Espen Finstad's research while affiliated with Hampshire County Council and other places

Publications (10)

Article
Full-text available
Glacial archaeology is a developing field, brought on by climate change. High mountain ice is melting, which has led to the exposure of artifacts in North America, Mongolia, the Alps, and Scandinavia. The highest number of finds and sites in the world are reported from Innlandet County, Norway. We present our methods of finding and documenting glac...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of global warming, ice patches are increasingly important foci of high-elevation archaeology. Langfonne in Jotunheimen, central southern Norway, is uniquely suited to provide a window onto site formation processes and taphonomy in this novel archaeological setting. Here the site record from systematic survey includes the largest numb...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain passes have played a key role in past mobility , facilitating transhumance, intra-regional travel and long-distance exchange. Current global warming has revealed an example of such a pass at Lendbreen, Norway. Artefacts exposed by the melting ice indicate usage from c. AD 300-1500, with a peak in activity c. AD 1000 during the Viking Age-a...
Article
Full-text available
The melting of perennial ice patches globally is uncovering a fragile record of alpine activity, especially hunting and the use of mountain passes. When rescued by systematic fieldwork (glacial archaeology), this evidence opens an unprecedented window on the chronology of high-elevation activity. Recent research in Jotunheimen and surrounding mount...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study is to describe consequences of climate change in the mountain region of southern Norway with respect to recently exposed finds of archaeological remains associated with reindeer hunting and trapping at and around ice patches in central southern Norway. In the early years of the twenty-first century, warm summers caused ne...

Citations

... In response, a new research subject, glacial archaeology, is rapidly developing to rescue now-threatened artefacts and to study the relationship between variability in climate and the intensity of human use of alpine landscapes. Jotunheimen and surrounding mountain areas of Oppland, with Norway's highest mountains (to 2469 m), are a key focus of this global research [7][8][9][10][11]. Here systematic survey of contracting ice-edges has recovered emerging artefacts of wood, textile, hide and other organic materials that are otherwise rarely preserved. ...
... At the lowest step of the ladder, even intermittent snow patches/extinct ice patches can preserve organic material VanderHoek et al. 2007VanderHoek et al. , 2012. At our Langfonne site, we found artifacts and bones more than 100 m from the current ice edge, in areas where there is unlikely to have been permanent ice cover after the finds were deposited (Pilø et al. 2021). While such objects are not as well preserved as objects found closer to the ice, they still survive in an identifiable state. ...
... Independent lines of archaeological, climatological, environmental, and historical evidence have substantiated the LALIA concept and brought refinements to its chronology [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. The cluster of exceptionally cold summers at the onset of the LALIA in the 530s and 540s coincides with harvest failures, famines and pestilence spanning at least Mesoamerica and northern North America, Europe including the British Isles and Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, inner Eurasia, and large parts of China [1,2,5,[19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... The stable, frozen environment presented by ice patches preserves organic artifacts which enter the ice, offering an opportunity to explore a unique material record of high altitude subsistence activities-particularly those related to reindeer. Archaeological finds from arctic and subarctic regions in globally, such as Alaska and Scandinavia, include 'scare sticks' used in reindeer drives, projectiles, skis, baskets used to collect berries or snow, and even culturally modified reindeer hide fragments [12,15,16]. In cases where non-glacial, perennial ice has remained stable in areas of cultural activity, ice patches have preserved artifacts dating back more than 10,000 years [17]. ...
... The unusual warm spell led to an extreme melting of nearby high mountain ice patches [32]. The melting revealed several archaeological artefacts such as a 3400-year-old shoe [33,34], and had ecological implications, such as an outbreak of fatal zoonotic disease (Pasteurellosis) on a musk ox population in the region, causing the death of a large proportion of the animals [35]. Figure 5 illustrates the development of the 0 • C isotherm depth at Janssonhaugen (Svalbard) for the year 2016. ...
... These sites were originally identified and investigated as part of the development of hydroelectricity projects from the late 1950s to late 1970s. This material has now been re-evaluated using updated typological-chronological knowledge (e.g., Olsen, A. B., 1992;Naerøy, 1993;Glørstad, 2004;Bergsvik, 2006;Jaksland & Kraemer, 2012;Mjaerum, 2012) and discussed in light of new culturehistorical insights and recent research into Holocene climate variations (e.g., Bjune et al., 2005;Lilleøren et al., 2012;Nesje et al., 2012). ...