Erik A. Wing's research while affiliated with Duke University and other places

Publications (27)

Article
The influence of prior knowledge on memory is ubiquitous, making the specific mechanisms of this relationship difficult to disentangle. Here, we show that expert knowledge produces a fundamental shift in the way that interitem similarity (i.e., the perceived resemblance between items in a set) biases episodic recognition. Within a group of expert b...
Article
Preliminary evidence indicates that occipito-temporal activation patterns for different visual stimuli are less distinct in older (OAs) than younger (YAs) adults, suggesting a dedifferentiation of visual representations with aging. Yet, it is unclear if this deficit (1) affects only sensory or also categorical aspects of representations during visu...
Article
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in diverse cognitive operations, from inhibitory control to processing of semantic schemas. When accompanied by damage to the basal forebrain, vMPFC lesions can also impair relational memory, the ability to form and recall relations among items. Impairments in establishing direct relations amon...
Article
It is generally assumed that the encoding of a single event generates multiple memory representations, which contribute differently to subsequent episodic memory. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and representational similarity analysis to examine how visual and semantic representations predicted subsequent memory for single ite...
Article
During demanding cognitive tasks, older adults (OAs) frequently show greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity than younger adults (YAs). This age-related increase in PFC activity is often associated with enhanced cognitive performance, suggesting functional compensation. However, the brain is a complex network of interconnected regions, and it is u...
Preprint
Preliminary evidence indicates that occipito-temporal activation patterns for different visual stimuli are less distinct in older (OAs) than younger (YAs) adults, suggesting a dedifferentiation of visual representations with aging. Yet, it is unclear if this deficit (1) affects only sensory or also categorical aspects of visual representations, and...
Article
The perception of visual motion is dependent on a set of occipitotemporal regions that are readily accessible to neuromodulation. The current study tested if paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (ppTMS) could modulate motion perception by stimulating the occipital cortex as participants viewed near-threshold motion dot stimuli. In this sh...
Preprint
It is generally assumed that the encoding of a single event generates multiple memory representations, which contribute differently to subsequent episodic memory. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis (RSA) to examine how visual and semantic representations predicted subsequent memory for single item encoding (e.g., seeing an orange...
Article
The declarative memory system allows us to accurately recognize a countless number of items and events, particularly those strengthened by repeated exposure. However, increased familiarity due to repetition can also lead to false recognition of related but new items, particularly when mechanisms supporting fine-grain mnemonic discrimination fail. T...
Preprint
During demanding cognitive tasks, older adults (OAs) frequently show greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity than younger adults (YAs). This age-related increase in PFC activity is often associated with enhanced cognitive performance, suggesting functional compensation. However, the brain is a complex network of interconnected brain regions, and i...
Article
The standard systems consolidation account posits that recently formed memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus and only gradually become instantiated in neocortical networks over a period of weeks to years. However, recent animal and human research has identified rapid formation of cortical engrams at the time of learning that can suppo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The perception of visual motion is dependent on a set of occipitotemporal regions which are readily accessible to neuromodulation. Previous studies using paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (ppTMS) have provided evidence of the capacity of this type of protocols to modulate cognitive processes. To test whether such cortical modulation ca...
Article
Full-text available
Depending on a person's goals, different aspects of stored knowledge are accessed. Decades of behavioral work document the flexible use of knowledge, but little neuroimaging work speaks to these questions. We used representational similarity analysis to investigate whether the relationship between brain activity and semantic structure of statements...
Article
Full-text available
Brain stimulation technologies have seen increasing application in basic science investigations, specifically toward the goal of improving memory function. However, proposals concerning the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement often rely on simplified notions of excitation. As a result, most applications examining the effects of trans...
Preprint
Brain stimulation technologies have seen increasing application in basic science investigations, specifically towards the goal of improving memory functioning. However, proposals concerning the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement often rely on simplified notions of excitation and, most applications examining the effects of transcrani...
Article
Full-text available
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large change...
Chapter
Our understanding of the role that ventral parietal cortex (VPC) plays in declarative memory processes has changed dramatically over the last two decades. The goal of this chapter is to provide a concise overview data concerning VPC involvement in episodic memory (EM), and to connect this data to several key theories of VPC function. We review evid...
Article
Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests that there are differences in the neural correlates of episodic memory for laboratory stimuli (laboratory memory) and for events from one’s own life (autobiographical memory). However, this evidence is scarce and often confounded with differences in memory testing procedures. Here, we directly compared the...
Article
The "illusory truth" effect refers to the phenomenon whereby repetition of a statement increases its likelihood of being judged true. This phenomenon has important implications for how we come to believe oft-repeated information that may be misleading or unknown. Behavioral evidence indicates that fluency or the subjective ease experienced while pr...
Article
Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (External Perceptual Orienting—EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one’s own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting—ISO), regions of the salienc...
Article
Full-text available
A common approach in memory research is to isolate the function(s) of individual brain regions, such as the hippocampus, without addressing how those regions interact with the larger network. To investigate the properties of the hippocampus embedded within large-scale networks, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory to chara...
Article
Neurobiological memory models assume memory traces are stored in neocortex, with pointers in the hippocampus, and are then reactivated during retrieval yielding the experience of remembering. Whereas most prior neuroimaging studies on reactivation have focused on the reactivation of sets or categories of items, the current study sought to identify...
Conference Paper
Research on emotion and embodied cognition has shown that the interoceptive Self-awareness (SA) of emotion is associated with activity in anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) (e.g. Critchley 2005; Craig, 2009), regions comprising the salience network (SN) (Seeley et al., 2007).  Although it is well known that the memory for em...
Article
Full-text available
Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between vo...
Article
Restudying material is a common method for learning new information, but not necessarily an effective one. Research on the testing effect shows that practice involving retrieval from memory can facilitate later memory in contrast to passive restudy. Despite extensive behavioral work, the brain processes that make retrieval an effective learning str...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces during retri...

Citations

... Additionally, older adults have greater difficulty inhibiting saccades as compared to young adults when tasked to execute an eye movement to the opposite side of the display as the target (Olincy et al., 1997;Butler et al., 1999;Kramer et al., 1999;2000) and are less inhibited and less accurate than young adults at deploying saccades in a cueing task (Ryan et al., 2006). When viewing real-world scenes, older adults show less sensitivity overall to local feature contrasts captured by image salience than young adults do, consistent with age-related deficits in bottom-up perceptual processing (Açık et al., 2010; see also Deng et al., 2021), though older adults benefit more from highly salient targets in visual search tasks than their young adult counterparts (Ramzaoui et al., 2021). ...
... We speak of a perceptual-semantic representation, because (1) we consider the transformation from the raw input to a high-level semantic representation a gradual process, as is well known for deep neural networks (Liuzzi, Aglinskas, & Fairhall, 2020;Zhang, Han, Worth, & Liu, 2020), and (2) while we mainly remember high-level aspects, we can also remember quite lowlevel aspects of an episode, such as the exact color and shape of an object. So we believe that there is no clear-cut distinction between perceptual and semantic representations (Davis et al., 2021) and therefore refer to the corresponding network as the perceptual-semantic network. A prototypical example is the visual system, which is hierarchically organized from low-level perceptual in primary visual cortex (V1) to high-level semantic in inferior temporal cortex (IT) (Felleman & VanEssen, 1991). ...
... Causally, Deng et al. demonstrated that the enhanced cognitive performance correlated with the age-related increase in PFC activity in older adults compared to younger adults, which indicates functional compensation in cognition. Researchers continued, indicating that PFC regions showed stronger performance-related reconfiguration of connectivity patterns in old adults, and that the PFC reconfiguration increases in old adults tracked reconfiguration reductions in the MTL-a core episodic memory region, suggesting that PFC connectivity in old adults may be compensating for MTL deficits [51]. Efficient method to prematurely detect cognitive impairment in normal aging is needed for possible intervention against age-related neurodegenerative diseases. ...
... Although several other ways to induce spurious stimuli exist, it has been demonstrated that turning the coil 90 • , while not completely avoiding the stimulus, can induce much lower voltages than active rTMS (43). This scheme has been widely used in previous studies (44). Third, in clinical practice, WD patients can have various manifestations of dystonia. ...
... Many studies have investigated brain activity underlying the semantic integration and interference in memory (Martin et al., 2018;Reber et al., 2019;Zhu et al., 2019;Wing et al., 2020). Approaches of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial stimulation revealed critical brain regions such as the anterior temporal cortex (Chadwick et al., 2016;Diez et al., 2017), prefrontal cortex (Atkins and Reuter-Lorenz, 2011), and cerebellum (Gatti et al., 2021b). ...
... An increase in neuronal circuitry could thus promote more efficient memory-related information processing and facilitate memory formation in the brain. Similarly, it has been shown that long-term memory formation is critically associated with synaptic remodeling, including synaptic growth (Hebscher et al., 2019). Memory is processed through interconnected brain circuits that are formed by the participation of distinct brain areas, and memory deficits occur as a consequence of reduced activity within these circuits. ...
... Multivariate methods such as RSA provide an ideal means for identifying mental representations of abstract concepts in the brain. Studies that use RSA to examine semantic memory suggest that representations of both concrete concepts Devereux, Clarke, Marouchos, & Tyler, 2013;Connolly et al., 2012) and abstract ones (Vargas & Just, 2020;Wang, Wu, et al., 2018) are distributed in regions associated with language and semantic processing ( Wang, Brashier, Wing, Marsh, & Cabeza, 2018). These regions typically include the anterior, medial, and lateral temporal lobes; angular gyrus (AG); posterior cingulate cortex (PCC); precuneus; and several regions in pFC: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and medial pFC (Lambon individual words that describe abstract concepts, such as "love," from concrete entities that they may be associated with, such as "mom" (Pecher, Boot, & Van Dantzig, 2011;Barsalou, 2008). ...
... These results suggested that rTMS over the PFC directly induced the neural plasticity in the PFC, and representations in the hippocampus were boosted by indirect manipulation. Consistent with our study, Wang et al. (2014Wang et al. ( , 2018 found that the targeted enhancement of PFC-hippocampal brain networks improved associative semantic and episodic memory performance, which involved localized long-term plasticity. The roles of the hippocampus and PFC in memory processing, individually or in concert, are a major topic of interest in memory research, and PFC and hippocampus are strongly connected by direct and indirect pathways (Eichenbaum, 2017). ...
... The parietal cortex contributes directly to EM, as part of a network that is also active for the processing of non-episodic information (Rugg and King, 2018). The ventral parietal cortex is thought to have mnemonic functions related to attention and stimulus representation (Davis et al., 2018), the posterior parietal lobe has a role in generic (schematic) representations of topography needed for navigation and egocentric frame, and as a whole, the parietal cortex seems to play a key role during memory processes (Kim, 2018). The parietal cortex was highly involved in the studies of this review reporting on spatial memory, for all tasks (for tasks in mazes, see for instance Cyr et al. (2016), Migo et al. (2016) and Weniger et al. (2013); for location-specific tasks, see for instance Antonova et al. (2011), Iglói et al. (2015, Parslow et al. (2004), Slobounov et al. (2010) and Wolbers et al. (2004)). ...
... For example, the contributions of left and right hemispheric structures in language processing seem to vary depending on emotional sub-processes, such as the emotional significance of the information and the emotional valence of words (for a review, see Kotz and Paulmann, 2011). A recent fMRI study of Wing et al. (2018) examined the neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal beliefs about social and political issues and found that the intensity of the ratings was linked to greater emotional arousal, with greater activity in the frontal brain regions associated with episodic memory. Moreover, the results showed brain activity differences between the response conditions, with more activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex for agreements compared with disagreements regarding the issues. ...