Eudald Carbonell's research while affiliated with IPHES Catalan Institute for Human Palaeoecology and Social Evolution and other places

Publications (135)

Article
The Acheulean of the southern Iberian Peninsula is markedly similar to the north African Acheulean. However, the characteristics of the stone tool assemblages are heterogeneous and represent complex cultural phenomena. From MIS 15, the lithic assemblages in fluvial (Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Guadalete rivers), fluvio-lacustrine (Solana del Zambori...
Chapter
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How do we humans evolve? This is probably the most important question to answer as a self-aware animal species. The question that arises is whether Darwin and Wallace theory of natural selection serves to explain human evolution. The three processes that humanize us, differentiating us from the rest of the animal kingdom, are: (a) the way we obtain...
Article
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The ability of early hominins to overcome the constraints imposed by the characteristics of raw materials used for stone tool production is a key topic on the discussion about the evolution of hominin cognitive capabilities and technical behaviours. Thus, technological variability has been the centrepiece on this debate. However, the variability of...
Article
The Galería de las Estatuas is a Mousterian site located within the Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo karstic system at the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). This site is characterised by an important Upper Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in which a large number of lithic artefacts exhibiting clear Mousterian affinities and a rich assemblage of faun...
Article
The Cueva del Silo is part of the lower karst level of the Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo karst system (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain), whose evolution has preserved an impressive archeo-paleoanthropological sequence since the Early Pleistocene. Cueva del Silo is remarkable for the presence of fluvial deposits that record the entry of the Arlanzón...
Article
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The Abric Romaní rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona) is a key site for studying the use of fire among Neanderthal communities. The evidence of its use, including the identification of heated faunal remains, has led to infer the practice of some domestic activities in the site, such as cooking, use of bones as fuel, or habitat surface cleaning thro...
Article
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The Sima del Elefante site is located within the Sierra de Atapuerca karst system (Burgos, northern Spain), and forms part of a series of important Early, Middle and Late Pleistocene archaeological complexes that have been dated previously with luminescence techniques (Gran Dolina, Galería Complex, Sima de los Huesos, Galería de las Estatuas). This...
Article
We present the results of a combined Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Luminescence dating study for the lowermost stratigraphic unit (TD1) of the palaeoanthropological site of Atapuerca Gran Dolina, Spain. Ten samples collected through the Main Section were dated using either the Multiple Centre (MC) ESR approach or the single-grain thermally tran...
Article
The Bayesian statistical approach considers teeth as forming a developmental module, as opposed to a tooth‐by‐tooth analysis. This approach has been employed to analyze Upper Pleistocene hominins, including Neandertals and some anatomically modern humans, but never earlier populations. Here, we show its application on five hominins from the TD6.2 l...
Poster
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Healed traumatic injuries are very common in the osteoarchaeological record, both related to accidental blows and interpersonal attacks. This latter scenario becomes very usual from the Neolithic onwards, when a major number of these confrontations is documented. After the healing process of a fracture, the bone remodels but never recovers its orig...
Article
In this paper, we critically review the current paradigm, which places the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa as the result of the evolution of a Middle Pleistocene species. In the African fossil record of this period, it is not possible to find a transition from fossils not included in H. sapiens to those that are clearly related to our species and...
Article
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The study of audition in fossil hominins is of great interest given its relationship with intraspecific vocal communication. While the auditory capacities have been studied in early hominins and in the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins, less is known about the hearing abilities of the Neanderthals. Here, we provide a detailed approach...
Article
The value of dirty DNA Environmental DNA can identify the presence of species, even from the distant past. Surveying three cave sites in western Europe and southern Siberia, Vernot et al. identified nuclear DNA and confirmed that it is from the close relatives of anatomically modern humans—Neanderthal and Denisovan individuals. A phylogenetic analy...
Preprint
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Approaching the life history of artefacts is fundamental for understanding both the formation processes of archaeological assemblages and their technological variability. In this paper, we explore the variability of technological behaviours exhibited by the hominins from subunit TD6.2 at the Gran Dolina site (Atapuerca, Burgos), by combining both t...
Article
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The TD6 unit of the Gran Dolina contains an assemblage of the Early Pleistocene, interpreted firstly as a home base. More recently has been proposed a transported origin of the remains according to the sedimentology. Following this model, the remains should be dragged or lagged in a predictable pattern related to their weight, density, shape, and s...
Article
In Prehistory, Paleolithic stone toolkits are allotted to distinct cultural phases, explained through a periodization that has been adopted as a strategic reference by specialists in lithic studies, based on: 1) the categorization of morpho-types observed in the assemblages; 2) the dominant manufacture technologies and 3) temporal categorizations b...
Chapter
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The paper offers scholars who explore alternative futures an insight into how the knowledge of past human evolution might contribute to shaping the way we think about the future and the relationship that humankind has to its fu-tures. In this sense, it presents the bases of a potential new paradigm of social evolution by exploring possibilities ari...
Chapter
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The work offers scholars who explore alternative futures an insight into how the knowledge of past human evolution might contribute to shaping the way we think about the future and the relationship that humankind has to its futures. In this sense, it presents the bases of a potential new paradigm of social evolution by exploring possibilities arisi...
Poster
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Collective burials are one of the main funerary practices carried out in Europe between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. In the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, natural caves are frequently used as sepulchres since the Early Neolithic (ca. 7.700 – 6.500 yrs. cal BP) [1]. Roc de les Orenetes is a cave located near the village of Queralbs (Spain)...
Article
Fuente Mudarra is on a gentle slope on the left bank of the Pico River, near Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain. A 12−m ² test pit was dug at this large open-air site between 2012 and 2017. Several upper Pleistocene archaeological levels were documented. Results from Fuente Mudarra confirm that Neanderthal groups, little represented at cave sites,...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
The Atapuerca localities present evidence of a long series of hominin occupations from the Early Pleistocene onward and are a key site for understanding the continuity and discontinuity of Western European technological and settlement dynamics. The TD10 unit from Gran Dolina is located in the upper part of the sequence and divided into four lithost...
Article
The advantages of active massive data capture devices such as LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) in the creation of high-resolution topographic models have been well known for years. They have been widely applied to the documentation of cultural heritage since the beginning of the 21st century. As LiDAR devices, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) sy...
Article
This study represents the first integrated approach to the lithic raw materials exploited by the Neanderthals that occupied the Abric Romaní site (NE Iberia). Focusing on chert as the most abundant raw material (>80% of the assemblages), we determine the potential procurement areas and the mobility patterns. Geo-archaeological surveys within a radi...
Article
We used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to identify a variety of karstic features in the archaeo-paleontological sites of the Sierra the Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). The aim of this study was to discover the structure of the caves exposed in the 19th century by a railroad trench, specifically their bottom part, which remains covered under the railroad...
Article
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The phylogenetic relationships between hominins of the Early Pleistocene epoch in Eurasia, such as Homo antecessor, and hominins that appear later in the fossil record during the Middle Pleistocene epoch, such as Homo sapiens, are highly debated1,2,3,4,5. For the oldest remains, the molecular study of these relationships is hindered by the degradat...
Article
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Characterizing dental development in fossil hominins is important for distinguishing between them and for establishing where and when the slow overall growth and development of modern humans appeared. Dental development of australopiths and early Homo was faster than modern humans. The Atapuerca fossils (Spain) fill a barely known gap in human evol...
Article
Recurrent long-and short-term Neanderthal occupations occurred in the Abric Romaní rock shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain) for more than 20,000 years. This provides an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the evolution of behavioral strategies of these human groups. The site has a long and high-resolution sequence with 17 levels complete...
Article
Objectives: Here we describe the case of an ectopic maxillary third molar (M3 ), preventing the eruption of the M2 , in the individual H3 of the hominin hypodigm of level TD6.2 of the Early Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Materials and methods: The fossil remains from the TD6.2 level of the Gran Dolina site (about 1...
Article
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A use-wear analysis was carried out on a specific mobile toolkit belonging to level M of the Middle Paleolithic site of Abric Romaní (Barcelona, Spain), which is dated to MIS 3, between 51 and 55 Ka BP. In an environment rich in local and regional chert sources and in a technological context marked by expedient behavior, a set of flakes, which also...
Article
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The intrasite mobility of lithic artifacts is one of the most relevant issues that can be approached from the spatial study of refitting. In many sites, researchers have determined that some artifacts were abandoned at a considerable distance from the place where they were produced. Once natural causes of a post-depositional nature are ruled out, t...
Article
This study addresses the pollen record of Abric Romaní archaeological site and the climate evolution of the last interglacial and glacial stadials in the Iberian Peninsula. The new pollen record spans the interval from 110,000 to 55,000 years ago. In general, the glacial/stadial vegetation is characterized by a steppe and herbaceous communities ind...
Article
Ethological studies have shown that besides human groups, large-medium carnivores have bone-collecting habits. The research developed since the last half of the twentieth century has attempted to characterise the carnivore’s accumulations and to identify them in the archaeo-paleontological record. At present, we have diagnostic criteria that define...
Article
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Gona in the Afar region of Ethiopia has yielded the earliest Oldowan stone tools in the world. Artefacts from the East Gona (EG) 10 site date back 2.6 million years. Analysis of the lithic assemblage from EG 10 reveals the earliest-known evidence for refitting and conjoining stone artefacts. This new information supplements data from other Oldowan...
Article
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The present study reports the results of the first direct Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating study of Homo antecessor, the oldest known hominin species identified in Western Europe. The analysis of a tooth (ATD6-92) from TD6 unit of Atapuerca Gran Dolina (Spain) following a “semi non-destructive” procedure provides a final age estimate ranging fr...
Article
The Abric Romaní site (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain) constitutes a key site for understanding the latest Neanderthal occupations in Western Europe. Here we present a comprehensive systematic and taphonomic analysis of a small-mammal assemblage from Level O of the Abric Romaní site, with the aim of reconstructing the paleoecological context in which...
Article
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The cave - site of Gran Dolina in Atapuerca preserves one of the most abundant records of Early to Middle Pleistocene sediments known so far. Therefore, establishing the chronology for the stratigraphic levels within the cavity is crucial. Since the early 1990s, subsequent excavations have allowed better access to the older stratigraphic levels TD4...
Article
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Significance The gene pool of modern Europeans was shaped through prehistoric migrations that reached the Western Mediterranean last. Obtaining biomolecular data has been challenging due to poor preservation related to adverse climatic conditions in this region. Here, we study the impact of prehistoric (Neolithic–Bronze Age) migrations in Iberia by...
Data
The gene pool of modern Europeans was shaped through prehistoric migrations that reached the Western Mediterranean last. Obtaining biomolecular data has been challenging due to poor preservation related to adverse climatic conditions in this region. Here, we study the impact of prehistoric (Neolithic–Bronze Age) migrations in Iberia by analyzing ge...
Article
The emergence of the Acheulian Techno-Complex in Asia appears to have occurred quasi-concurrently in the Levant, South Asia, East and South Africa. Throughout many parts of the huge geographical expanse of Asia, as elsewhere, this genesis was followed by the rapid diffusion of Acheulian techno-behaviors. This phenomenon of cultural radiation is att...
Article
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Practically all archeological assemblages are palimpsests. In spite of the high temporal resolution of Abric Romaní site, level O, dated to around 55 ka, is not an exception. This paper focuses on a zooarcheological and taphonomic analysis of this level, paying special attention to spatial and temporal approaches. The main goal is to unravel the pa...
Article
Previous assessments of thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) signal resetting in natural sedimentary settings have been based on relatively limited numbers of observations, and have been conducted primarily at the multi-grain scale of equivalent dose (De) analysis. In this study, we undertake a series of single-grain TT-...
Article
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This paper aims to update the information available on the lithic assemblage from the entire sequence of TD6 now that the most recent excavations have been completed, and to explore possible changes in both occupational patterns and technological strategies evidenced in the unit. This is the first study to analyse the entire TD6 sequence, including...
Article
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RESUM Quan investiguem, en moltes ocasions no som conscients de la normativitat que ha d'articular el coneixement científic. En aquest article fem una ràpida valoració descriptiva i crítica sobre el que pensem sobre la teoria, de quina manera influeix el context social i, en conseqüència, com aquest determina la nostra activitat. RESUMEN Cuando in...
Article
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SPA: Ahondando en anteriores reflexiones sobre qué es lo que nos hace humanos y sobre el valor que la afinidad electiva y la individualidad colectiva poseen para lograr la humanización consciente de nuestra especie (Carbonell y Hortolà, RAMPAS, 15, pp. 7-11, 2013; RAMPAS, 18, pp. 11-17), en este breve ensayo se añaden los puntos de vista sobre cómo...
Article
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Fossil hominids often processed material held between their upper and lower teeth. Pulling with one hand and cutting with the other, they occasionally left impact cut marks on the lip (labial) surface of their incisors and canines. From these actions, it possible to determine the dominant hand used. The frequency of these oblique striations in an a...
Data
Number of equids and cervids mandibles and maxillae at Abric Romaní, indicating level, archaeological reference, MNE, size, dental series, crown height of teeth and code of wear stage. (XLSX)
Article
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Ungulate mortality profiles are commonly used to study Neanderthal subsistence strategies. To assess the hunting strategies used by Neanderthals, we studied the ages at death of the cervids and equids found in levels E, H, I, Ja, Jb, K, L and M of the Abric Romaní sequence. These levels date between 43.2 ± 1.1 ka BP (¹⁴C AMS) and 54.5 ± 1.7 ka BP (...
Conference Paper
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The Aïn Beni Mathar-Guefaït basin provides a long stratigraphic sequence and a faunal record that covers the Early and Middle Pleistocene. During the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene, a fluvio-lacustrine basin developed in the area. This landscape has been occupied by hominin developing a Mode 1 technology. This fluvio-lacustrine basin has its final...
Presentation
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First attempt of application of ESR dating on feldspars extracted from 3 samples, dated with TT-OSL and IRSL, all taken from different sedimentological facies within Unit G.III at Galería Cave, within the archaeological site of Atapuerca, Spain.
Article
It has been twenty years since diagnosis and publication of the species Homo antecessor.1 Since then, new human fossils recovered from the TD6 level of the Gran Dolina site (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) have helped to refine its taxonomic and phylogenetic position. In this paper, we present a synthesis of the most characteristic features of...
Article
In this text we analyse the traits, from their genesis, that constitute current human beings with the objective of characterising the biological and cultural evolution of humanity within the evolutionary framework of our genus. Paleoanthropologists organise our differential traits within the animal kingdom hierarchically: the ability to manufacture...
Article
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The Sierra de Atapuerca is an anticlinal ridge of Mesozoic carbonate rocks on the NW edge of the Iberian Chain (Northern Spain, Burgos), surrounded by subhorizontal continental sediments of the NE Duero Cenozoic Basin under endorheic conditions. The shift to exorheic conditions in the Duero Basin lead to the onset of an episodic downcutting phase a...
Article
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This work focusses on the Sierra de Atapuerca Thinchera karst system, in which Gran Dolina and Galería Complex sites are located. A total of eight ERT profiles were performed over an area that covers both sites, with the aim of identifying the dimensions and continuity of these passages. The interpretation of the 2D and 3D profiles has allowed dete...
Poster
The dietary strategies of the first inhabitants of Europe from Gran Dolina-TD6 (Atapuerca sites, Burgos, Spain)
Poster
This study aims to analyze non-masticatory dental wear patterns in fossil ”Homo” from Europe.
Article
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Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification...
Article
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Hominin dietary specialization is crucial to understanding the evolutionary changes of craniofacial biomechanics and the interaction of food processing methods’ effects on teeth. However, the diet-related dental wear processes of the earliest European hominins remain unknown because most of the academic attention has focused on Neandertals. Non-occ...
Article
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Kaldar Cave is a key archaeological site that provides evidence of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Iran. Excavations at the site in 2014–2015 led to the discovery of cultural remains generally associated with anatomically modern humans (AMHs) and evidence of a probable Neanderthal- made industry in the basal layers. Attempts have bee...
Article
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Galería is one of the main sites of the Trinchera del Ferrocarril (railway trench) in Atapuerca, together with Gran Dolina and Sima del Elefante. The Galería excavations took place mainly during the 1980s and 1990s and continued until 2010. Work has recently resumed in the upper levels of the sequence, which has prompted us to summarize the previou...
Article
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SPA: El propósito de este ensayo es presentar una serie de puntos de vista sobre cómo la afinidad electiva y la individualidad colectiva pueden incidir en nuestro proceso consciente hacia la plena humanización. El concepto de “afinidad electiva” que se utiliza en este trabajo ha sido tomado de la novela de Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Die wahlverwand...
Article
One of the most interesting aspects of the settlement of Europe is the possible continuity or discontinuity of the populations living in this continent during the Early and Middle Pleistocene. In this paper we present an analysis of the mandibular fossil record from four important Pleistocene European sites, Gran Dolina-TD6-2 (Sierra de Atapuerca),...
Presentation
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Numerous key findings at the Lower Paleolithic cave site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain, have led to major ad- vancements in our understanding of human evolution and occupation of Eurasia [1]. The Gran Dolina site has produced thousands of fossils and artifacts since 1995, when the first hominin remains were reported, and has b...
Article
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We evaluated the skeletal profiles from several levels of the Neanderthal site of AbricRomaní, focusing on the methodology proposed by Faith and Gordon (2007): differencesin the skeletal distribution of animals in accordance with their size and weight; the sta-tistical correlation between the skeletal profiles and standard food utility index; and t...
Article
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Este trabajo se centra en el estudio geofísico de las cavidades de Gran Dolina y Galería del karst de la Sierra de Atapuerca. La realización de ocho perfiles de Tomografía de Resistivi-dad Eléctrica (ERT) y la interpretación de los perfiles en 2D y 3D han permitido determinar la extensión de sus galerías y la presencia de una antigua entrada col-ma...
Article
The TD6-2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) has yielded an assemblage of about 170 human fossil remains dated to. >. 800 ka (probably MIS 21) and assigned to the species Homo antecessor. In this study, we describe for the first time a large portion of a parietal bone (ATD6-100/168). The morphology of the fractu...
Article
A unique assemblage of 28 hominin individuals, found in Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain, has recently been dated to approximately 430,000 years ago. An interesting question is how these Middle Pleistocene hominins were related to those who lived in the Late Pleistocene epoch, in particular to Neanderthals in western Eurasia a...