Etsuo Niki's research while affiliated with The University of Tokyo and other places

Publications (397)

Article
This commentary describes a highly cited paper by Dahle, Hill, and Holman, Arch Biochem Biophys. 1962; 98: 253–261. They showed that the oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids reacted with thiobarbituric acid to give a colored product, which might be used to assess lipid oxidation.
Article
Lipids are oxidized in vivo by multiple oxidizing species with different properties, some by regulated manner to produce physiological mediators, while others by random mechanisms to give detrimental products. Vitamin E plays an important role as a physiologically essential antioxidant to inhibit unregulated lipid peroxidation by scavenging lipid p...
Article
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the onset and progression of various diseases and the role of antioxidants in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases has received much attention. The action and effect of antioxidants have been studied extensively under different reaction conditions in multiple media. The an...
Article
Vitamin E acts as essential antioxidant against detrimental oxidation of biological molecules induced by multiple reactive species. To gain more insight into the physiological role of vitamin E, the levels of its oxidation products in humans under normal and pathological conditions were compared. α-Tocopherol quinone (α-TQ) and 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol...
Article
Higher consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is a risk factor for several inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the detailed mechanisms by which TFA intake affects IBD pathology remain unclear. We demonstrate here that elaidate, a trans-isomer of oleate, enhances interleukin (IL)-1β production through the activa...
Article
The unregulated oxidative modification of biological molecules has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases and the beneficial effects of antioxidants against detrimental oxidation have received much attention. Among the multiple oxidants, peroxyl radical and peroxynitrite play an important role as chain-carrying species in lipid per...
Article
The unregulated oxidative modification of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids induced by multiple oxidants has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Antioxidants with diverse functions exert their roles either directly or indirectly in the physiological defense network to inhibit such deleterious oxidative modification of biological...
Article
Free and ester forms of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol are oxidized in vivo by multiple oxidants to give diverse products. Some lipid oxidation is mediated by enzymes to selectively give specific products, while others proceed randomly to produce mixtures of many kinds of regioisomers and stereoisomers. The efficacy of antioxidants against...
Article
Unregulated oxidative modification of biological molecules induced by multiple oxidants in vivo has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Accordingly, the role of antioxidants contained in foods in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases has received much attention. The efficacy of antioxidants against oxidative stre...
Article
Background: Multiple oxidants oxidize biological molecules in vivo to induce their non-regulated oxidative modification and consequently antioxidants against multiple oxidants are required to cope with oxidative stress. Objective: To determine the antioxidant capacity of blueberry extracts for peroxyl radical scavenging and inhibition of plasma lip...
Article
With increasing evidence showing the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases, the effects of clinical drugs possessing antioxidant functions have received much attention. The unregulated oxidative modification of biological molecules leading to diseases is mediated by multiple oxidants including free radicals, peroxy...
Article
Unregulated oxidation of biological molecules induced by multiple oxidants has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Consequently, the effects of antioxidants contained in foods, beverages and supplements on the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases have attracted much attention of the public as well as scientists. How...
Article
There is a growing consensus that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not just associated with various pathologies, but that they act as physiological redox signaling messenger with important regulatory functions. It is sometimes stated that “if ROS is a physiological signaling messenger, then removal of ROS by antioxidants such as vitamins E and C m...
Article
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Lipid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Lipids are oxidized in vivo by several different oxidants to give diverse products, in general lipid hydroperoxides as the major primary product. In the present study, the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the oxidation of mouse plasma induced by multiple oxidants was mea...
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Recent studies suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases have attracted renewed attention to lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen. Although the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching by antioxidants have been measured extensively, the inhibition of lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen has...
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Selenocysteine (Sec) insertion sequence-binding protein 2 (SBP2) is essential for the biosynthesis of Sec-containing proteins, termed selenoproteins. Subjects with mutations in the SBP2 gene have decreased levels of several selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Selenoproteins play a significant role in antioxidative defense, and deficie...
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Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including atherosclerosis and fatty liver diseases, and consequently the role of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of such diseases has received much attention. In particular, the effects of vitamin E, the most important lipophilic radic...
Article
The assessment of radical scavenging capacity by antioxidants has been the subjects of extensive studies and controversy. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and inexpensive method for the assessment of radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants contained in foods and beverages in plasma solution, a biologically relevant heterogeneous med...
Article
Linoleates are required for normal mammalian health and development, but they are also prone to oxidation, resulting in biologically active metabolites such as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs). To investigate the biological activity of 9-EZ-HODE, 10-EZ-HODE, 12-ZE-HODE, and 13-ZE-HODE, the metabolites of singlet oxygen-derived products from lin...
Article
Abstract Skin is the largest organ of the body and exerts several physiological functions such as a protective barrier against moisture loss and noxious agents including ultraviolet irradiation. Oxidation of skin may impair such functions and induce skin disorders including photoaging and skin cancer. Skin surface lipids, a mixture of sebaceous and...
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DJ-1, the product of a causative gene of a familial form of Parkinson disease, undergoes preferential oxidation of Cys106 (cysteine residue at position 106) under oxidative stress. Using specific monoclonal antibodies against Cys106 oxidized DJ-1 (oxDJ-1), we examined oxDJ-1 immunoreactivity in brain sections from DJ-1 knockout and wild-type mice a...
Article
The radical scavenging antioxidants play an essential role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, and a thorough understanding of the action and capacity of antioxidants is critically important. Despite the assumption that antioxidants must exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress, many large-scale randomized controlled t...
Article
In this study, we examined the relationship between fatigue and plasma concentrations of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed overnight desk work for 18hours then took a nap for 4hours. Participants answered questionnaires of subjective symptoms of fatigue (QSSF) and completed a self-assessment of fati...
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Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common liver disease affecting high proportion of the population worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis and cancer. NAFLD is considered as a multifactorial disease i...
Article
Groundnut (Apios americana Medik) contains a novel isoflavone, genistein-7-O-gentiobioside. In the present study, we examined the biological activities of an alcohol extract of groundnut containing genistein-7-O-gentiobioside as the main component. Although the groundnut extract by itself did not show antioxidative activity, it drove the antioxidat...
Article
Multiple reactive oxygen/nitrogen species induce oxidative stress. Mammals have evolved with an elaborate defense network against oxidative stress, in which multiple antioxidant compounds and enzymes with different functions exert their respective roles. Radical scavenging is one of the essential roles of antioxidants and vitamin E is the most abun...
Article
Background: Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation has been implicated in a number of human diseases. Diverse methods have been developed and applied to measure lipid peroxidation products as potential biomarkers to assess oxidative stress status in vivo, discover early indication of disease, diagnose progression of disease, and evaluate the eff...
Article
Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) is used for industrial applications such as catalysts and pigments. In the classical form, namely the fine particle, Cr2O3 is insoluble and chemically stable. It is classified as a low-toxicity chromium compound. Recently, industrial application of nanoparticles (a new form composed of small particles with a diameter of...
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces host inflammatory responses and tissue injury and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various age-related diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, vascular diseases, and periodontal disease. Antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, have been shown to suppress oxidative stress induced by LPS, but the...
Article
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) was discovered nearly 100 years ago because it was required to prevent fetal resorption in pregnant, vitamin E-deficient rats fed lard-containing diets that were easily oxidizable. The human diet contains eight different vitamin E-related molecules synthesized by plants; despite the fact that all of these molecules are pero...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative modification of biologically essential molecules by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. At the same time, roles of ROS/RNS as physiological signaling messenger have been established. Lipid oxidation products also have two faces. It is argued that the radical scavengin...
Article
Abstract Carotenoids act as physiological antioxidant by scavenging reactive-free radicals as well as quenching singlet oxygen. Fucoxanthin is one of the abundant carotenoids found in edible brown seaweeds. The assessment of radical scavenging capacity of carotenoids has been the subject of extensive studies, which, however, gave inconsistent resul...
Article
Carotenoids have received much attention as natural antioxidants. The role and action of carotenoids as singlet oxygen quenchers have been well demonstrated. The radical scavenging is another function of carotenoids as antioxidants, but the method to assess the radical scavenging capacity has not been established and previous studies have given inc...
Article
The aim of the present study is to understand the association between metal ion release from nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles and induction of oxidative stress in the lung. NiO nanoparticles have cytotoxic activity through nickel ion release and subsequent oxidative stress. However, the interaction of oxidative stress and nickel ion release in vivo...
Article
Thiol compounds exert diverse functions in the defense network against oxidative stress in vivo. Above all, the role of glutathione in the enzymatic removal of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides has been well established. The scavenging of reactive free radicals is one of the many functions. In this study, the reactivities of several thiol...
Article
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An excessive accumulation of fat in the liver leads to chronic liver injury such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is an important medical problem affecting many populations worldwide. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, but the exact nature of active species and the underlying mechanisms have not be...
Article
With increasing evidence showing the involvement of oxidative stress induced by free radicals in the development of various diseases, the role of radical-scavenging antioxidants has received much attention. Although many randomized controlled clinical trials do not support the beneficial effects of indiscriminate supplementation of antioxidants, mo...
Article
Artificially oxidized cysteine residues in peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) were detected by electrospray interface capillary liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry after the preparation of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). We used Prx6 as a model protein because it possesses only two cysteine residues at the 47th and 91st positio...
Chapter
Free and ester forms of fatty acids and cholesterol are physiologically important lipids. They are oxidized by free radicals to give diverse products. Above all, polyunsaturated fatty acids having more than two double bonds and their esters are quite susceptible to free radical attack and oxidized by chain mechanism. These lipids are oxidized also...
Article
Association of cellular influences and physical and chemical properties were examined for 24 kinds of industrial metal oxide nanoparticles: ZnO, CuO, NiO, Sb(2)O(3), CoO, MoO(3), Y(2)O(3), MgO, Gd(2)O(3), SnO(2), WO(3), ZrO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), CeO(2), Al(2)O(3), Bi(2)O(3), La(2)O(3), ITO, and cobalt blue pigments. We prepared a stable medium dis...
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Oxidants and antioxidants, like many other things, have two faces. Lipids, important biological substances of aerobic organisms, are oxidized by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formed inevitably in vivo to give diverse products. The emerging evidence suggests that lipid peroxidation products have also two faces. Lipid peroxidation products alt...
Article
Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) is an important metal oxide used for industrial products. Many investigations about the cellular influence of CeO(2) nanoparticles have been done, but results are contradictory. It has been reported that CeO(2) nanoparticles have an anti-oxidative effect in cells, but it has also been reported that CeO(2) nanoparticles induce...
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Nickel oxide (NiO) is an important industrial material, and it is also a harmful agent. The toxicity of NiO is size-related: nanoparticles are more toxic than fine-particles. The toxic mechanism induced by NiO nanoparticles remains unexplained, and the relationship between in vitro and in vivo NiO toxicity results is unclear. In the present study,...
Article
It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, but the effectiveness of antioxidant treatment remains inconclusive. We tested whether chronic administration of α-tocopherol ameliorates the cognitive deficits exhibited by Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model of Down syndrome. α-Tocopherol was administered to preg...
Article
α-Tocopheryl phosphate (α-TP), a water-soluble analogue of α-tocopherol, is found in humans, animals, and plants. α-TP is resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis and may exert its own function in this form in vivo. In this study, the uptake, hydrolysis, and antioxidant action of α-TP were measured using α-TP with a deuterated methyl group, C...
Article
Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Numerous in vitro and animal studies show that oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is an important initial event of atherosclerosis. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation efficiently in vi...
Article
The role of antioxidants in the maintenance of health and prevention of disorders and diseases has received much attention. Above all, the action and effects of natural antioxidants contained in foods, fruits, spices, beverages and dietary supplements have been the subjects of extensive studies. The capacity of antioxidants has been assessed by var...
Article
It is now widely accepted that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and consequently the role of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of diseases has received much attention of scientists, clinicians and general...
Article
Glutamate plays a critical role in pathological cell death within the nervous system. Vitamin E is known to protect cells from glutamate cytotoxicity, either by direct antioxidant action or by indirect nonantioxidant action. Further, α-tocotrienol (α-T3) has been reported to be more effective against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity than α-tocopherol...
Article
DJ-1, the causative gene of a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD), has been reported undergo oxidation preferentially at the 106th cysteine residue (Cys-106) under oxidative stress. Recently, it has been found that the levels of oxidized DJ-1 in erythrocytes of unmedicated PD patients are markedly higher than those in medicated PD patients an...
Article
Even though there have been some investigations into cellular responses induced by ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in vitro, the relationship between cellular responses and secondary particle size is still not clear. In this study, a stable and uniform TiO(2)-cell culture-medium dispersion was prepared, and cellular responses prompted by "ultra...
Article
Because of the expansion of the functionalities available for modification of fullerene C60 and its derivatives, their uses are increasing. However, the consequences of fullerene exposure to human health have not been fully studied. In vitro experiments are useful for risk assessment and for understanding potential applications. However, the insolu...
Book
Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications critically evaluates the basic concepts and methodologies of conventional biomarkers as well as current state-of-the-art assays for measuring antioxidant activity/oxidative stress and their practical applications. Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Ox...
Chapter
Introduction Mechanism and Dynamics of Linoleate Oxidation Role of Antioxidants Against lipid Oxidation Measurement of Hode Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity In Vivo By tHODE tHODE Levels in Healthy Subjects and Diseased Patients tHODE Levels in Animal Experiments Conclusion References
Article
The primary products from peroxidation of linoleate in biological tissues and fluids are the hydroperoxy octadecadienoates, and the products normally assayed, after reduction of the hydroperoxides, are the corresponding hydroxy octadecadienoates (HODEs). The HODEs are found in tissues and fluids as a mixture of Z,E and E,E stereoisomers. Two regioi...
Article
The role and beneficial effects of antioxidants against various disorders and diseases induced by oxidative stress have received much attention. Many types of antioxidants with different functions play their role in the defense network in vivo. The free radical scavenging antioxidants are one of the important classes of antioxidants and the assessm...
Article
The present study performed proteomic analysis of the midbrain and striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated neonatal rats--a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Proteomic analysis revealed that a 58-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp58) was temporarily phosphorylated and its level was elevated by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, 6-O...
Article
The oxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA induced by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the development of various diseases, and the role of antioxidants has received much attention. Free-radical scavenging antioxidants play an important role in the defense network in vivo, and assessment of the capacity of antioxidants has been the su...
Article
Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Lipid peroxidation products are cytotoxic and they modify proteins and DNA bases, leading eventually to degenerative disorders. Various synthetic antioxidants have been developed and assessed for their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxi...
Chapter
AbbreviationsIntroductionNonenzymatic, Free Radical-Mediated Chain Oxidation of LipidsPhotooxidationEnzymatic OxidationInhibition of OxidationReferences
Article
Ample evidence supports the critical role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidation of LDL is a complex process involving several steps (processes) of reactions such as initiation and propagation. Both proteins and lipids in LDL undergo free radical-mediated oxidations leading to the fo...
Article
DJ-1 was initially identified as a novel oncogene and has recently been found to be a causative gene for a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD), viz, PARK7. Cysteine residue at position 106 (Cys-106) in DJ-1 was found to be oxidized preferentially under oxidative stress. In the present study, we developed specific antibodies against Cys-106-ox...
Article
The possible involvement of oxidative stress in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver damage and hepatocarcinogenesis has been reported. We have recently developed a novel method to measure total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE) and have proposed its usefulness as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate o...
Article
The action of C60 fullerene and its derivatives as a radical-scavenging antioxidant has received much attention, but their reactivity toward free radicals and antioxidant capacity have not been well elucidated yet. In the present study, the reactivity of the two types of water-soluble, sugar-pendant C60 fullerenes, C60-1S and C60-2S, toward peroxyl...
Article
Nickel oxide (NiO) is one of the important industrial materials used in electronic substrates and for ceramic engineering. Advancements in industrial technology have enabled the manufacture of ultrafine NiO particles. On the other hand, it is well-known that nickel compounds exert toxic effects. The toxicity of nickel compounds is mainly caused by...
Article
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been shown to induce disturbance of membrane organization and functional loss and modification of proteins and DNA bases, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. At the same time, LPO products have been shown to act as redox signaling mediators. Free and ester forms of both polyunsaturated fa...
Article
Epigallocatechin gallate, a major component of green tea polyphenols, protects against the oxidation of fat-soluble antioxidants including lutein. The current study determined the effect of a relatively high but a dietary achievable dose of lutein or lutein plus green tea extract on antioxidant status. Healthy subjects (50-70 years) were randomly a...
Article
The role of antioxidants contained in foods, beverages, and supplements against oxidative stress has received much attention. The capacity of antioxidants has been assessed by various methods. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of a complex mixture of fermented grains has been assessed by using two probes, pyranine and pyrogallol red (PGR). A...
Article
Many investigations about the cellular response by metal oxide nanoparticles in vitro have been reported. However, the influence of the adsorption ability of metal oxide nanoparticles toward cells is unknown. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of adsorption by metal oxide nanoparticles on the cell viability in vitro. The adsorptio...
Article
It has been hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in aging. In order to elucidate the role of the antioxidant network - including alpha-tocopherol (alphaT) and alphaT transfer protein - in aging in vivo, alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (alphaTTP(-/-)) mice were fed a vitamin-E-depleted diet, and wild-type (WT) mice were fed...
Article
There is increasing evidence indicating that free radicals and oxygenases such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are related to the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases. In order to prevent and/or delay these diseases, the use of radical-scavenging antioxidants and inhibitors against oxygenases has received much attentio...
Chapter
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In recent years, industrial or commercial products incorporating nanomaterials have triggered concerns for human health. Manufactured nanomaterials are unstable and tend to form secondary particles by agglomeration. Little is known about the cytotoxicity induced by nano-sized secondary particles dispersed in aqueous solution. In the present study,...
Article
Carboxyethyl-6-hydroxychromans (CEHC), the major metabolites of both tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (Toc-3), have been found in human plasma. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of α- and γ-CEHC were measured and compared with α- and γ- tocopherols. Following results were obtained: (1)α- and γ-CEHC have the same reactivities toward...
Article
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Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were determined in forty healthy men and postmenopausal women aged 50-70 years (F25, M15), who underwent concurrent eye examinations. Blood samples were collected for analysing major well-known antioxidants by HPLC systems with UV and ECD detectors, total antioxidant performance using a fluorometry, lipid per...
Article
The role of radical scavenging antioxidants against oxidative stress has received much attention, and the antioxidant capacity has been assessed by various methods. Among them, a method that measures the effect of antioxidant on decay of the probe is one of the most widely used methods. The present study was performed to compare the two methods to...
Article
Increasing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species and other physiologically existing oxidative stimuli upregulate the antioxidant system, thereby triggering the adaptive response. In this study, we focused on adaptive cytoprotection induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines, in PC12 cell...