Evangeline F. Y. Young's research while affiliated with The University of Hong Kong and other places

Publications (172)

Preprint
Due to cost benefits, supply chains of integrated circuits (ICs) are largely outsourced nowadays. However, passing ICs through various third-party providers gives rise to many threats, like piracy of IC intellectual property or insertion of hardware Trojans, i.e., malicious circuit modifications. In this work, we proactively and systematically hard...
Article
Maze routing is usually the most time-consuming step in global routing and detailed routing. A commonly used maze routing method is to start from one pin and iteratively connect the current route to the closest unconnected pin. This method reduces the maze routing problem to multiple multisource–multidestination shortest path problems. The shortest...
Article
Recently the topic of how to utilize prior knowledge obtained by machine learning techniques during the EDA flow has been widely studied. In this paper, we study this topic and propose a practical plug-in named PROS for both routability optimization and routed wirelength estimation which can be applied in the state-of-the-art commercial EDA tool or...
Article
Multiple patterning lithography decomposition (MPLD) and mask optimization enable the ever-shrinking device feature sizes far below the lithography system limit. Conventional MPLD is solved by mathematical programming or graph-based approaches, where a set of predetermined rules are indispensable to identify the conflicts to be resolved. In this pa...
Article
Optical proximity correction (OPC) in modern design closures has become extremely expensive and challenging. Conventional model-based OPC encounters performance degradation and large process variation, while aggressive approach, such as inverse lithography technology (ILT), suffers from large computational overhead for both mask optimization and ma...
Article
The tremendous growth in deep learning (DL) applications has created an exponential demand for computing power, which leads to the rise of AI-specific hardware. Targeted towards accelerating computation-intensive deep learning applications, AI hardware, including but not limited to GPGPU, TPU, ASICs, etc., have been adopted ubiquitously. As a resul...
Article
Placement is one of the most critical stages in the physical synthesis flow. Circuits with increasing numbers of cells of multi-row height have brought challenges to traditional placers on efficiency and effectiveness. Besides providing an overlap-free solution close to the global placement (GP) solution, constraints on power and ground (P/G) align...
Article
Full-text available
Split manufacturing of integrated circuits means to delegate the front-end-of-line (FEOL) and back-end-of-line (BEOL) parts to different foundries, in order to prevent overproduction, intellectual property (IP) piracy, or targeted insertion of hardware Trojans (i.e., threats arising from adversaries in the FEOL foundry). This paper challenges the s...
Article
There is substantial interest in the use of machine learning (ML)-based techniques throughout the electronic computer-aided design (CAD) flow, particularly those based on deep learning. However, while deep learning methods have surpassed state-of-the-art performance in several applications, they have exhibited intrinsic susceptibility to adversaria...
Preprint
Full-text available
The notion of integrated circuit split manufacturing which delegates the front-end-of-line (FEOL) and back-end-of-line (BEOL) parts to different foundries, is to prevent overproduction, piracy of the intellectual property (IP), or targeted insertion of hardware Trojans by adversaries in the FEOL facility. In this work, we challenge the security pro...
Article
?tight?>To increase the resource utilization in multi-FPGA (field-programmable gate array) systems, time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a widely used technique to accommodate a large number of inter-FPGA signals. However, with this technique, the delay imposed by the inter-FPGA connections becomes significant. Previous research has shown that the T...
Article
Mask optimization has been a critical problem in the VLSI design flow due to the mismatch between the lithography system and the continuously shrinking feature sizes. Optical proximity correction (OPC) is one of the prevailing resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) that can significantly improve mask printability. However, in advanced technology...
Article
Different from global routing, detailed routing takes care of many detailed design rules and is performed on a significantly larger routing grid graph. In advanced technology nodes, it becomes the most complicated and time-consuming stage in the VLSI physical design flow. We propose Dr. CU, an efficient and effective detailed router, to tackle the...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is substantial interest in the use of machine learning (ML) based techniques throughout the electronic computer-aided design (CAD) flow, particularly those based on deep learning. However, while deep learning methods have surpassed state-of-the-art performance in several applications, they have exhibited intrinsic susceptibility to adversaria...
Conference Paper
The continuous development of modern VLSI technology has brought new challenges for on-chip interconnections. Different from classic net-by-net routing, bus routing requires all the nets (bits) in the same bus to share similar or even the same topology, besides considering wire length, via count, and other design rules. In this paper, we present MA...
Conference Paper
Dummy fill insertion is a mandatory step in modern semiconductor manufacturing process to reduce dielectric thickness variation, and provide nearly uniform pattern density for the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. However, with the continuous shrinking of the VLSI technology nodes, the coupling effects between the inserted metal fill...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The notion of integrated circuit split manufacturing which delegates the front-end-of-line (FEOL) and back-end-of-line (BEOL) parts to different foundries, is to prevent overproduction, piracy of the intellectual property (IP), or targeted insertion of hardware Trojans by adversaries in the FEOL facility. In this work, we challenge the security pro...
Article
In global routing, both timing and routability are critical criteria to measure the performance of a design. However, these two objectives naturally conflict with each other during routing. In this work, we proposed reconnection approaches to fix timing. We first formulated a quadratic program (QP), which adjusts routing topologies of all the nets...
Article
In a weighted undirected graph, a spanning/Steiner shallow-light tree (SLT) simultaneously approximates: 1) shortest distances from a root to the other vertices and 2) the minimum tree weight. The Steiner SLT has been proved to be exponentially lighter than the spanning one. In this paper, we propose a novel Steiner SLT construction method called S...
Conference Paper
Different from global routing, detailed routing takes care of many detailed design rules and is performed on a significantly larger routing grid graph. In advanced technology nodes, it becomes the most complicated and time-consuming stage. We propose Dr. CU, an efficient and effective detailed router, to tackle the challenges. To handle a 3D detail...
Conference Paper
Continuous shrinking of VLSI technology nodes brings us powerful chips with lower power consumption, but it also introduces many issues in manufacturability. Lithography simulation process for new feature size suffers from large computational overhead. As a result, conventional mask optimization process has been drastically resource consuming in te...
Article
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) technology offers a potential breakthrough to enable a paradigm-shift strategy, called “more than Moore,” with novel features and advantages over the conventional 2D process technology. By having three-dimensional interconnections, 3D IC provides substantial wirelength reduction and a massive amount of b...
Article
This paper studies the application of fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms to solve computer-aided design (CAD) problems. Specifically, we focus on layout decomposition problems for four lithography technologies: double patterning lithography (DPL), DPL with E-beam lithography (DPL+EBL), DPL with directed self-assembly (DPL+DSA), and DPL with...
Conference Paper
Placement is one of the most critical stages in the physical synthesis flow. Circuits with increasing numbers of cells of multi-row height have brought challenges to traditional placers on efficiency and effectiveness. Furthermore, constraints on fence region and routability (e.g., edge spacing, pin access/short) should be considered, besides provi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mask optimization has been a critical problem in the VLSI design flow due to the mismatch between the lithography system and the continuously shrinking feature sizes. Optical proximity correction (OPC) is one of the prevailing resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) that can significantly improve mask printability. However, in advanced technology...
Conference Paper
In global routing, both timing and routability are critical criterions to measure the performance of a design. However, these two objectives naturally conflict with each other during routing. In this paper, a tree surgery technique is presented to adjust routing tree topologies in global routing to fix timing. We formulate the problem as a quadrati...
Article
Detecting layout hotspots is a key step in the physical verification flow. Although machine learning solutions show benefits over lithography simulation and pattern matching-based methods, it is still hard to select a proper model for large scale problems and inevitably, performance degradation occurs. To overcome these issues, in this paper we dev...
Article
As a good trade-off between CPU and ASIC, FPGA is becoming more widely used in both industry and academia. The increasing complexity and scale of modern FPGA, however, impose great challenges on the FPGA placement and packing problem. In this paper, we propose RippleFPGA to solve the packing and placement simultaneously through a set of novel techn...
Article
1D gridded design is one of the most promising solutions that can enable the scaling to 10nm technology node and beyond. Line-end cuts are needed to fabricate 1D layouts, where two techniques are available to resolve the conflicts between cuts: cut redistribution and cut mask assignment. In this paper, we consider incorporating the two techniques t...
Article
Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is a promising technique to print contacts/vias for the 10nm technology node and beyond. By using hybrid lithography that incorporates DSA with multiple patterning, multiple masks are used to print the DSA templates and then the templates can be used to guide the self-assembly of the block copolymer. In...
Conference Paper
Detecting layout hotspots is one of the key problems in physical verification flow. Although machine learning solutions show benefits over lithography simulation and pattern matching based methods, it is still hard to select a proper model for large scale problems and it is inevitable that performance degradation will occur. To overcome these issue...
Conference Paper
Liquid cooling shows great potential in resolving the huge thermal obstacle in 3D ICs. However, it brings new challenges including large thermal gradient and high pumping requirement. In this paper, liquid cooling networks with flexible topology are investigated to achieve more desirable trade-offs between energy efficiency and thermal profile. Spe...
Conference Paper
This paper studies the application of fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms to solve computer-aided design (CAD) problems. Specifically, we focus on layout decomposition problems for three lithography technologies: double patterning lithography (DPL), DPL with E-beam lithography (DPL+EBL), and DPL+DSA+EBL. Layout decomposition for the first tw...
Conference Paper
Advanced semiconductor process technologies are producing various circuit layout patterns, and it is essential to detect and eliminate problematic ones, which are called lithography hotspots. These hotspots are formed due to light diffraction and interference, which induces complex intrinsic structures within the formation process. Though various m...
Conference Paper
With the continuous shrinking of technology nodes, lithography hotspot detection and elimination in the physical verification phase is of great value. Recently machine learning and pattern matching based methods have been extensively studied to overcome runtime overhead problem of expensive full-chip lithography simulation. However, there is still...
Conference Paper
1D gridded design is one of the most promising solutions that can enable the scaling to 10nm technology node and beyond. Line-end cuts are needed to fabricate 1D layouts, where two techniques are available to resolve the conflicts between cuts: cut redistribution and cut mask assignment. In this paper, we consider incorporating the two techniques t...
Conference Paper
As the complexity and scale of FPGA circuits grows, resolving routing congestion becomes more important in FPGA placement. In this paper, we propose a routability-driven placement algorithm for large-scale heterogeneous FPGAs. Our proposed algorithm consists of (1) partitioning, (2) packing, (3) global placement with congestion estimation, (4) wind...
Article
Routability is one of the most important problems in high-performance circuit designs. From the viewpoint of placement design, two major factors cause routing congestion: (i) interconnections between cells and (ii) connections on macro blockages. In this article, we present a routability-driven placer, Ripple 2.0, which emphasizes both kinds of rou...
Article
Character projection is a key technology to enhance throughput of E-beam lithography, in which characters need to be selected and placed on the stencil. This paper solves the problem of planning for row-structure stencil with overlapped characters and also considers multi-column cell system for further throughput improvement. We first propose an ap...
Conference Paper
Typical standard cell placement algorithms assume that all cells are of the same height such that cells can be aligned along the placement rows. However, modern standard cell designs are getting more complicated and multiple-row height cell becomes more common. With multiple-row height cells, placement of cells are not independent among different r...
Article
To reduce chip-scale topography variation, dummy fill is commonly used to improve the layout density uniformity. Previous works either sought the most uniform density distribution or sought to minimize the inserted dummy fills while satisfying certain density uniformity constraint. However, due to more stringent manufacturing challenges, more crite...
Article
Research on the placement problem in physical design has evolved timely in the recent few decades from traditional wirelength-driven, to routability-driven and then to detailed-routability driven. In this paper, we will focus on the interconnect and routing issues in placement, and study and survey on the development and progress of related works o...
Article
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) chips rely on massive interconnect structures, i.e., large groups of through-silicon vias (TSVs) coalesced with large multi-bit buses. We observe that wirelength optimization, a classical technique for floorplanning, is not effective while planning massive interconnects. This is due to the interconnects’ strong impact on mult...
Article
Triple patterning lithography (TPL) is regarded as a promising technique to handle the manufacturing challenges in the 14nm technology node and beyond. It is necessary to consider TPL in early design stages to make the layout more TPL friendly and reduce the manufacturing cost. In this paper, we propose a flow to co-optimize cell layout decompositi...
Conference Paper
As the minimum feature size continues to shrink, whereas the wavelength of light used for lithography remains constant, Resolution Enhancement Techniques are widely used to optimize mask, so as to improve the subwavelength printability. Besides correcting for error between the printed image and target shape, a mask optimization method also needs to...
Conference Paper
Triple Patterning Lithography (TPL) is regarded as a promising technique to handle the manufacturing challenges in 14nm and beyond technology node. It is necessary to consider TPL in early design stages to make the layout more TPL friendly and reduce the manufacturing cost. In this paper, we propose a flow to co-optimize cell layout decomposition a...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we focus on the hypergraph bipartitioning problem and present a new multilevel hypergraph partitioning algorithm that is much faster and of similar quality compared with hMETIS. In the coarsening phase, successive coarsened hypergraphs are constructed using the MFCC (Modified First-Choice Coarsening) algorithm. After getting a small...
Conference Paper
Digital Microfluidic Biochip(DMFB) allows traditional laboratory procedures to be conducted autonomously on a small chip. On a DMFB, the number of control pins is a limiting factor on maximum chip size and a major factor affecting the manufacturing cost. We have developed a methodology that reduces pin count in cross-referencing DMFB. Our algorithm...
Conference Paper
Character projection is a key technology to enhance throughput of e-beam lithography, in which characters need to be selected and placed on the stencil. This paper solves the problem of planning for overlapping-aware row-structure stencil, and also considers multi-column cell system for further throughput improvement. We propose an integrated frame...
Conference Paper
Modern placement process involves global placement, legalization, and detailed placement. Global placement produce a placement solution with minimized target objective, which is usually wire-length, routability, timing, etc. Legalization removes cell overlap and aligns the cells to the placement sites. Detailed placement further improves the soluti...
Conference Paper
As the sizes of modern circuits become bigger and bigger, implementing those large circuits into FPGA becomes arduous. The state-of-the-art academic FPGA place-and-route tool, VPR, has good quality but needs around a whole day to complete a placement when the input circuit contains millions of lookup tables, excluding the runtime for routing. To ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Three-dimensional integrated circuits rely on opti- mized interconnect structures for blocks which are spread among one or multiple dies. We demonstrate how 2D and 3D block align- ment can be efficiently utilized for structural planning of differ- ent interconnects. To realize this, we extend the corner block list and provide effective techniques f...
Conference Paper
The number of control pins used is a major factor affecting the manufacturing cost of Digital Microfluidic Biochip (DMFB). Pin-count on a DMFB can be reduced by sharing of control pins between electrodes. Most existing works on reducing pin-count are problem specific. Problem specific optimizations result in DMFB that can only perform certain speci...
Article
The significant mismatch between the objective of wirelength and routing congestion makes the routability issue even more important in placement. In this paper, we describe a routability-driven placer called Ripple. Each step, including global placement, legalization, and detailed placement, is made to trade-off between routability and wirelength....
Article
In this paper, we present ObSteiner, an exact algorithm for the construction of obstacle-avoiding rectilinear Steiner minimum trees (OARSMTs) among complex rectilinear obstacles. This is the first paper to propose a geometric approach to optimally solve the OARSMT problem among complex obstacles. The optimal solution is constructed by the concatena...
Conference Paper
Due to a significant mismatch between the objectives of wirelength and routing congestion, the routability issue is becoming more and more important in VLSI design. In this paper, we present a high quality placer Ripple 2.0 to solve the routability-driven placement problem. We will study how to make use of the routing path information in cell sprea...
Conference Paper
Triple Patterning Lithography (TPL) is widely recognized as a promising solution for 14/10nm technology node. In this paper, we propose an efficient layout decomposition approach for TPL, with the objective to minimize the number of conflicts and stitches. Based on our analysis of actual benchmarks, we found that the whole layout can be reduced int...
Conference Paper
In this paper, an effective simultaneous routing and placement refinement tool called SRP is proposed for routability improvement. SRP is independent of any placer and global router. Based on a given placement layout and global routing result, SRP relocates problematic cells by considering routing and placement simultaneously. Not only overflow fro...
Conference Paper
This work studies the problem of finding a rectilinear Steiner minimum tree (RSMT) for a set of given terminals in the presence of obstacles. In modern VLSI designs, obstacles usually block the device layer and a fraction of metal layers. Therefore, routing wires on top of obstacles is possible. However, if a long wire is routed over an obstacle, t...
Article
Full-text available
Link based non-tree clock network is an effective and economic way to reduce clock skew caused by variations. However, it is still an open topic where links should be inserted in order to achieve largest skew reduction with smaller extra resources. We propose a new method using linear program to solve this problem in this paper. In our approach, cl...
Article
Full-text available
Designing a high-quality clock network is very important in very large-scale integrated designs today, as it is the clock network that synchronizes all the elements of a chip, and it is also a major source of power dissipation of a system. Early study by Pham in 2006 shows that about 18.1% of the total clock capacitance was due to this postgrid clo...
Article
High power consumption will not only shorten the battery life of handheld devices, but also cause thermal and reliability problems. To lower power consumption, one way is to reduce the supply voltage as in multisupply voltage (MSV) designs. In region-based MSV, a circuit will be partitioned into “voltage islands” where each island occupies a contig...

Citations

... Neural-ILT [6] replaces the ILT-guided pretraining technique in GAN-OPC with true numerical lithography engine that further improves mask design quality. A2-ILT [12] is one of the state-of-the-art academic ILT solution with the aid of reinforcement learning (RL), where a RL engine is developed to generate optimization constraints that lead to better mask quality. Similar ideas are also deployed on SRAF generation tasks. ...
... (a) According to the road network and the exact locations of freight transport operators and the various companies/SME's locations, select the Steiner points [71,72] of a near minimum Steiner communication tree (the one that minimizes the overall communication cost of the network assuming that, this will minimize the overall energy cost). We denote this alternative solution as ALT 1 . ...