Etheresia Pretorius's research while affiliated with University of Liverpool and other places

Publications (80)

Article
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Background Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also now known as long COVID, has become a major global health and economic burden. Previously, we provided evidence that there is a significant insoluble fibrin amyloid microclot load in the circulation of individuals with long COVID, and that these microclots entrap a substantial number of inflam...
Article
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Ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, initiated via bursts of reactive oxygen species produced during the reoxygenation phase following hypoxia, is well known in a variety of acute circumstances. We argue here that I-R injury also underpins elements of the pathology of a variety of chronic, inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, ME/CF...
Preprint
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Earlier variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been associated with plasma hypercoagulability (as judged by thromboelastography) and an extensive formation of fibrin amyloid microclots, which are considered to contribute to the pathology of the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19). The newer Omicron variants appear to be far more transmissible, but less virule...
Article
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Background Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation previously reported as a novel finding in South African patients with the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of Long COVID/PASC. A Long COVID/PAS...
Article
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a point mutation in the beta-globin gene. SCD is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusive events leading to tissue ischemia, and progressive organ failure. Chronic inflammatory state is part of the pathophysiology of SCD. Patients with SCD have extremely variable phenotypes, from mild disease...
Article
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We have previously demonstrated that platelet-poor plasma (PPP) obtained from patients with Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state and contains hyperactivated platelets and considerable numbers of already-formed amyloid fibrin(ogen) or fibrinaloid microclots. Due to the substantial overlap in s...
Preprint
We have previously demonstrated that platelet poor plasma (PPP) obtained from patients with LongCovid/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state reflected in hyperactivated platelets and the presence of considerable numbers of fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots or fibrinaloid microclots. Due to substantial overl...
Preprint
We have previously demonstrated that platelet poor plasma (PPP) obtained from patients with LongCovid/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state reflected in hyperactivated platelets and the presence of considerable numbers of fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots or fibrinaloid microclots. Due to substantial overl...
Article
Full-text available
Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, global governing bodies prioritized transmissibility-based precautions and hospital capacity as the foundation for delay of elective procedures. As elective surgical volumes increased, convalescent COVID-19 patients faced increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and clinicians had li...
Article
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Post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC), usually referred to as 'Long COVID' (a phenotype of COVID-19), is a relatively frequent consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in which symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, 'brain fog', tissue damage, inflammation, and coagulopathies (dysfunctions of the blood coagulation system) persist long after the initia...
Article
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main structural component of the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and has diverse immunostimulatory and procoagulant effects. Even though LPS is well described for its role in the pathology of sepsis, considerable evidence demonstrates that LPS-induced signalling and immune dysregulation are also relevan...
Preprint
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This is study of microclots in long-COVID patients, including treatment thereof, and a data-driven correlation of comorbidities with long-COVID symptoms. This is a corrected version. The preprint original is also at: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1205453/v1
Article
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial chronic metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance and a deficiency in insulin secretion. The global diabetes pandemic relates primarily to T2DM, which is the most prevalent form of diabetes, accounting for over 90% of all cases. Chronic low-grade inflammati...
Preprint
Background : Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation previously reported as a novel finding in South African patients with the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of long COVID/PASC. A Long COVID/P...
Preprint
Full-text available
We recognise that fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation, that we have previously observed in COVID-19 and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) patients, might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of long COVID/PASC. We first report on the comorbidities and symptoms found in a coh...
Article
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Many factors in the surrounding environment have been reported to influence erythrocyte deformability. It is likely that some influences represent reversible changes in erythrocyte rigidity that may be involved in physiological regulation, while others represent the early stages of eryptosis, i.e., the red cell self-programmed death. For example, e...
Article
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An important component of severe COVID-19 disease is virus-induced endothelilitis. This leads to disruption of normal endothelial function, initiating a state of failing normal clotting physiology. Massively increased levels of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) lead to overwhelming platelet activation, as well as activation of the enzymatic (intrinsic) c...
Article
The functions of platelets are broad. Platelets function in hemostasis and thrombosis, inflammation and immune responses, vascular regulation, and host defense against invading pathogens, among others. These actions are achieved through the release of a wide set of coagulative, vascular, inflammatory, and other factors as well as diverse cell surfa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in p...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) -induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S...
Article
Full-text available
Psoriasis (PsO) is a common T cell-mediated inflammatory disorder of the skin with an estimated prevalence of 2%. The condition manifests most commonly as erythematous plaques covered with scales. The aetiology of PsO is multifactorial and disease initiation involves interactions between environmental factors, susceptibility genes, and innate and a...
Preprint
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (SARS-Cov-2) has caused a worldwide, sudden and substantial increase in hospitalizations for pneumonia with multiorgan problems. An important issue is also that there is still no unified standard for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Substantial vascular events are significant accompaniments to lung co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in p...
Article
Full-text available
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2% of the general population, which can be accompanied by psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The condition has been associated with an increased cardiovascular burden. Hypercoagulability is a potential underlying mechanism that may contribute to the increased risk of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in patients aft...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background & Aims: The initiation, development, and progression of many cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC), are associated with environmental factors. A significant link exists between specific bacterial infections and cancer incidence, with a strong association between chronic infection, chronic inflammation and colorectal carcinogenesis....
Article
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The immune and inflammatory responses of platelets to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and its envelope proteins are of great significance to both the treatment of the infection, and to the comorbidities related to systemic inflammation. Platelets can interact with the HIV-1 virus itself, or with viral membrane proteins, or with dysregulated...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral aneurysms are balloon-like structures that develop on weakened areas of cerebral artery walls, with a significant risk of rupture. Thrombi formation is closely associated with cerebral aneurysms and has been observed both before and after intervention, leading to a wide variability of outcomes in patients with the condition. The attempt to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) -induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S...
Article
There is a causal relationship between cancer (including colorectal cancer), chronic systemic inflammation and persistent infections, and the presence of dysregulated circulating inflammatory markers. It is known that aberrant clot formation and coagulopathies occur in systemic inflammation. In colorectal cancer, there is close link between gut dys...
Article
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in women worldwide. Clinical research indicates that BC patients are at an increased risk for thrombotic events, drastically decreasing their quality-of-life and treatment outcomes. There is ample evidence of this in the literature, but it is mainly focused on metastatic BC. Therefore,...
Article
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Neuronal lesions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced cell damage that are present both in the central and peripheral nervous systems of patients, with the enteric nervous system also being especially vulnerable. Here, we bring together evidence that the development and presence of PD depends on speci...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The risk of cardiovascular events in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is disproportionately heightened as a result of systemic inflammation. The relative effect of autoimmune-associated citrullination on the structure and thrombotic potential of fibrin(ogen) remains unknown. We therefore compared indices of vascular function, inflammati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated inflammatory profile. Coagulation tests are not routinely performed unless there is a specific reason. Methods: We recruited...
Article
Full-text available
Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies are a common accompaniment to both T2DM and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharynge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuronal lesions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced cell damage that are present both in the central and peripheral nervous systems of patients, with the enteric nervous system also being especially vulnerable. Here we bring together evidence that the development and presence of PD depends on specif...
Article
Full-text available
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major subgingival plaque bacterium in periodontitis, has recently attracted much attention as a possible microbial driver in Alzheimer's disease. In the present paper, another common neuroinflammatory disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), is discussed. A recent study found major virulence factors of P. gingivalis such as gi...
Article
Full-text available
Progressive respiratory failure is seen as a major cause of death in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection. Relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the circulation of these patients. In particular, platelet and erythrocyte pathology might result in severe vascular...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies are a common accompaniment to both T2DM and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyng...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies are a common accompaniment to both T2DM and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharynge...
Preprint
Full-text available
The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated whether the individual was infected or not would be highly desirable. Coagulaopathies are a common accompaniment to COVID-19, especially micro-...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection, is strongly associated with various coagulopathies that may result in either bleeding and thrombocytopenia or hypercoagulation and thrombosis. Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompanim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection is strongly associated with various coagulopathies that may result in either bleeding and thrombocytopenia or hypercoagulation and thrombosis. Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompaniments to acute r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis and its inflammagens are associated with a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The proteases, gingipains, have also recently been identified in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients. Bacterial inflammagens,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective The risk of cardiovascular events in patients with RA is disproportionately heightened as a result of systemic inflammation. The relative effect of autoimmune-associated citrullination on the structure and thrombotic potential of fibrin(ogen) remains unknown. We therefore compared indices of vascular function, inflammation, coagulation an...
Article
Full-text available
Gut dysbiosis contributes to the development of a dysfunctional gut barrier, facilitating the translocation of bacteria and inflammagens, and is implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Such ‘leaky gut’ conditions result in systemic inflammation, of which a hallmark is increased hypercoagulability. Fluorescence antibody confocal microsco...
Article
Full-text available
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of complex etiopathogenic origin and traditionally characterized by chronic synovitis and articular erosions. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that infectious agents, including those that become dormant within the host, play a major role in much of the etiology of RA and its hallmark of inflam...
Article
Full-text available
Lactoferrin is a nutrient classically found in mammalian milk. It binds iron and is transferred via a variety of receptors into and between cells, serum, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid. It has important immunological properties, and is both antibacterial and antiviral. In particular, there is evidence that it can bind to at least some of the recepto...
Article
Full-text available
Thrombocytopenia is commonly associated with sepsis and infections, which in turn are characterized by a profound immune reaction to the invading pathogen. Platelets are one of the cellular entities that exert considerable immune, antibacterial, and antiviral actions, and are therefore active participants in the host response. Platelets are sensiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis and its inflammagens is associated with a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The proteases, gingipains have also recently been identified in brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients and in blood of Parkinson’s disease patients. Bacterial inflammagens, including...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated inflammatory profile. Coagulation tests are not routinely performed unless there is a specific reason. Methods We recruited ten h...
Article
Full-text available
Ergothioneine (ERG) is an unusual thio-histidine betaine amino acid that has potent antioxidant activities. It is synthesised by a variety of microbes, especially fungi (including in mushroom fruiting bodies) and actinobacteria, but is not synthesised by plants and animals who acquire it via the soil and their diet, respectively. Animals have evolv...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Migraine is a debilitating primary headache disorder with a poorly understood aetiology. An extensive body of literature supports the theory of migraine as a systemic vascular inflammatory disorder characterised by endothelial dysfunction. It is also well-known that chronic inflammation results in an excessive burden of oxidative stre...
Article
Proteins are versatile macromolecules that perform a variety of functions and participate in virtually all cellular processes. The functionality of a protein greatly depends on its structure and alterations may result in the development of disease states. Most well-known of these are protein misfolding disorders, which include Alzheimer’s and Parki...
Preprint
Background. Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated inflammatory profile. Coagulation tests are not routinely performed unless there is a specific reason. Methods. We recruited te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated inflammatory profile. Coagulation tests are not routinely performed unless there is a specific reason. Methods We recruited ten h...