bias, harassment, and discrimination. The French commonly use the term contrôle au faciès, or looks-based checks, for what specialists call ethnic or racial profiling. This designates th...
Article
Des différentes prérogatives dont les forces de police font usage dans les espaces publics en France, le contrôle d'identité (CI) est certainement celle qui leur attire le plus fréquemment le reproche d'arbitraire, de partialité, de harcèlement ou de discrimination. L'expression consacrée en France, "contrôle au faciès", désigne ce que la littératu...
Article
Die französische Forschung über mögliche Diskriminierungen durch polizeiliche und gerichtliche Institutionen ist erstaunlich dünn gesät, wenn man das explosive Potential dieser Frage bedenkt, das erst vor kurzem durch die Unruhen im November 2005 wieder belegt wurde. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung werden daher Hinweise auf straf- und zivilrechtli...
Article
O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de uma investigação in situ, no contexto francês, relativa a s pessoas visadas pela ação policial conhecida como controle de identidade, a abordagem de pessoas no espaço público com a exigência de apresentação de documentos. Tal análise leva em conta a acusação de que essa prática é pautada por uma...
Article
The broad aim of this book is to provide a general basis for comparatively analysing and understanding the French riots of October/November 2005 and the corresponding Bristish disorders which occurred in the spring/summer of 2001. The first of the French riots broke out on 27 October in the north Parisian banlieue (suburb) of Clichy-sous-Bois when...
Article
French residents of immigrant origin, particularly those of North African and sub-Saharan African background, have long complained that police single them out for unfair, discriminatory, and unnecessary identity checks. If these perceptions are true, it means that French police are engaged in “ethnic profiling.” That is, police officers are basing...
Article
Ouvrage téléchargeable sur le site Internet : http://www.soros.org/initiatives/justice/focus/equality_citizenship/articles_publications/publications/search_20090630/french_20090630.pdf
Article
Research in France on possible prejudice on the part of the police or criminal court is scarce, surprisingly scarce given the explosive nature of the question that the November 2005 riots recently illustrated. The present research is an analysis of discrimination founded on the defendants' origins in criminal and civil affairs, taking as base all t...
Article
Riots that occurred in October and November 2005 in France, as a result of a police chase resulting in the death of two young boys from a deprived area of the Parisian outskirts, force us to shed new light on the political dimension of breakdowns labelled as ‘riots’. To achieve this aim, we examine the accuracy of the notion of ‘race riots’ often u...
Article
The French 2005 riots in the urban outskirts were the most numerous, widespread and violent France has experienced since the beginning of the 1980s. In The Politics of Collective Violence, Charles Tilly refused the term ‘riot as a scientific idiom’ because it embodies a political judgment rather than an analytical distinction. Authorities and obser...
Article
This chapter approaches the question of government and surveillance through a comparison between the control practices observable in two types of places. First, we focus on international airports, specifically the French international airport of Orly. Airports are maximum security zones where persons perceived as having no legitimate business are e...
Article
There is very little French research on possible discrimination by the French police or judiciary - a surprising state of affairs given how explosive this issue is, as attested by the November 2005 riots. This article analyzes discrimination in criminal and civil cases by defendant's origin; it studies the case files of defendants charged with offe...
Article
The color of judgment : discrimination in rulings on cases involving offenses against French police officers, 1965-2005. There is very little French research on possible discrimination by the French police or judiciary – a surprising state of affairs given how explosive this issue is, as attested by the November 2005 riots. This article analyzes di...

Citations

... La première opération a consisté à mieux distinguer les types de contrôles. Ceux-ci, dans les deux pays, peuvent être en effet de plusieurs types, que l'on peut simplifier ainsi : les uns sont de nature judiciaire, et sont déclenchés quand une infraction semble avoir été commise ; les autres sont de nature administrative, et se produisent sans infraction ni soupçon étayé d'infraction préalable (Jobard et Maillard, 2019). Nous avons donc décidé de distinguer les contrôles d'initiative (aussi appelés proactifs ou discrétionnaires), qui ne résultent pas de la commission d'une infraction évidente, des autres contrôles, en en proposant la définition suivante : « quand (le contrôle) s'effectue sur des critères extérieurs au comportement potentiellement délinquant de la personne : un individu situé dans un territoire auquel il est apparemment étranger, l'aspect général d'une automobile, le style vestimentaire, ou encore l'attitude de la personne (l'ironie provocatrice, par exemple) » (Maillard et al., 2016 : 273). ...
... gendarmerie de la grande banlieue parisienne, en passant par le soutien aux mobilisations policières les plus illégales voire à leurs manifestations hostiles à l'égard de l'autorité judiciaire à laquelle ils sont soumis, les signaux politiques favorables à une police aveugle et brutale ont été récurrents, accroissant une tension structurelle entre jeunes et police, dans un contexte de surmenage des policiers face au terrorisme. Les efforts portés par les ZSP, l'action partenariale, l'affectation de policiers retraités à des missions de contact avec la population (de Maillard et al. 2017) pèsent dans un tel contexte bien peu face à la tendance lourde de la police au repli dans une centralisation hautaine et contre-productive. Conclusion L'Ile-de-France présente un visage doublement inchangé sur le plan des politiques de sécurité. ...
... These findings were corroborated by the "Escapad" survey (Peaucellier et al. 2016) involving 5,432 18-year-old Paris residents. The study found a high frequency of stops among youths (28% recalled they had been stopped), again with significant differences in stop rates among various social groups (41% of males, 47% of school dropouts, and 18% of residents from underprivileged areas). ...
... It is clear for instance that relations to politics are organised in contrasted ways in Englishspeaking democracies (Bayley and Stenning 2016). A continental model, according to Mawby (2008), is based on three characteristics: accountability towards the state, broad mandate and centralisation (Jobard and de Maillard 2015). However, neither Germany nor Switzerland, or to a lesser extent, Spain, are centralised while France or Denmark display a centralised structure (Roché 2015). ...
... One of these problems is police violence. Despite colourblind and race-blind ideologies, it is still clear that that policing practices disproportionately target Black Europeans (Sollund, 2006;Jobard et al., 2012;ENAR, 2014;Bonnet and Caillault, 2015). 10 The European Network against Racism (ENAR) defines police brutality as 'the physical and excessive use of force by law enforcement officials on a person' and notes that such 'violence can be both direct and structuralinflicted by the police as an institution as well as by individuals acting on behalf of or with the sanction of the state'. ...
... Lamont/Monlár 2001) oder als «negative Klassifikationen» (Neckel/Sutterlüty 2010, 218;vgl. Brubaker 2015;Jobard 2008) in Erscheinung treten. Ein hierarchisches Un/doing Ethnicity zeigt sich etwa als Verhältnis der Über-oder Unterordnung, der Auf-und Abwertung, womit marginalisierende, stigmatisierende oder Dominanz-Effekte einhergehen können (vgl. ...
... While initial studies, carried out mainly in the US, Canada and the UK, concentrated on stop and search practices (e.g., Harris 1997;Spitzer 1999;Gelman, Fagan and Kiss 2007;Bowling and Phillips 2007;Ridgeway 2007), current research has broadened its focus to include a range of practices related to migration policing, surveillance in the context of the so-called War on Terror and War on Drugs, and policing in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (for an overview see Engel, Calnon and Bernard 2002;Tator and Henry 2006;Davis 2017;Hargreaves 2018;Delsol and Shiner 2015;Schclarek Mulinari and Keskinen 2020). In recent years a growing body of research in continental Europe has examined how institutionalized racism and racial prejudice shape policing in their respective national and regional contexts (France: Open Society Justice Initiative 2009; Jobard et al. 2012;Fassin 2013. Germany: KOP 2016Netzwerk 2017;Thompson 2021aThompson , 2022. ...
... B. als gefährlich oder problematisch erachtete Orte) usw. in Erscheinung tritt(vgl. Jobard 2008;Jobard/Lévy 2009;Lukas/Gauthier 2011;Hunold 2015; Belina/Wehrheim 2011;Zdun 2010). Dabei rückt der «sozialräumliche Kontext der polizeilichen Alltagspraxis»(Hüttermann 2000, 501) ins Zentrum der erwähnten Forschungen, was den «lokalspezifischen polizeilichen Habitus»(Hunold 2011, 257) betont. ...
... There was a growing perception that they were treated differently when seeking employment or dealing with the police. This was aggravated by appearance-based police checks (contrôles au facì es), well documented by Fabien Jobard (Jobard and Lévy 2009), the denial to foreign nationals from outside the European Community of the right to vote in local elections, which had been regularly promised in each presidential campaign since 1981 and always postponed, court decisions -such as the release on appeal in May 2015 of the Clichy sous Bois police who had pursued the two teenagers who died in 2005 -and more generally portrayals of the banlieues by media that are at once despised and solicited: despised because they generally show the most negative aspects (violence, drug trafficking, idleness) of life in the poor neighbourhoods and seize with delight on any minor news or incidents that take place there; but they are also sought out for the public exposure, however fleeting, that they are thought to bring and for their capacity to show the whole world scenes of rioting, whose echoes they thus amplify. So attacks on journalists, particularly those working for television, and even the destruction of their equipment, go hand in hand with a quest for interviews. ...