F.X. Williams's scientific contributions

Citations

... Flat wasps are larval parasitoids of holometabolan insect immatures (mostly coleopteran and lepidopteran larvae) and their adults are mostly smaller than their future offspring's hosts (Gauld and Bolton 1988), which the females paralyse with their venom sting (Powell 1938;Finlayson 1950;Schaefer 1962;Evans 1964;Kühne and Becker 1974;Gordh and Medved 1986;Griffiths and Godfray 1988;Abraham et al. 1990;Howard et al. 1998). Since the host immatures often occur in more cryptic or concealed habitats, like soil, stems, wood or seeds (Evans 1964;Gauld and Bolton 1988;Howard and Flinn 1990), flat wasp adults may show additional adaptations for entering these habitats (Williams 1919;Gordh and Medved 1986), such as fossorial (digging, burrowing) forelegs and reduced wings (Evans 1964). Some flat wasps even exhibit subsocial behaviours (Evans 1964), additional (to parasitoidism) maternal care (Casale 1991;Hu et al. 2012;Yang et al. 2012;Tang et al. 2014) and many engage in prey carriage and some also in a sort of nest building (Finlayson 1950;Evans 1964;Rubink and Evans 1979;Howard et al. 1998; for review of prey carriage in wasps in general see e.g. ...