Eva C. Klohnen's research while affiliated with University of Iowa and other places

Publications (13)

Article
Full-text available
Given recent evidence for multiple attachment models, we examined the organization and predictive power of general and relationship-specific attachment representations in two samples using two distinct measures of attachment models. With regard to associations among relationship-specific models, peer models (romantic partner and friend) and parenta...
Article
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Using a couple-centered approach, the authors examined assortative mating on a broad range of variables in a large (N = 291) sample of newlyweds. Couples showed substantial similarity on attitude-related domains but little on personality-related domains. Similarity was not due to social homogamy or convergence. The authors examined linear and curvi...
Article
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of assortative mating (i.e., the similarity between wives and husbands on a given characteristic) in a newlywed sample. These newlyweds showed (a) strong similarity in age, religiousness, and political orientation; (b) moderate similarity in education and verbal intelligence; (c) modest similarity in values; an...
Article
Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementa...
Article
This article addresses three questions about personality development in a 30-year longitudinal study of women (N = 78): (1) To what extent did the women maintain the same position in relation to each otheron personality characteristics over the 30 years, and what broad factors were related to the amount of change in their rank order? (2) Did the sa...
Article
Full-text available
After reviewing classic and current conceptions of trait (as measured by questionnaires) and motive (as measured by the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT] or other imaginative verbal behavior), the authors suggest that these 2 concepts reflect 2 fundamentally different elements of personality--conceptually distinct and empirically unrelated. The auth...
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Both personality similarity and complementarity have been hypothesized to underlie mate selection. However, neither hypothesis has received strong and consistent empirical support. This study examined personality matching in couples by taking within-couple similarity as the basic unit of analysis. On the assumptions that individuals seek in another...
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New Adjective Check List (ACL) scales (Gough, Bradley, and Bedeian) to measure Tellegen's dimensions of positive emotionality (PEM), negative emotionality (NEM), and constraint (CNS) were scoredfor a longitudinal sample of women and their male partners over 25 years. For women, data were available to show that convergent and discriminant relations...
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Attachment patterns of women avoidantly or securely attached at age 52 were studied using a 31-year longitudinal design and multiple perspectives, including life outcomes, observer descriptions of behavioral and personality characteristics, and self-reports of working models collected at ages 21, 27, 43, and 52. Findings from these diverse data sou...
Article
To explicate M. Snyder's (1987) construct of self-monitoring (SM), a new Q-sort prototype is introduced. Analyses of Q-sorts by both observers and self demonstrated cross-method convergent validity for the revised 18-item Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS-R) and its Public Performing subscale; however, neither scale showed discriminant validity against me...
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Midlife is a time of heightened reevaluation and reorientation during which individuals are faced with potentially stressful changes and turning points. Ego-resiliency (ER) is proposed to be a powerful personality resource that enables individuals to adaptively negotiate the challenges of this period. Through examination of data from 2 longitudinal...
Article
This investigation explored the meaning, measurement, and validity of the ego-resiliency construct (ER, J.H. Block & J Block) in 3 samples. Study 1 explored the internal structure of ER in observer and self-report data, and the development of a self-report measure is described. Study 2 tested convergent and discriminant relations of ER with persona...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of E. H. Erikson's (1950/1963) theory of midlife development, a measure of generativity realization was constructed with items from J. Block's (1961/1978) California Adult Q-Set (CAQ). Convergent and discriminant validity for the new CAQ measure were established through a survey of 2 samples of educated women at about 43 years of age (...

Citations

... By contrast, perceptual similarity-the similarity of one person's (self-concept about his/her) personality with his/her perception of the other person's personality-is closer to an individual's cognitions when evaluating the respective other person in terms of attraction. Therefore, perceptual similarity might act as a more proximate predictor of initial attraction than actual similarity (Klohnen & Mendelsohn, 1998;Selfhout et al., 2009). Empirical findings from the few studies that involved at least some amount of dyadic interaction indeed indicated mostly positive effects of perceptual personality similarity on romantic attraction and only a few effects of actual similarity (Montoya et al., 2008;Tidwell et al., 2013). ...
... The difference is that dispositional emotion is cultivated in the early stage of life by an individual. It is stable in regard to its impact across the life course, such as describing one's personality or trait, not vary with the environment change (Helson and Klohnen, 1998). The state of emotion is of its experienced nature (Russell and Barrett, 1999) and implies how a person sees his or her relationship to the environment and how a person interprets his or her circumstances (Smith and Ellsworth, 1985, p. 831). ...
... Identity can be embodied in many layers; for the women activists in the present study, their identity contains a broad psychosocial identity (e.g., values, occupational roles, traits), various intersecting social identities (e.g., Chinese/American, middle-aged, woman), and specific identities (e.g., activist, feminist). Generativity can also have multiple manifestations, including personality characteristics (e.g., responsibility, empathy), work productivity, parenting, health concerns, family and community, and political activism (Peterson & Klohnen, 1995). Each layer of identity and generativity may integrate with other layers of each; for example, political activism can be intertwined with one's activist identity to promote generativity, and the overlap between these two can form and strengthen one's identity (Matsuba et al., 2012). ...
... Jiang et al. (2020) found that resilience negatively correlated with mental ill-being indicators (i.e., negative emotions and depression), a finding supported by Coulombe et al. (2020) during the COVID-19. Resilient individuals were more optimistic, curious, open, relaxed, creative and had more zeal (Block & Kremen, 1996;Cohler, 1987;Fredrickson et al., 2003;Klohnen, 1996), creating positive emotionality that facilitated coping with adversities (Fredrickson et al., 2003). ...
... These are contexts in which selfpresentation strategies may be employed. Early research found that extraversion was positively associated with public self-consciousness (Trapnell & Campbell, 1999) and with self-monitoring (John, Cheek, & Klohnen, 1996), both of which are related to self-presentation strategies. Extraversion has also been linked to actual self-presentation and emotional disclosure (Seidman, 2013). ...
... Recently, we provided a conceptual framework to describe the complex interplay between symptoms of the perimenopause, coping with symptoms, resilience factors, and the resulting state on a continuum between psychological adjustment and maladjustment . Previous work has already shown that high resilience is associated with milder menopausal symptoms as well as better psychological and physical well-being (Klohnen et al. 1996;Chedraui et al. 2012;Coronado et al. 2015). ...
... As gender differences were also found in terms of each individual's ability to relate in an intimate context (Reis, 1998), which is highly associated with one's attachment pattern, how different attachment profiles may manifest according to individuals' gender also needs to be examined. As avoidant attachment behaviors are associated with lower commitment and emotional distance, whereas anxious attachment behaviors are related to more heated arguments and breakups, individuals in the dismissive, preoccupied, and fearful attachment profiles should be overrepresented among single and dating individuals (Campbell et al., 2005;Kirkpatrick & Davis, 1994;Kikpatrick & Hazan, 1994;Klohnen & Bera, 1998). Indeed, past research has reported secure individuals were more highly represented in samples of committed couples and had the lowest breakup rate over 4 years (Kirkpatrick & Davis, 1994;Kikpatrick & Hazan, 1994). ...
... Further, 'personality' includes more than traits. In addition to a posited sixth factor of honesty-humility (Ashton & Lee, 2020), personality includes domains such as interpersonal styles (Schmitt & Buss, 2000;Shaver & Brennan, 1992), emotional skills (Melchers et al., 2016), coping and defense strategies (Cramer, 1998;O'Brien & DeLongis, 1996), social and cognitive maturity (Lanning et al., 2018;Loevinger, 1966), and motives (Winter et al., 1998) or values (Caprara et al., 2006;Schwartz et al., 2014). Phenomenologically, these structural aspects are overlapping features of identity; empirically, they are interrelated aspects of personality. ...
... Even though it has been acknowledged that relationship experiences affect adult personality development (Roberts et al., 2003), the mechanisms through which relational experiences shape personality, and personalities shape each other remains largely uncharted territory. While major life and relational events can certainly cause a sudden shift in personality (Roberts et al., 2002), change is more often slowpaced, resulting from recurrent experiences (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). If one is immersed in certain relational dynamics for an extended period of time, these dynamics may ultimately lead to the adaptation of one's personality traits, as "long-term exposure to specific contingencies may produce lasting personality changes" (Donnellan & Robins, 2009, p. 199). ...
... Positive effects of personality similarity have typically been found in studies involving hypothetical partners, akin to the bogus stranger paradigm (Clore, 2009). When people are given explicit information about hypothetical romantic partners (e.g., in the form of written vignettes or bogus questionnaire results), they tend to prefer those who resemble their (self-concept about their) own personality (Klohnen & Luo, 2003;Montoya et al., 2008). By contrast, studies employing more naturalistic designs (e.g., speed-dating studies with real firsttime encounters with potential romantic partners) have reported few and inconsistent effects of actual personality similarity on initial attraction Luo & Zhang, 2009;Tidwell et al., 2013). ...