Eugenio Carminati's research while affiliated with Sapienza University of Rome and other places

Publications (209)

Article
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We analyzed from meso-to microscale the chemical interaction (e.g., bleaching) between deep fluids and car- bonate rocks in pelagic limestones exposed along the seismically active Gubbio normal fault (Northern Apen- nines), exhumed from ca. 2 km depth. Bleaching is enhanced by the exploitation of inherited stylolitic seams by fluids and is favored...
Article
Full-text available
One major critical issue in seismic hazard analysis deals with the computation of the maximum earthquake magnitude expected for a given region. Its estimation is usually based on the analysis of past seismicity that is incomplete by definition, or derived from the dimension of faults through empirical relationships with the intrinsic uncertainty in...
Article
Crustal seismicity is in general confined within the seismogenic layer, which is bounded at depth by processes related to the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) and in the shallow region by fault zone consolidation state and mineralogy. In the past 10-15 years, high resolution seismological and geodetic data have shown that faulting within and around...
Article
Major advances in smartphones and tablets in terms of their built-in sensors (esp. cameras), available computational power and on-board memory are transforming the role of such devices into the key digital platform around which geological fieldwork is redesigning itself. This digital transition is changing how geoscientists collect and share multim...
Article
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Bedding-perpendicular joints striking parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to both the axis of the hosting anticline and the trend of the foredeep-belt system are widely recognized in fold-and-thrust belts. Their occurrence has been commonly attributed to folding-related processes, such as syn-folding outer-arc extension, although...
Article
The reconstruction of the hydrocarbon migration and entrapment history is fundamental for reducing risks and identifying traps and migration pathways during oil exploration and exploitation in fold-and-thrust belts, which host 14% of the world's discovered oil reserves. Within fold-and thrust belts, faults and folds have a fundamental role in contr...
Article
Northern Oman was obducted by allochthonous rocks, including the Semail Ophiolite, during the Cretaceous, which generally hampers field investigations on autochthonous rocks. However, central parts of the Jabal Akhdar Dome provide insights into sub-allochthonous deformation patterns from northern Oman because autochthonous Arabian rocks are exposed...
Article
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The city of Venice and the surrounding lagoonal ecosystem are highly vulnerable to variations in relative sea level. In the past ∼150 years, this was characterized by an average rate of relative sea-level rise of about 2.5 mm/year resulting from the combined contributions of vertical land movement and sea-level rise. This literature review reassess...
Article
The Oman Mountains developed during Cretaceous to Cenozoic time by obduction of the Semail Ophiolite on top of the Arabian rifted margin. The tectonic pile of the orogenic system is composed of three major domains, which from bottom to top are: (i) the proximal domain of the Arabian rifted margin; (ii) the Hawasina Nappe, including rocks pertaining...
Article
The Mt. Gorzano Fault (MGF) is a major seismically active extensional fault of the central Apennines, responsible for the destructive Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake in 2016. The MGF developed during post-orogenic extensional tectonics, generating a continental basin in the hanging wall. The age of the onset of the MGF and the relationship among faultin...
Article
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The Tyrrhenian back-arc basin developed at the rear of the E-ward migrating Apennine fold-and-thrust belt, with northward decreasing rollback of the subducting Adria slab leading to northward fading of back-arc extension. The northern portion of the Tyrrhenian basin is made of thinned continental crust, whereas in the central/southern portion exten...
Article
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During earthquakes, fault rupture can involve multiple segments in synchronous or cascade mechanisms, leading to an increasing magnitude of the mainshock or rate of aftershocks. Since the seismogenic portions of faults are commonly inaccessible, studying the geometrical and mechanical interaction between exhumed fault segments can contribute to the...
Article
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This study aims at assessing the deformation processes affecting an area NW of the city of Ravenna (northern Italy), caused by groundwater withdrawal activities. In-situ data, geologic and structural maps, piezometric measurements, underground water withdrawal volumes, and satellite C-band SAR data were used to jointly exploit two different techniq...
Conference Paper
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The Quaternary Volsci Volcanic Field (VVF) represents one of the products of the west-directed subduction of the Adriatic slab that drove the development of the Apennine mountain belt in central Italy. Here, we present new results on the eruptive history and the diatreme processes of exemplar tectonically controlled carbonate-seated maar-diatreme v...
Article
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The polyphase structural evolution of a sector of the internal Central Apennines, where the significance of pelagic deposits atop neritic carbonate platform and active margin sediments has been long debated, is here documented. The results of a new geological survey in the Volsci Range, supported by new stratigraphic constraints from the syn-orogen...
Article
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The preparation, initiation, and occurrence dynamics of earthquakes in Italy are governed by several frequently unknown physical mechanisms and parameters. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for developing new techniques and approaches for earthquake monitoring and hazard assessments. Here, we develop a first-order numerical model simulating...
Presentation
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The Jabal Akhdar Dome (JAD) of the Oman Mountains contains superbly exposed sedimentary Neoproterozoic formations in its core. Carbonates of the Hajir Formation are resistant against erosion in the prevailing semi-arid conditions unlike the subjacent and overlying siliciclastic formations. Structural fieldwork and satellite image analyses reveals t...
Article
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Although several observations have been reported in the literature before a strong earthquake, their relation with the forthcoming event is often controversial. Since many physical processes and parameters govern the dynamics of preparation, initiation, and occurrence of earthquakes, their understanding is essential for explaining anomalous seismol...
Article
We combined structural data collected in the field and those obtained from a virtual outcrop model constructed from drone imagery, to perform Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) modelling and to characterize the fracture distribution within the damage zone of the low-displacement (∼50 m) carbonate-hosted Pietrasecca Fault (PF) (central Apennines, Italy...
Chapter
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The Plio-Quaternary igneous activity of the Tyrrhenian Sea area features a surprisingly large range of compositions from subalkaline to ultra-alkaline and from ultrabasic to acid. These rocks, emplaced within the basin and along its margins, are characterized by strongly SiO2-undersaturated CaO-rich to strongly SiO2-oversaturated peraluminous compo...
Article
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The inner Apennines (Italy) are characterized by scattered outcrops of continent‐derived orogenic metamorphic units exposed along the Tyrrhenian coast from northern to southern Apennines. At least since the 1970s, some peculiar rocks exposed on Zannone Island (central Italy) have been described as the only Paleozoic‐Triassic metamorphic complex lin...
Preprint
Full-text available
The City of Venice and the surrounding lagoonal ecosystem are highly vulnerable to variations in relative sea level. In the past ~150 years, this was characterized by a secular linear trend of about 2.5 mm/year resulting from the combined contributions of vertical land movement and sea-level rise. This literature review reassesses and synthesizes t...
Article
Full-text available
The Adria microplate is the foreland of the oppositely verging Apennines and Alps or Dinarides fold‐thrust belts associated to the related subduction zones. Along its western margin, the Adria plate hosts the active Northern Apennines accretionary prism, which is buried under the Adriatic Sea and the Po Plain. The interpretation of seismic reflecti...
Article
Quaternary carbonate-seated maar-diatremes in the Volsci Range are one of the most intriguing products of the west-directed subduction of the Adriatic slab that drove the development of the Apennine mountain belt in Central Italy. The Volsci Volcanic Field is characterized by phreatomagmatic surge deposits, rich in accidental carbonate lithics, and...
Article
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We discuss two competing models for explaining the ground deformation associated with normal faulting earthquake in the brittle elastic upper crust. The classic elastic rebound theory is usually applied for all tectonic settings. In normal fault earthquakes, this model would predict a horizontal stretching eventually responsible for the elastic reb...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the factors controlling fracture frequency distribution can greatly improve the assessment of fluid circulation in fault damage zones, with evident implications for fault mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrocarbon exploration. This is particularly important for relay zones that are usually characterized by strong damage and structural co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Earthquakes are the result of the strain accumulation in the earth's crust over a variable decade to millennial period, i.e., the interseismic stage, followed by a sudden stress release at a crustal discontinuity, i.e., the coseismic stage, finally evolving in a postseismic stage. Commonly, the seismic cycle is modelled with analytical and numerica...
Presentation
Fractures constitute the main pathway for fluids in fault damage zones hosted in low-porosity rocks. Understanding the factors controlling fracture distribution is hence fundamental to better assess fluids circulation in fault damage zones, with evident implications for fault mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrocarbon exploration. Being usually charac...
Article
Numerous studies exist on exhumed tectonic mélanges along subduction channels whereas, in accretionary wedge interiors, deformation mechanisms and related fluid circulation in tectonic mélanges are still underexplored. We combine structural and microstructural observations with geochemical (stable and clumped isotopes and isotope composition of nob...
Article
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The Oman Mountains expose Permo‐Mesozoic shelf rocks of Arabia overridden by continental slope/basinal sediments and Semail Ophiolites during Late Cretaceous. A major syntaxis is represented by the Musandam Peninsula and Dibba Zone. The overthrusting of allochthonous units onto the Musandam shelf carbonates initiated during the Cenomanian. Structur...
Article
Fault inversion may lead to significant obliteration of earlier tectonic structures, thus preventing the straightforward interpretation of the complete kinematics and deformation history of faults. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to: (1) reconstruct the tectonic evolution through space and in time of the extensionally-inverted Mt. Tancia Thru...
Conference Paper
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We defined deformation mechanisms and syn-tectonic fluid circulation within the Mt. Massico intra-wedge tectonic mélange, developed at depths <5 km and at maximum burial temperature of 140 °C, located in the inner part of the Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. This mélange developed at the base of a heterogeneous clastic succession, characteriz...
Presentation
Zannone is a very important island, located in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional domain of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin, as it is the unique spot where the Paleozoic (?) crystalline basement is hypotesized to be exposed in central Apennines. The exposure of such hypothetical basement in the Zannone Island is very problematic as it implies very la...
Presentation
Fracture distribution controls fluids circulation in fault damage zones, with evident implications for fault mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrocarbon exploration. Being usually characterized by a strong damage and structural complexity, this is of particularly importance for relay zones. We investigated the fracture distribution within a portion of...
Chapter
The Mediterranean area is characterized by marine basins surrounded by growing orogens, resulting from Mesozoic dispersion of Pangea, development of Tethys oceans and subsequent late Mesozoic to Recent convergence between Africa and Europe. The sub-basins of the Central-Western Mediterranean (Alboran, Valencia, Liguro-Provençal, Algerian and Tyrrhe...
Article
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Minor fault geometry and kinematics within relay ramps is strongly related to the stress field perturbations that can be produced when two major fault segments overlap and interact. Here we integrate classical fieldwork and interpretation of a virtual outcrop to investigate the geometry and kinematics of subsidiary faults within a relay ramp along...
Article
On August 24th 2016, a Mw 6.0 earthquake started the Amatrice - Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence, generated by the extensional tectonics along the Apennines, that had its apex with the Mw 6.5 October 30th mainshock. As a unique documented case reported in Italy, complex surface faulting occurred during both earthquakes along the Mt. Vettore...
Article
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Thrust fault ruptures during earthquakes do not often propagate down to the brittle‐ductiletransition. Lithological variations control the behavior and depth of regional basal thrusts anddecollement planes. Thrust fronts may be discontinuous along strike, limiting the dimension of singlecoseismic ruptures. These factors control the maximum expected...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to the concept of the seismic cycle, earthquakes result from the strain accumulation over a variable decade to millennial period, i.e., the interseismic stage, followed by a sudden stress release, i.e., the coseismic stage, eventually evolving in the postseismic stage. Common analytical and numerical approaches simulate interseismic, cose...
Article
Full-text available
The final pdf version of the article is avaiable for free download until August 27th 2019 here: https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S1342937X1930142X?token=F3696F64287F13F3FBEC810D38E1219B386802A10982842646B19AA6708B709560DDE78CD3506777269F357B39883812
Presentation
A multiscale geometrical and kinematic characterization of fault zones is the starting point to understand fault mechanics, in particular that of potentially seismogenic faults. Fieldwork and seismological studies can provide pictures and kinematic characterization of faults at sub-regional scale (i.e. tens of kilometers). Until the advent of Digit...
Article
Full-text available
The Mt. Massico ridge (central-southern Apennines, Italy) is characterized by a ~150 m thick tectonic mélange located at the base of a Tortonian-lower Messinian heterogeneous clastic succession consisting of layered sandstones, limestones, marls, and claystones with intercalated mass wasting deposits and isolated olistoliths, which deposited above...
Article
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We analyse the Mw 6.5, 2016 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence by means of InSAR, GPS, seismological and geologic data. The >1000 km2 area affected by deformation is involving a volume of about 6000 km3 and the relocated seismicity is widely distributed in the hangingwall of the master fault system and the conjugate antithetic faults....
Poster
Full-text available
According to the concept of the seismic cycle, earthquakes result from the strain accumulation over a variable decade to millennial period, i.e., the interseismic stage, followed by a sudden stress release, i.e., the coseismic stage, eventually evolving in the postseismic stage. Common analytical and numerical approaches simulate interseismic, cose...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the Mw 6.5 Norcia (Central Italy) earthquake by exploiting seismological data, DInSAR measurements, and a numerical modelling approach. In particular, we first retrieve the vertical component (uplift and subsidence) of the displacements affecting the hangingwall and the footwall blocks of the seismogenic faults identified, at depth,...
Article
Earthquakes occur in the Earth's crust where rocks are brittle, with magnitude increasing with the volume involved in the coseismic stage. Largest volumes are expected in convergent tectonic settings since thrust fault may be even more than 25 times larger than hypocenter depth. In general, the maximum depth of hypocenters within the crust correspo...
Presentation
A fault zone is composed of one or multiple fault cores, which are located within a complex network of fractures and secondary slip surfaces (i.e., the damage zone) that determine the mechanical behaviour. For example, fractures within the damage zone control fluid circulation and have a strong impact on the elastic properties of the host rock. Fur...
Article
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In the Dolomites (Eastern Southern Alps, Italy), a diffuse Middle Triassic igneous activity is now present mostly as lava flow and pyroclastic successions, with rare shallow-depth intrusive bodies cropping out at Predazzo, Monzoni and Cima Pape areas. In this work, the emplacement modes of the Predazzo and Monzoni bodies were investigated by means...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We analysed the seismic sequence that affects the Umbria-Marche Apennine (Central Italy) since August 2016, focusing on the Amatrice and the Norcia mainshocks. We investigate the ground deformation pattern and the source geometry responsible of the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence by joint exploiting the multisensors and multiorbits satellite me...
Article
A great number of earthquakes occur within thick carbonate sequences in the shallow crust. At the same time, carbonate fault rocks exhumed from a depth < 6 km (i.e., from seismogenic depths) exhibit the coexistence of structures related to brittle (i.e., cataclasis) and ductile deformation processes (i.e., pressure-solution and granular plasticity)...
Article
The 300 km long arc of the Fars province is located to the south east of the NW-SE trending and SW vergent orogen of the Zagros Mountains. This region is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, and also as a territory of high quality outcrops. Geological cross-sections of the Zagros belt are usually based on very large scale geological m...