Everett M. Rogers's research while affiliated with University of New Mexico and other places

Publications (136)

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This chapter presents a theoretical and methodological approach to the study of communication and its effects through the diffusion of innovation from a communication approach. It demonstrates through the history of diffusion research how diffusion of innovations occurs and how it impacts communication outcomes. Based on rural sociology of the 1930...
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It is widely acknowledged that prevention research often is not fully or adequately used in health practice and/or policies. This study sought to answer two main questions: (1) Are there characteristics of research utilization in communities that suggest stages in a process? (2) What factors, including barriers and facilitators, are associated with...
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The authors investigate the process through which clean indoor air ordinances were considered in 10 communities in the southwestern United States and key factors that influenced diffusion and adoption. Clean indoor air ordinances, which ban smoking in public places, were adopted in approximately 1,409 U.S. communities from 1986 to April 2004. The a...
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Average annual conviction rates (1990-2000) of people arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol in each of New Mexico's 33 counties are described. Conviction rates vary from 58 to 95%. Rates are correlated with political conservatism, being higher where a higher proportion of voters voted for the republican presidential candidates, and wi...
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Policymakers and analysts cite the availability of free Internet telecenters at libraries and community centers as a viable way to close the so-called knowledge gap and the digital divide among minority and poor communities. This study looks at policymakers’ dissemination of a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Web-based, preventive health education i...
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The present article compares Indian and American audiences’ interpretations of the Hollywood sitcom Friends. The article is guided by Olson’s narrative transparency theory, which posits transparency as ‘the capability of certain texts to seem familiar regardless of their origin, to seem a part of one’s own culture, even though they have been crafte...
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Evidence is summarized here for the degree to which the field of communication study is divided into two Subdisciplines: mass communication versus interpersonal communication. This division is expressed (a) in the general lack of cross-citations between five mass communication journals and five interpersonal communication journals, (b) by separatio...
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“Self development implies a different role for communication than the usual top-down development approach of the past.”
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The success of Spanish-language telenovelas a type of soap opera illustrates major changes that have occurred in recent years in television systems in Latin America. There has been a trend toward decreased reliance on programming imported from the US and a flow of telenovelas from country to country within Latin America. This article based on inter...
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An analysis of programming on 34 national broadcast television networks in nine Far East Asian countries shows that in countries that are wealthier and/or that devote relatively large proportions of their gross domestic product (GDP) to broadcast media, larger percentages of TV program hours are domestically produced, particularly drama programs. A...
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With the growing number of entertainment—education (E—E) interventions worldwide, and the extensive evaluation research on their impacts, the time is ripe to explore in—depth the theoretical underpinnings of entertainment—education. This introductory article provides a historical background to this special issue of Communication Theory on entertain...
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Challenges the intellectual separation of interpersonal and mass media communication and argues that this division of communication research rests primarily on grounds of historical convenience and university politics. Evidence is provided that communication scholars seldom cross-cite research articles between the 2 subdisciplines, rarely attend sc...
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Over the last two decades, the utilization as well as applied study of collaborative net- works has become central to both public- and private-sector management. Interorganizational net- works may function better or worse than the traditional institution of the firm, with its internal role and authority distribution structures, depending on a numbe...
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The probability of re-arrest for driving while intoxicated (DWI) is compared for four different groups of individuals classified by whether the individual was convicted and, if so, the type of sentence received. Subsequent re-arrests for DWI were examined for all individuals whose index arrest for DWI had occurred between 1994 and 2001 in a county...
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The diffusion of innovations model (DIM) and complex adaptive systems theory (CAS) can be employed together in the construction of predictive or applied hybrid models of induced change in population behavior. In such interventions, differentiated heterogeneous zones may act as catalysts for the adoption of innovation. The present study explores the...
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This article explores the meanings given by Indian viewers to a series of health-related episodes dealing with ‘Tony’s HIV’ in the Hollywood television soap opera, The Bold and the Beautiful. Forty-two respondents in six focus group interviews and in 17 in-depth personal interviews were asked for their interpretations of this television health cont...
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This study investigates the effectiveness of a customized Victim Impact Panel (VIP) on reducing 'driving while impaired' recidivism, alcohol consumption and drinking and driving behavior. The study was conducted at a 28-day Detention/Treatment Program in a largely rural county in northwestern New Mexico. Study participants were randomly assigned to...
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In this article we discuss how the diffusion model originally was created, some of the most important ways in which it has evolved over the past 30 years, and its future prospects.
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In this article the authors argue that the social sciences are clinical-like endeavors, and the sophisticated way that sister fields discover and validate their results may inform research practice in education. The authors provide a brief introduction to three sister fields: engineering product design, research on the diffusion of innovations, and...
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Empowerment is the process through which individuals perceive that they control situations. Such perceived agency is a fundamental behavior change, which often leads to many other behavior changes. The present chapter synthesizes research on empowerment and communication in the developing nations of Latin American, Africa, and Asia. Several investi...
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This study was undertaken to assess a 28-day detention and treatment program's effect, in a multiethnic county with high rates of alcohol-related arrests and crashes, on first-time offenders sentenced for driving while impaired (DWI). We used comparison of baseline characteristics, survival curves of subsequent arrest, and Cox proportional hazards...
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The present paper draws on the diffusion of innovations model to derive a series of strategies for speeding up the spread and implementation of new ideas in preventing addiction. Preventive innovations usually require an action at one point in time in order to avoid an unwanted future condition. Hence, preventive innovations diffuse rather slowly,...
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To explore the implementation of patient oriented activities, the perception of an innovation aimed at implementation of patient education and the preconditions for implementation of this innovation among Dutch pharmacists. A survey, based on Roger's theory of diffusion of innovations, was carried out among a random sample (n = 300) of Dutch managi...
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We report findings here from an audience survey in New Mexico of the diffusion of a spectacular news event, the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001. This news event was perceived as very salient, and it diffused rapidly. The first terrorist attack occurred at 6:45 am (New Mexico time); within three hours almost all re...
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Technology transfer, defined as the application of information into use, is often a difficult and frustrating process. Participants in the technology transfer process are usually heterophilous, so that technology receptors speak a different language than technology sources. This essay explores the concept of technology transfer and suggests strateg...
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Here we trace the role of anthropologist Edward T. Hall in founding the scholarly field of intercultural communication during the 1951-1955 period when he was at the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. Department of States. The scholarly field of intercultural communication was then mainly advanced by university-based scholars of communication in...
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The Internet is a promising new tool for disseminating cancer prevention information. Barriers to full implementation include disparities in access and skill and availability of information relevant at the local level. A nutrition education Web site to promote fruit and vegetable intake is being produced for a tri-ethnic adult population in Colorad...
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Both candidates in the 2000 presidential campaign focused on issues related to health and education as key components of their platforms. Yet the campaign failed to address an emerging problem with the American and world community—health literacy. Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understan...
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To assess the additional effects of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Victim Impact Panels (VIPs) over the effects of a DWI (driving while intoxicated) school, on (1) moving individuals through the stages-of-change toward not drinking while driving and (2) drunk-driving recidivism. A randomized experiment with 813 (75% male) DWI offenders in New...
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The present paper derives lessons learned about effective technology transfer from research on the technology transfer process in New Mexico over the past several years. Technology transfer from national R&D laboratories and from research universities provides the main basis for economic growth by metropolitan regions in the United States. New Mexi...
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A seed institution is an organization that plays a dominant role in a new scholarly field by shaping intellectual directions for theory and research. The Department of Communication at Michigan State University was a seed institution in defining the new field of communication study in the 1960s because (1) of its focus on an integrated perspective...
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Most past studies of entertainment-education programs have not provided an adequate theoretical explanation of the process through which community members enact system-level changes as a result of exposure to entertainment-education media message. Here we study the effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera by means of an observational...
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This evaluation of fifty-two research studies of the diffusion of news events summarizes prior work and discusses the need for future research. Emphasis here is on the 1960 investigation by Paul Deutschmann and Wayne Danielson. This paradigmatic study of news event diffusion led mass communication scholars to focus on the S-shaped rate of diffusion...
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Here we explore an alternative conceptualization and measurement of parasocial interaction, using data from a qualitative content analysis of audience letters written to an extremely popular television soap opera, Hum Log", in India. Parasocial interaction is the degree to which an audience member develops a perceived interpersonal relationship wit...
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Spin-offs are a means of technology transfer from a parent organization that represent a mechanism for creating jobs and new wealth. We investigated 6 of the 19 spin-offs from the 55 research centers at the University of New Mexico (UNM) in 1997. The Albuquerque area in Northern New Mexico is rich in technology, thanks to the presence of three larg...
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Entertainment-education is the process of designing and implementing an entertainment program to increase audience members' knowledge about a social issue, create more favorable attitudes, and change their overt behaviors regarding the social issue. The results of a field experiment in Tanzania to measure the effects of a long-running entertainment...
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This chapter synthesizes selected applications of diffusion theory to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs in the United States and in other countries. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a social system...
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Informatization is the process through which the new communication technologies are used as a means for furthering socioeconomic development as a nation becomes more and more an information society. The informatization strategy in very recent years has provided an alternative to previous strategies of development communication. India is an example...
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The authors draw on (1) the hierarchy-of-effects (HOE) model, (2) the stages-of-change (SOC) model, (3) social learning theory (SLT), and (4) the diffusion of innovations (DOI) to synthesize a staged model through which communication messages have effects on individual behavior change by stimulating (1) involvement with media characters and role mo...
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Interactive innovations are distinctive in that their adoption depends on the perceived number of others who have already adopted the innovation. Thus their rate of adoption does not take off in the familiar "S" shape until a critical mass of adopters has been reached. Data on the adoption of 12 telecommunications services by 392 German banks are u...
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We investigated the role of the fifty-five research centers at the University of New Mexico in the process of technology transfer. Such centers conduct multidisciplinary investigations with external financial support and function as boundary-spanners. Technology transfer occurred via scholarly publications, employment placement of former graduate s...
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An entertainment-education radio soap opera introduced in Tanzania in 1993 was evaluated by means of a field experimental design in which the radio program was broadcast by seven mainland stations of Radio Tanzania. An eighth station broadcast alternative programming from 1993 to 1995, its listenership serving as a comparison area in which contempo...
Book
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A needless dichotomy exists in almost all mass media content: That mass media programs must either be entertaining or educational. In this book, we detail how the entertainment-education strategy abrogates this arbitrary dichotomy. Entertainment-education is the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and e...
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The diffusion of news tradition in past communication research highlights the key role of word‐of‐mouth interpersonal channels in the spread of information. This article investigates the process through which news about a mysterious event with ‘divine’ undertones diffused in India in September 1995. Our study suggests that the ‘dying’ news diffusio...
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This study explores the role of communication in the empowerment process of female dairy farmers in India, through a program that particularly draws on the theoretical perspectives of Paulo Freire and Saul Alinsky regarding empowerment. Female dairy fanners who participated in this communication program were more empowered than female dairy farmers...
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Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Federal R&D laboratories and private companies in the US are intended, in large part, to transfer technologies developed at Federal R&D laboratories to private companies. We surveyed the Federal laboratory and private CRADA partners involved in CRADAs at Los Alamos National Laboratory...
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The present paper examines the high-tech spin-off process through which a new company is formed from a parent organization. Here we investigate spin-offs from three U.S. Federal R&D laboratories in New Mexico, and from Japanese government laboratories and universities. The spin-off process is one important means of transferring and commercializing...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to report findings from an investigation of the role of research centers at the University of New Mexico in the process of technological innovation and technology transfer. We surveyed 56 research centers at the University of New Mexico. Survey data are used to explain the role of university-based research centers in te...
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We conducted a 2-year investigation of the extent to which strategies based on social marketing and diffusion of innovations concepts are used in preventive health communication with unique (highly ostracized) populations. Of the 49 organizations in San Francisco that operate HIV prevention programs (N = 100), programs that most highly targeted uni...
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One important starting point for the field of health communication was the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program, a multiyear community intervention that began 25 years ago. Health communication is a specialty field of communication study that includes the media agenda-setting process for health issues; media advocacy for health; scientific com...
Conference Paper
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The present paper examines the CRADA process between Federal R&D laboratories in New Mexico and private companies. A comparison is made of the CRADA process with similar technology transfer mechanisms in Japan. We surveyed 250 laboratory and private counterparts involved in Los Alamos National Laboratory CRADA agreements. Survey data are used to ex...
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The history of urban life has been shaped and directed by the impact of disaster and disease, variables that have not disappeared in the postmodern age. Certainly, a deadly epidemic destroys and alters communication relationships while at the same time creating new communication needs and possibilities. The structure, social institutions, and polic...
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The purpose of the present paper is to investigate a spectacular mass media phe nomenon that occurred some twenty-five years ago: The case of a highly popular Peruvian telenovela Simplemente Maria ('Simply Mary'), which to this date is considered by many as the most popular television program of all time in Peru and in most countries of Latin Ameri...
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PIP Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system. The diffusion of innovations is a communication theory which has laid the groundwork for behavior change models across the social sciences, representing a widely applicable perspective. The diffusion of innovation...
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What is different about human communication in business organizations when it takes place via the new communication technologies like electronic mail? The most distinctive quality of these new technologies is that they are interactive in nature, in that they allow the participants in a communication process to have control over, and exchange roles...
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The present article describes the origins, operation, and certain consequences of the Public Electronic Network (PEN) of Santa Monica, California. This computer‐based network provides free, electronic communication to all Santa Monica residents. At present over 5,000 Santa Monica residents are registered to use PEN, and about 1,300 are active users...
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Technology transfer is difficult, for several reasons. We discuss various strategies for resolving their difficulties, especially those strategies that facilitate technology transfer from national R&D; laboratories to private enterprises. We focus on CRADAs in the United States and R&D; consortia in Japan: clarifying the advantages and faults of bo...
Book
Getting an innovation adopted is difficult; a common problem is increasing the rate of its diffusion. Diffusion is the communication of an innovation through certain channels over time among members of a social system. It is a communication whose messages are concerned with new ideas; it is a process where participants create and share information...
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The field of health communication today can be proud of its accomplishments, mainly achieved in the past two decades. A number of university centers of excellence have been established in health communication. The field attracts funding from some of the most prestigious funding sources, including the National Institutes of Health, and health commun...
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An electronic communication system, especially if it is designed to accommodate open access via public terminals can allow information-disadvantaged groups (such as the homeless, and women) to exchange relevant information and engage in political action. The Public Electronic Network (PEN), a free computer-based messaging system available to Santa...
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The Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC) is an important experiment in R&D management and technology transfer. This consortium is the first major U.S. effort to get private corporations to collaborate in research while they compete in the marketplace. In 1983, MCC challenged U.S. antitrust law and a long-standing belief in the...
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Theories about social change are useful to the extent that they can lead to solutions for social problems. Diffusion of innovation theory has been applied to thousands of social change problems in various countries, often with successful results. But as with any social change theory, the application of diffusion theory can produce unsatisfactory re...
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This article shows the citation history of different research traditions that combine to form the agenda-setting process.
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The role of technology in society has long been an important intellectual issue for social scientists. Historically, scholars have adopted one of three meta-analytical viewpoints regarding technology (Gendron, 1977).
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The early study of mass communication, launched in response to the rapid growth of the radio broadcasting industry and focused on media effects, was facilitated by academic advances in theory and research methods, but was driven by commercial, not theoretical, concerns.
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This article reviews lessons learned from the agricultural extension model that may be applicable to the proposed cooperative extension service in education. The agricultural extension model is a user-oriented system linking knowledge producers through state extension specialists and county extension agents with farm people and other knowledge user...