Esteban Ballestar's research while affiliated with IJC Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute and other places

Publications (234)

Preprint
Background: DNA methylation profiling of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has rapidly become a promising strategy for biomarker identification and development. The cell-type-specific nature of DNA methylation patterns and the direct relationship between cfDNA and apoptosis can potentially be used non-invasively to predict local alterations. In add...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a complex systemic vasculitis mediated by the interplay between both genetic and epigenetic factors. Monocytes are crucial players of the inflammation occurring in GCA. Therefore, characterisation of the monocyte methylome and transcriptome in GCA would be helpful to better understand disease pathogenesis....
Preprint
Dendritic cells (DCs) are central in the immune system, bridging the adaptive and innate immune responses. Research on in vitro differentiation of DCs from monocytes provides both in-depth understanding of the analogous in vivo process and potential sources for cancer cell therapy. Active DNA demethylation is crucial in DC differentiation. Vitamin...
Article
Full-text available
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, displays impaired terminal B-cell differentiation and defective antibody responses. Incomplete genetic penetrance and ample phenotypic expressivity in CVID suggest the participation of additional pathogenic mechanisms. Monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying predictive biomarkers at early stages of early inflammatory arthritis is crucial for starting appropriate therapies to avoid poor outcomes. Monocytes and macrophages, largely associated with arthritis, are contributors and sensors of inflammation through epigenetic modifications. In this study, we investigated associations between clini...
Article
Full-text available
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells with the distinctive property of inducing the priming and differentiation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into helper and cytotoxic effector T cells to develop efficient tumor-immune responses. DCs display pathogenic and tumorigenic antigens on their surface through major histocompatibi...
Article
Full-text available
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, induces a stable tolerogenic phenotype in dendritic cells (DCs). This process involves the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which translocates to the nucleus, binds its cognate genomic sites, and promotes epigenetic and transcriptional remodeling. In this study, we report the occurrence of vitamin D-...
Preprint
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, is characterized by impaired terminal B-cell differentiation and defective antibody responses. Incomplete genetic penetrance and a wide range of phenotypic expressivity in CVID suggest the participation of additional pathogenic mechanisms. Monozygotic...
Article
Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Dendritic cells (DCs), central actors for coordinating immune responses, acquire tolerogenic properties in response to GCs. Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) have emerged as a potential treatment for various inflammatory diseases. To date,...
Article
Full-text available
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and damage of exocrine salivary and lacrimal glands. The etiology of SS is complex with environmental triggers and genetic factors involved. By conducting an integrated multi-omics study, we confirmed a vast coordinated hypomethylation and ove...
Article
During the past twenty years, a wide range of studies have established the existence of epigenetic alterations, particularly DNA methylation changes, in lupus. Epigenetic changes might have different contributions in children-onset versus adult-onset lupus. DNA methylation alterations have been identified and characterized in relation to disease ac...
Article
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is the most common focal epilepsy in adults. It is characterized by alarming rates of pharmacoresistance. Epileptogenesis is associated with the occurrence of epigenetic alterations, and the few epigenetic studies carried out in MTLE-HS have mainly focused on the hippocampus. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial challenges, such as widespread bacterial infection in sepsis, induce endotoxin tolerance, a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent infections. The participation of DNA methylation in this process is poorly known. In this study, we perform integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptional changes following in vitro exposure to...
Preprint
Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Dendritic cells (DCs), central actors for coordinating immune responses, acquire tolerogenic properties in response to GCs. Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) have emerged as a potential treatment for various inflammatory diseases. To date,...
Article
Objective Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is the term used to cover all the cases of arthritis that do not fit a specific diagnosis. A significant percentage of UA patients progress to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), others to a different definite rheumatic disease, and the rest undergo spontaneous remission. Therapeutic intervention in patients with UA...
Article
Full-text available
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates antibody diversification in germinal center B cells by deaminating cytosines, leading to somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. Loss-of-function mutations in AID lead to hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2), a rare human primary antibody deficiency. AID-mediated deamination has been proposed...
Article
The epigenome is at the interface between environmental factors and the genome, regulating gene transcription, DNA repair and replication. Epigenetic modifications play a crucial role in establishing and maintaining cell identity and are especially crucial for neurology, musculoskeletal integrity, and the function of the immune system. Mutations in...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple myeloma (MM) progression and myeloma-associated bone disease (MBD) are highly dependent on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MM-MSCs exhibit abnormal transcriptomes, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms governing their tumor-promoting functions and prolonged osteoblast suppression. Here, we identify widespread DN...
Article
Summary: Illumina DNA methylation bead arrays provide a cost-effective platform for the simultaneous analysis of a high number of human samples. However, the analysis can be time-demanding and requires some computational expertise. shinyÉPICo is an interactive, web-based, and graphical tool that allows the user to analyze Illumina DNA methylation a...
Preprint
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is the term used to cover all the cases of arthritis that do not fit a specific diagnosis. A significant percentage of UA patients progress to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), others to a different definite rheumatic disease, and the rest undergo spontaneous remission. Therapeutic intervention in patients with UA...
Article
Microglia are myeloid-derived cells recognized as brain-resident macrophages. They act as the first and main line of immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia have high phenotypic plasticity and are essential for regulating healthy brain homeostasis, and their dysregulation underlies the onset and progression of several CNS path...
Article
Objective Clinical heterogeneity, a hallmark of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) impedes early diagnosis and effective treatment, issues that may be addressed if patients could be grouped into a molecular defined stratification. Methods With the aim of reclassifying SADs independently of the clinical diagnoses, unsupervised clustering of integr...
Article
Dendritic cells (DCs), the most efficient antigen-presenting cells, are necessary for the effective activation of naïve T cells. DCs can also acquire tolerogenic functions in vivo and in vitro in response to various stimuli, including interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, vitamin D3, corticosteroids, and rapamycin. In this review...
Article
Full-text available
Robust protocols and automation now enable large-scale single-cell RNA and ATAC sequencing experiments and their application on biobank and clinical cohorts. However, technical biases introduced during sample acquisition can hinder solid, reproducible results, and a systematic benchmarking is required before entering large-scale data production. He...
Preprint
Full-text available
[Abstract] In late 2019 and through 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic swept the world, presenting both scientific and medical challenges associated with understanding and treating a previously unknown disease. To help address the need for great understanding of COVID-19, the scientific community mobilized and banded together rapidly to characterize SARS-...
Article
Full-text available
In late 2019 and through 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic swept the world, presenting both scientific and medical challenges associated with understanding and treating a previously unknown disease. To help address the need for great understanding of COVID-19, the scientific community mobilized and banded together rapidly to characterize SARS-CoV-2 infec...
Preprint
Microbial challenges, such as widespread bacterial infection, induce endotoxin tolerance. This state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent infections is mainly displayed by monocytes and macrophages. Endotoxin tolerance is generally acquired following a septic episode. In this study, we investigated DNA methylation changes during the acquisition of i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and damage of exocrine salivary and lacrimal glands. The etiology of SS is complex with environmental triggers and genetic factors involved. By conducting an integrated multi-omics study we identified vast coordinated hypomethylation and overe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease mediated by the interplay between genetic and epigenetic factors in a multitude of immune cells, with CD4+ T lymphocytes as one of the principle drivers of pathogenesis. Methods: DNA samples exacted from CD4+ T cells of 48 SSc patients and 16 healthy controls were h...
Article
Methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, the best studied epigenetic modification, is associated with gene transcription and nuclear organization, and ultimately the function of a cell. DNA methylation can be influenced by various factors, including changes in neighbouring genomic sites such as those induced by transcription factor binding. The DNA...
Preprint
Full-text available
System sclerosis (SSc) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease mediated by the interplay between genetic and epigenetic factors in a multitude of immune cells, with CD4+ T lymphocytes as one of the principle drivers of pathogenesis. In this study, we obtained DNA methylation and expression profiles of CD4+ T cells from 48 SSc patients and 16 he...
Preprint
Full-text available
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), induces stable tolerogenesis in dendritic cells (DCs). This process involves the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which translocates to the nucleus, binds its cognate genomic sites, and promotes epigenetic and transcriptional remodeling. In this study, we investigated the interplay betw...
Conference Paper
Background Clinical heterogeneity, a hallmark of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) impedes early diagnosis and effective treatment, issues that may be addressed if patients could be grouped into a molecular defined stratification. Methods With the aim of reclassifying SADs independently of the clinical diagnoses, unsupervised clustering of integ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Clinical heterogeneity, a hallmark of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) impedes early diagnosis and effective treatment, issues that may be addressed if patients could be grouped into a molecular defined stratification. Methods: With the aim of reclassifying SADs independently of the clinical diagnoses, unsupervised clustering of inte...
Article
Full-text available
Immune cells are one of the most complex and diverse systems in the human organism. Such diversity implies an intricate network of different cell types and interactions that are dependently interconnected. The processes by which different cell types differentiate from progenitors, mature, and finally exert their function requires an orchestrated su...
Preprint
Full-text available
Robust protocols and automation now enable large-scale single-cell RNA and ATAC sequencing experiments and their application on biobank and clinical cohorts. However, technical biases introduced during sample acquisition can hinder solid, reproducible results and a systematic benchmarking is required before entering large-scale data production. Her...
Chapter
Autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders include a wide range of pathological conditions in the inflammatory spectrum with different contributions of aberrant adaptive and innate responses. In this context, there is a strong genetic component, ranging from genetically complex diseases to monogenic syndromes. In all cases, it is recognized that gen...
Article
Full-text available
Sirtuins 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2) are two NAD-dependent deacetylases with major roles in inflammation. In addition to deacetylating histones and other proteins, SIRT1/2-mediated regulation is coupled with other epigenetic enzymes. Here, we investigate the links between SIRT1/2 activity and DNA methylation in macrophage differentiation due to their relevan...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-omics approaches use a diversity of high-throughput technologies to profile the different molecular layers of living cells. Ideally, the integration of this information should result in comprehensive systems models of cellular physiology and regulation. However, most multi-omics projects still include a limited number of molecular assays and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated systemic immune response to infection, associates with reduced responsiveness to subsequent infections. How such tolerance is acquired is not well understood but is known to involve epigenetic and transcriptional dysregulation. Methods: Bead arrays were used to com...
Article
In the past decade, we have witnessed considerable developments in understanding the roles and functions of miRNAs. In parallel, the identification of alterations in miRNA expression in inflammatory disease indicates their potential as therapeutic targets. Pharmacological treatments targeting abnormally expressed miRNAs for inflammatory diseases ar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multiple myeloma (MM) progression and myeloma-associated bone disease (MBD) are highly dependent on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, in particular on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs from MM patients exhibit an abnormal transcriptional profile, suggesting that epigenetic alterations could be governing the tumor-promoting functions of MS...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mutations in activation induced deaminase (AID) lead to hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2), a rare human primary antibody deficiency. AID-mediated cytosine deamination has been proposed as mediating active demethylation, although evidences both support and cast doubt on such a role. We here made use of HIGM2 B cells to investigate direct AID involve...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD) is a rare complex systemic autoimmune disease (SAD) characterized by the presence of increased levels of anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein autoantibodies and signs and symptoms that resemble other SADs such as systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Due to its low p...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that mainly targets joints. Monocytes and macrophages are critical in RA pathogenesis and contribute to inflammatory lesions. These extremely plastic cells respond to extracellular signals which cause epigenomic changes that define their pathogenic phenotype. Here, we inte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-omics approaches use a diversity of high-throughput technologies to profile the different molecular layers of living cells. Ideally, the integration of this information should result in comprehensive systems models of cellular physiology and regulation. However, most multi-omics projects still include a limited number of molecular assays and...
Data
Selected CpG in different genes, it is indicated the chromosome localization (Chr) and map info. From Kulis et al. we obtained the methylation status the mean of the two replicates in naive (N) and Memory (M) B cells. We performed the Difference (Mean N- Mean M) and the Ratio (Mean M/Mean N).
Data
Representation of available methylation data of CpGs (in black) with the selected CpG in red. The Transcription Start Site (TSS) is indicated for each gene with the exons represented in blue boxes; and the CpG islands in green boxes. Log2 Ratio calculated as the % DNA methylation (memory B cells/naïve B cells).
Data
Sorting strategy. B cell subpopulations were sorted from PBMCs, lymphocytes were identified by forward (FSC) and scatter (SSC) properties. Total B cells were identified by CD19+, and classified according to IgD and CD27 expression into Naïve (CD19+IgD+CD27−), unswitched memory USm (CD19+IgD+CD27+) and switched memory Sm (CD19+IgD−CD27+) B cells.
Data
Selected genes in blue implication in B cell survival (BAFFR), PI3K activation pathway (AKT1 and FOXO), NFκB canonical pathway (BCL-10, MALT1), NFκB alternative activation pathway (NFκB2), JAK/ STAT signaling from cytokine receptors (STAT3), masterclass regulator of germinal center reaction (BCL-6) and AID for CSR and SHM in the germinal center.
Article
Full-text available
Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by impaired antibody production and poor terminal differentiation of the B cell compartment, yet its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. We first reported the occurrence of epigenetic alterations in CVID by high-throughput methylation analysis in CVID-discordant monozygotic twins. Data f...
Chapter
The molecular mechanisms of inflammation involve a series of processes that start as extracellular signals that interact with membrane-bound receptors, cell signaling cascades, nuclear factors, and epigenetic enzymes that activate a specific gene expression program. Environmental factors and/or genetic defects can result in constitutive activation...
Conference Paper
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions with autoimmune aetiology and many common clinical features, leading to a difficult diagnosis or deciding the appropriate treatment. Finding new treatments or applying the existing ones in a more effective way is especially hard in SADs due to the heterogeneity of mo...
Article
Compelling evidences highlight the critical role of the tumor microenvironment as mediator of tumor progression and immunosuppression in several types of cancer. The reciprocal interplay between neoplastic and non-tumoral host cells is mediated by direct cell-to-cell contact, soluble factors and exosomes that result in differential gene expression...
Article
Full-text available
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) triggers antibody diversification in B cells by catalysing deamination and subsequently mutating immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Association of AID with RNA Pol II and occurrence of epigenetic changes during Ig gene diversification suggest participation of AID in epigenetic regulation. AID is mutated in hyper-...
Article
Full-text available
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) arise from common progenitors. Tumor-derived factors redirect differentiation from immune-promoting DCs to tolerogenic MDSCs, an immunological hallmark of cancer. Indeed, in vitro differentiation of DCs from human primary monocytes results in the generation of MDSCs under tumor-asso...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, awareness of the importance of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases has grown in parallel with a general recognition of the fundamental role of epigenetics in the regulation of gene expression. Large-scale efforts to generate genome-wide maps of epigenetic modifications in different cell types, as w...
Article
Myeloid cells are extremely plastic as they respond and terminally differentiate into a plethora of functional types, in the blood or tissues, in response to a variety of growth factors, cytokines and pathogenic molecules. This plasticity is also manifested by the subversion of normal differentiation into the aberrant generation of a variety of tol...
Article
Full-text available
The plasticity of myeloid cells is illustrated by a diversity of functions including their role as effectors of innate immunity as macrophages (MACs) and bone remodelling as osteoclasts (OCs). TET2, a methylcytosine dioxygenase highly expressed in these cells and frequently mutated in myeloid leukemias, may be a key contributor to this plasticity....
Article
Full-text available
The concept of autoinflammation has evolved over the past 20 years, beginning with the discovery that mutations in the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene were causative of Familial Mediterranean Fever. Currently, autoinflammatory diseases comprise a wide range of disorders with the common features of recurrent fever attacks, prevalence of hyperreactiv...
Chapter
Autoimmune disorders (AIDs) affect around 1% of the world’s population and, given the high morbidity associated with them, have a serious impact on the quality of life and so constitute a major public health concern. AIDs are a group of sometimes overlapping entities, ranging from systemic multiorgan diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (...