F P Hadlock's research while affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine and other places

Publications (58)

Article
Because of recent challenges in the literature regarding the validity of the older crown-rump length (CRL) data developed with conventional static-image ultrasound scanners, the authors evaluated the relationship between CRL and menstrual age of fetuses in a population of 416 patients with good menstrual dates. By using a variety of commercially av...
Article
This study was carried out to determine if second trimester fetal body ratios are useful in detecting chromosomally abnormal fetuses. As a reference population, normative data for five fetal body ratios (femur length/biparietal diameter, biparietal diameter/fetal length, femur length/head circumference, head circumference/abdominal circumference, a...
Article
In this study, the Hadlock models for fetal dating using single and multiple parameters were tested retrospectively in 1770 chromosomally normal singleton fetuses in the second trimester (14 to 21 weeks of fetal development). The 95% confidence interval using measurements of the fetal head and femur individually was approximately +/- 1 week, which...
Article
Regression analysis was used to develop an in utero fetal weight model from a population of 392 predominantly middle-class white patients with certain menstrual histories. There was a gradual increase in fetal weight from 35 g at 10 weeks to 3,619 g at 40 weeks, with uniform variance of +/- 12.7% (1 standard deviation) throughout gestation. When te...
Article
Currently available sonographic growth standards for fetal head size, abdominal size, and limb length are based primarily on studies from white populations. To determine whether these published standards are appropriate for a racially mixed, indigent population, we compared our published data from a middle-class white population with data generated...
Article
Real-time ultrasound is a very effective tool in the estimation of fetal age and weight. The most accurate fetal age estimates are from crown-rump length measurements in early pregnancy. Late pregnancy age estimates are less accurate, but the use of multiple body measurements provides a composite age estimate generally accurate to within 7 per cent...
Article
To characterize the growth of the thigh circumference (ThC) in individual fetuses, longitudinal studies of ThC growth were carried out in 20 fetuses between 19 (+/- 1.8) and 38 (+/- 1.5) weeks, menstrual age. Because of measurement uncertainties, analysis of growth patterns was limited to the data collected after 22 weeks. The Rossavik growth model...
Article
As an indicator of fetal limb growth, change in the femur diaphysis length (FDL) between 15 and 38 weeks, menstrual age, has been evaluated in a longitudinal study of 20 normal fetuses, as determined by prenatal biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference growth patterns as well as postnatal pediatric assessment. Individual...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of regression models for menstrual age prediction using single versus multiple fetal ultrasonographic measurements (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length). The models tested had been previously developed from a study of middle-class white patients in a pri...
Article
Growth of the fetal head has been reexamined in a longitudinal study of 32 normally growing fetuses using the head profile area (HA). The Rossavik growth model (characterized by the coefficients c, k, and s) fit these data very well (R2 [+/- SD] 99.6 [+/- 0.3]%), and regression analysis indicated that optimum results are obtained when the coefficie...
Article
Growth of the fetal abdomen has been reexamined in a longitudinal study of 32 normally growing fetuses using the abdominal profile area (AA) and the Rossavik growth model. The growth of the fetal abdomen was compared to that of the fetal head. In early pregnancy the growth rate was higher for the fetal head than for the fetal abdomen, whereas the o...
Article
To provide a more precise means for monitoring individual fetal growth and to improve the detection of growth abnormalities, the Rossavik growth model [P = c(t)k + s(t)] has been used to establish individual growth curve standards. A longitudinal study of the growth of one-dimensional (biparietal diameter, head, and abdominal circumferences), two-d...
Article
This investigation is concerned with establishing the anatomical location of the site proposed for making fetal thigh circumference (ThC) measurements with ultrasound. An evaluation of the accuracy of ultrasonic ThC measurements has also been made. The results of these studies indicate that the change in femur profile (polygonal to oval) used to id...
Article
To provide standards for evaluating fetal thigh circumference measurements obtained with ultrasound, a study of the growth of this parameter during pregnancy was made. Because of possible sampling problems before 22 weeks (menstrual age), this investigation was limited to the 22-40 week time period. Regression analysis indicated that the optimal mo...
Article
The early detection of the macrosomic fetus is important to the obstetric management of pregnancies in which this growth abnormality occurs. Ultrasound has been used for this purpose but for this approach to be effective, a clear definition of macrosomia, selection of the appropriate parameters for measurement, and specification of the optimal time...
Article
This investigation has reexamined the measurement of the femur length and the use of this measurement as a growth and dating parameter. Straight-line measurements of shaft length were found to be smaller than measurements made along the bone curvature. However, the maximum difference did not exceed 2 mm. Thus, because of its simplicity, use of stra...
Article
Amniocentesis for determination of fetal lung maturity and ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of the biparietal diameter (BPD) and placental grade were performed simultaneously in 261 nondiabetic pregnant women. A BPD of at least 9.3 cm and a grade 3 placenta were evaluated as predictors of fetal lung maturity using amniotic fluid phospholipids as in...
Article
In utero estimates of fetal weight were evaluated prospectively in 109 fetuses with the use of sonographic models developed in a previous study. This report confirms that the best in utero weight estimates result from the use of models based on measurements of head size, abdominal size, and femur length. Since the accuracy of these models (1 SD = 7...
Article
The femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, expressed as FL/AC X 100, was determined in 156 fetuses and evaluated as a predictor of fetal macrosomia within one week prior to delivery. The normal range (mean +/- 2 SD) in the 105 normal-weight fetuses was 22.0 +/- 2, while the normal range in the 51 macrosomic fetuses was 20.5 +/- 2; these differ...
Article
The relationship of sonographic femur length to biparietal diameter (BPD) in utero may be useful in detecting short-limb dwarfism, hydrocephaly, microcephaly, and measurement errors. Because BPD can be adversely affected by head shape changes (e.g., dolichocephaly), falsely high or low values of femur length/BPD could result. Because head circumfer...
Article
Regression models for predicting menstrual age based on real-time sonographic measurements of four fetal parameters (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length), used alone and in combination, were developed in a cross-sectional study of 361 fetuses between 14 and 42 menstrual weeks. The head circumference an...
Article
When evaluating fetal growth against objective standards such as the fetal biometric data, several important points should be kept in mind: establish menstrual age early in pregnancy (preferably in the first trimester), especially in high-risk patients; when using biometric data developed in another center, make sure that the population characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Sonographic estimation of fetal weight in utero was performed in 167 live-born fetuses examined within one week of delivery. Regression models were based on measurements of abdominal circumference, head circumference, biparietal diameter, and femur length, both alone and in combination. The best results (1 S.D. = 7.5% of actual weight) were obtaine...
Article
Sonographically measured femur lengths in 102 fetuses were compared with neonatal crown-heel lengths within 72 hours of delivery. The optimal model for describing crown-heel length as a function of femur length was a linear model, with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 66 per cent; the standard deviation in predicting crown-heel length from fe...
Article
The development of the fetal genitourinary tract can be observed in utero between 15 and 40 weeks with high resolution ultrasound equipment. Several authors have reported normative data for fetal kidney and bladder size during the second and third trimesters. Anomalous development of the urinary tract is usually easy to detect with ultrasound, beca...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between sonographically measured fetal femur length and abdominal circumference (expressed as femur length/abdominal circumference X 100) was studied in 361 normal pregnancies between 15 and 42 weeks. This ratio was found to be independent of menstrual age, with a normal range after 21 weeks (mean +/- 2 SD) of 22 +/- 2. This ratio also...
Article
The gray scale ultrasound findings in two children with ectopic ureterocele are presented and correlated with traditional radiographic findings. In one case, the diagnosis was made in utero, utilizing ultrasound. The examination is noninvasive and performed quickly, and it may be able to replace the intravenous pyelogram in the initial evaluation o...
Article
The gray scale ultrasound findings in two children with ectopic ureterocele are presented and correlated with traditional radiographic findings. In one case, the diagnosis was made in utero, utilizing ultrasound. The examination is noninvasive and performed quickly, and it may be able to replace the intravenous pyelogram in the initial evaluation o...
Article
Variability (+/- 2 SD) in prediction of fetal gestational age from ultrasonographic measurements of fetal femur length was evaluated prospectively in 287 fetuses between 18 and 42 weeks' gestation. Variability increased throughout pregnancy, ranging from +/- 11.6 days between 18 and 24 weeks to +/- 22.7 days in the last six weeks of pregnancy. Thes...
Article
Ultrasound provides an accurate and objective method of determining fetal age in utero. The crown-rump length measurement is the most accurate sonographic method (2 SD = 3-5 days), but its use is restricted to 7-13 menstrual weeks. After 13 weeks, measurements of biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length can...
Article
Head and abdominal circumference measurements of 166 fetuses (15-40 weeks) were made by three different examiners using two measurement techniques. In method 1 the actual circumferences were measured using an electronic digitizer, while in method 2 the circumference measurements were estimated using the formula for calculating the circumference for...
Article
Dynamic image ultrasound was utilized to re-examine the changes in head and abdominal circumferences (HC, AC) with gestational age in normal fetuses. Data collected in a cross-sectional study of fetal growth were evaluated using mathematical modeling techniques. The results of this analysis indicated that a linear-cubic function optimally fits the...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between fetal abdominal circumference and menstrual cycle age was determined by cross-sectional analysis of 400 fetuses (15-41 weeks) examined with a linear-array real-time ultrasound scanner using specifically defined methodology. Mathematical modeling of the data demonstrated that the liner quadratic function was an optimal model (r2...
Article
To characterize the growth of individual fetuses, serial measurements of the crown-rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), and abdominal circumference (AC) were made at specified intervals of 2 to 3 weeks (between 6 to 8 weeks [conceptual age] and delivery) in 20 normal fetuses with known dates of conception. Values f...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between fetal femur length and menstrual age was determined by cross-sectional analysis of 338 normal fetuses (12--40 weeks) using real-time sonography. Mathematical modeling of the data demonstrated that the femur growth curve is nonlinear, similar to the biparietal diameter growth curve. Predicted femur length values at various point...
Article
Full-text available
In this sonographic study of 100 fetuses (gestational age 15--40 weeks) the maximum transverse diameter of the fetal skull at the axial plane described by Campbell for measurement of the frontooccipital head circumference was compared to similar measurements at specific anatomic planes above and below this level. Transverse diameter measurements at...
Article
The relationship between fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and menstrual age was determined by cross-sectional analysis of 533 fetuses (12 to 40 weeks) examined with a linear array real-time (dynamic image) scanner using specifically defined methodology. Mathematical modeling of the data demonstrated that the optimal fit was the linear cubic function...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between fetal head circumference and menstrual age was determined by cross-sectional analysis of 400 fetuses (15-41 weeks) examined with a linear array real-time (dynamic image) scanner using specifically defined methodology. Mathematical modeling of the data demonstrated that the head circumference growth curve is nonlinear, similar t...
Article
The usefulness of ultrasonically determined menstrual age as a predictor of fetal lung maturity has been evaluated in patients without fetal or maternal disease undergoing repeat cesarean section. The menstrual age of each fetus was determined at 18–32 wk using biparietal diameter (BPD) measurements and previously established BPD growth curves. Lun...
Article
This review discusses the problem of detecting intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) with ultrasound. A new procedure for standardizing the reporting of such studies is presented. Using this standard format, the results obtained by various investigators using a variety of parameters are summarized, compared and evaluated. Suggestions for standardi...
Article
The effectiveness of three methods (Campbell and Wilkin, Warsof, Warsof et al for estimating fetal weight from measurements of the abdominal circumference (AC) and biparietal diameter (BPD) has been evaluated in 125 patients studied with dynamic image ultrasound. Investigations of the population as a whole indicated that the Campbell-Wilkin and War...
Article
Experience with 13 cases and a review of 41 cases in English literature indicate that anomalous development of the fetal urinary system can be detected in utero using sonography. Anomalies not compatible with extrauterine life (bilateral renal agenesis, infantile polycystic and bilateral multicystic kidney disease) have distinctive sonographic feat...
Article
Several recent obstetrical sonographic examinations in this department demonstrated that variations in the shape of the fetal skull (e.g., dolichocephaly, brachycephaly) may adversely affect the accuracy of the biparietal diameter (BPD) measurement in estimating fetal age. In each case the cephalic index of the fetal skull (short axis/long axis x 1...
Article
Full-text available
Detailed fetal intracranial anatomy can be examined in utero using real-time sonography. The ability to demonstrate motion makes it possible to visualize important vascular landmarks which are helpful in identifying adjacent structures and in recognizing appropriate planes of section. The lateral ventricular system can be demonstrated and the later...
Article
The detection of primary megaureter at 31 weeks' gestation is reported. The characteristics of this anomaly, namely, dilated ureter and renal pelvis with normal renal cortex, calyceal system, and bladder, can be seen with dynamic image ultrasonography.
Article
The authors report the incidence (20%) of hypervascularity of the uterine wall (decidual reaction) (1) in 106 pregnant women studied prospectively by ultrasound. An unusual case, which caused problems in diagnosis and management, is reported in detail. The relation between the location and extent of this finding and the location of the placenta is...
Article
Full-text available
Fetal ascites not associated with Rh incompatibility is an uncommon problem that can be detected in utero by sonography. The sonographer should make a systematic search for the cause of ascites in a given case on the basis of well known etiologic possibilities, since this may have a significant effect on the obstetrical management. The use of sonog...
Article
To determine the frequency of unusual chest radiographic findings in adults (older than 15 years) with pulmonary tuberculosis, charts and radiographs of 270 consecutive cases seen in a 12 month period were reviewed. Radiographic findings not typical of primary or postprimary disease (reinfection) were arbitrarily classified as unusual. The incidenc...
Article
Experience with routine antepartum chest radiographic screening from July 1, 1976, through June 30, 1977, in a city-county hospital which serves a predominantly black indigent population was reviewed. The 5422 routine screening chest radiographs produced an extremely low yield of pathology (11 cases), and only 3 of the 11 cases were not suspected f...
Article
We compared the roentgenographic, bronchoscopic, and cytopathologic findings from 26 patients with carcinomatous lung abscesses (23 of which were within the tumor) with findings from 31 patients with simple lung abscesses. Despite well-described roentgenographic characteristics of the carcinomatous abscess, differentiation from a simple abscess was...
Article
We compared the roentgenographic, bronchoscopic, and cytopathologic findings from 26 patients with carcinomatous lung abscesses (23 of which were within the tumor) with findings from 31 patients with simple lung abscesses. Despite well-described roentgenographic characteristics of the carcinomatous abscess, differentiation from a simple abscess was...
Article
We recently treated an adult who developed severe pulmonary edema secondary to acute epiglottitis. This association of extrathoracic upper airway obstruction with pulmonary edema was described as a theoretical possibility in the early medical literature, and was subsequently demonstrated in experimental animals. It has also been reported in humans...

Citations

... The aim of intrapartum assesment of fetal well-being is to identify those fetuses at high risk. For this reason, the results of obstetricians' amniotic fl uid studies are not surprising since amniotic fl uid volume measurement is an indirect indicator of fetoplacental function 10,26 . An instance of this is hypoxemia where a disturbance in renal perfusion 27 and decreasing fetal urine production results in a decrease in the amiotic fl uid levels 26 . ...
... A major advantage of fetal biometry using ultrasonography is the prenatal diagnosis of various congenital anomalies [7]. However the above mentioned Hadlock based biometric indices shows variable results in cases of engaged head, macrosomia and congenital anomalies and variability in assessing the gestational age with these parameters goes on increasing with increasing gestational age [8][9][10][11][12][13].. Ultrasonographic measurements of many fetal osseous structures have been widely used in the last two decades in order to determine gestational age (GA), and to evaluate fetal growth and development [14][15][16]. Recently nomograms for other osseous structures, such as the clavicle, foot length, mandible, sacrum, scapula, vertebral arch and iliac bone have been established and suggested for use in the evaluation of GA and fetal growth. ...
... El diagnóstico de una posible neoplasia pulmonar asociada al absceso puede resultar dificil (14,25) . Con frecuencia las características clínico-radiológicas no permiten distinguir estos casos de los restantes (9,25) . ...
... For these reasons, the use of noninvasive methods such as ultrasound to assess the fetal lung maturity has been considered in various cases. So far, efforts to predict fetal lung maturity based on ultrasound examination of lung volume, epiphysis centers, placental grading, and estimated fetal weight have been performed but has not been very successful in the clinical application [11][12][13][14]. ...
... 11 Diğer nedenleri ise; boğulma, epiglottit, yabancı cisim aspirasyonu, hipotiroidi, yoğun trakeal sekresyonlar, hıçkırık, krup, guatr, zor entübasyon, hematom, üst hava yolu tümörü, orofarinks cerrahisi, Ludwig anjinası, obezite, akromegali, uyku apnesi, mediasten tümörü, entübasyon tüpü veya laringeal maskenin ısırılmasıdır. 2,3,8,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Negatif basınçlı pulmoner ödemin (NBPÖ)'in etiyopatogenezi tartışmalı ise de, obstrükte solunum yoluna karşı yapılan zorlu inspiryumun intraplevral negatif basıncı arttırması primer sorumlu olarak tutulmaktadır. 1,21 Negatif intraplevral basınçtaki bu artış sonucu, pulmoner interstisyel basınç azalmakta sistemik venöz dönüş artmakta, sağ ve sol ventrikül fonksiyonları bozulmakta ve pulmoner hiperemi gelişmektedir. ...
... Hematojen yolla oluşan apseler ise multipl küçük, yuvarlak olarak izlenmektedir. Hematojen yolla oluşan apseler sıklıkla alt loblarda ve periferik yerleşim göstermektedir (2). ...
... However, it is evident that in most, the prevalence of new unexpected abnormalities was low. The lowest prevalence was observed in three studies involving over 18,000 pregnant women in which the frequency of unsuspected findings ranged from 0 to 0.1% [Bonebrake, 1978; Hadlock, 1979; Mattox, 1973]. By contrast, the highest prevalence rates were reported in elderly populations [Domoto, 1985; Denham, 1984; Sewell, 1981; Fink, 1981; Hubbell, 1985; Törnebrandt, 1982]. ...
... To assess EFW and biometry components (BPD, HC, AC, FL) antenatally on the one hand, centile and z scores were calculated using established biometric algorithms from Snijders and Nicolaides [31] and Hadlock et al. [26,32] as well as Marsal et al. [33]. Centiles and z scores for newborn BW and postnatal occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) were calculated by established biometric algorithms from Voigt et al. [34] and Nicolaides et al. [35]. ...
... For ultrasound analysis, we used a GE Voluson U6 and GE Voluson 8Expert with 2-7 MHz GE RAB6-D probe (GE Healthcare GmbH, Solingen, Germany). Pregnancy dating was included in the first trimester records extracted for each patient from which gestational age was determined according to the last menstrual period and the sonographic measurements of the fetal crown rump length [39]. Fetal biometry was determined at admission according to the femur length and the fetal head and abdominal circumference (guidelines of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISUOG, [28]). ...
... The EFW for inclusion or randomization should be calculated with the Hadlock 3 formula (including the FAC, head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) [18], and the percentile value of the EFW should be based on the Hadlock reference curve [19]. ...