Emin Gün Sirer's research while affiliated with Cornell University and other places

Publications (24)

Chapter
Six years after the introduction of selfish mining, its counterintuitive findings continue to create confusion. In this paper, we comprehensively address one particular source of misunderstandings, related to difficulty adjustments. We first present a novel, modified selfish mining strategy, called intermittent selfish mining, that, perplexingly, i...
Preprint
Blockchain-based cryptocurrencies prioritize transactions based on their fees, creating a unique kind of fee market. Empirically, this market has failed to yield stable equilibria with predictable prices for desired levels of service. We argue that this is due to the absence of a dominant strategy equilibrium in the current fee mechanism. We propos...
Article
Full-text available
Blockchain-based cryptocurrencies have demonstrated how to securely implement traditionally centralized systems, such as currencies, in a decentralized fashion. However, there have been few measurement studies on the level of decentralization they achieve in practice. We present a measurement study on various decentralization metrics of two of the...
Conference Paper
Trusted execution environments (TEEs) allow asserting the integrity of previously untrusted third parties using novel hardware features. Unlike previous approaches to trusted computing, they have become readily available on most consumer devices sold today. This opens up the possibility for many novel applications, where not only the server, but al...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing popularity of blockchain-based cryptocurrencies has made scalability a primary and urgent concern. We analyze how fundamental and circumstantial bottlenecks in Bitcoin limit the ability of its current peer-to-peer overlay network to support substantially higher throughputs and lower latencies. Our results suggest that reparameterizat...
Conference Paper
The increasing popularity of blockchain-based cryptocurrencies has made scalability a primary and urgent concern. We analyze how fundamental and circumstantial bottlenecks in Bitcoin limit the ability of its current peer-to-peer overlay network to support substantially higher throughputs and lower latencies. Our results suggest that reparameterizat...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an extension to Bitcoin’s script language enabling covenants, a primitive that allows transactions to restrict how the value they transfer is used in the future. Covenants expand the set of financial instruments expressible in Bitcoin, and enable new powerful and novel use cases. We illustrate two novel security constructs built...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a novel data center design based on emerging 60 GHz RF technology that uses wires only to deliver power to its server nodes. Fundamental limitation of wireless data centers is that the maximum number of live connections in the network is di-rectly proportional to the full volume occupied by the data center divided by the radiating volu...
Conference Paper
Failure detectors are fundamental building blocks in distributed systems. Multi-node failure detectors, where the detector is tasked with monitoring N other nodes, play a critical role in overlay networks and peer-to-peer systems. In such networks, failures need to be detected quickly and with low overhead. Achieving these properties simultaneously...
Article
No generally accepted principles and guidelines currently exist to help engineers design local interaction mechanisms that result in a desired global behavior. However, several communities have developed ways of approaching this problem in the context of niched application areas. Because the ideas underlying these approaches are often obscured or u...
Article
Distributed systems designers often rely on ad hoc heuristics to address allocation problems which involve the use of locally managed, independent resource managers that follow simple strategy at each node with no coordination. These heuristics are validated using limited traces collected from the field but heuristics approaches are not robust to f...
Article
Full-text available
Interdisciplinary Research: Roles for Self-OrganizationMárk Jelasity and Ozalp Babaoglu, Università di Bologna; Robert Laddaga, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyNo generally accepted principles and guidelines currently exist to help engineers design local interaction mechanisms that result in a desired global behavior. However, several communit...
Conference Paper
This paper describes staged simulation, a technique for improving the run time performance and scale of discrete event simulators. Typical wireless network simulations are limited in speed and scale due to redundant computations, both within a single simulation run and between successive runs. Staged simulation proposes to reduce the amount of redu...
Conference Paper
Anonymity is increasingly important for networked applications amidst concerns over censorship and privacy. This paper outlines the design of Herbi- voreFS, a scalable and efficient file sharing system that provides strong anonymity. HerbivoreFS pro- vides computational guarantees that even adversaries able to monitor all network traffic cannot ded...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an approach for formally specifying and enforcing security policies on web service implementations. Networked services in general, and web services in particular, require extensive amounts of code to ensure that clients respect site-integrity constraints. We provide a language by which these constraints can be expressed and enfo...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we describe PortOS, an educational operating system designed to complement undergraduate and graduate level classes on operating systems. PortOS is a complete user-level operating system project, with phases covering concurrency, synchronization, networking and file systems. It focuses particularly on ad hoc and peer-to-peer distribu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes OpenReplica, an open service that provides replication and synchronization support for large-scale distributed systems. OpenReplica is designed to commodify Paxos replicated state machines by provid-ing infrastructure for their construction, deployment and maintenance. OpenReplica is based on a novel Paxos replicated state mach...

Citations

... Central to any consensus mechanism must be a guarantee that blockchain participants are properly incentivized to participate according to the nominal design of the mechanism. Unfortunately, this type of incentive compatibility can be challenging to prove, and is known to be weak on Bitcoin itself as evidenced by the many known mining difficulty exploits [17]- [21] P. Russell and P. N. Brown Scalability is another significant challenge which still faces blockchain technology. In many currently-operating mainstream blockchain implementations, the entire history of all on-chain activity is replicated across all participating nodes. ...
... While many have proposed novel TFMs beyond simple firstprice auctions [12,28,41,64,73], there has not been a real world implementation until the Ethereum Improvement Proposal 1559 (EIP-1559) [62] on Ethereum, the second largest blockchain network in market capitalization to date. ...
... In this case, the blockchain system is fragile and cannot ensure the facticity of the ledger records when facing threats like 51% attack [9] and selfish mining [10]. Existing research [11], [12] studied the decentralization of Bitcoin and Ethereum in terms of mining power, bandwidth, etc. For DPoS-based blockchains, some studies [13], [14] have theoretically analyzed the decentralization from the protocols and pointed out several clear vulnerabilities. ...
... Enclave technology has been widely deployed in all kinds of different systems recent years. For example, Intel SGX is for secure machine learning [17,22,23], Docker container [3], distributed system [11,25] and and database system [5,21]. ...
... [4] Describes a formal semantics for WS-security policy, and propose a more abstract link language for specifying the security goals of WS and their clients. [11] Provide a language by which can be expressed and enforced automatically, portably and efficiently security policies. ...
... This contrasts with the laboratory environment setup proposed by Brylow and the need for multiple supplementary Instructors or TAs required by Huang, Cheng, and Lin [2,4]. It is also aligned with other attempts at these methods of learning such as previously developed systems, including MiniOS and PortOS [1,5]. Like these other educators, our teaching strategy supports the desired goal of hands-on experience for OS design and understanding [1,2,3,6,7,9]. ...
... Fan Yile in [28], provides another virtual environment to run many operating systems for educational purposes. In [29], a complete user level operating system is proposed that can be used for teaching operating systems. In [30], the authors proposed MOS, another tiny operating system for students to play with. ...
... From [8]'s measurements, the propagation delay varies drastically for blocks that are smaller than 20 KB meanwhile the delay costs tend to be constant for blocks larger than 20 KB. In [15] the statistics of block propagation time is reported in a general evaluation of the problem of scaling of cryptoeconomies, i.e. the possibility of the decentralised services to keep working when the number of users increase. Recently, [16,17] showed in a series of simulations that the block propagation delay has a positive linear relationship with the block-size and that increasing the number of neighbours and the bandwidth can significantly speed the block propagation in the network. ...
... Implementing secure Paralysis Proofs for the current Bitcoin protocol, however, is challenging because of the limited expressiveness of Bitcoin scripts. Were a proposed enhancement called "covenants" available [44], we show in the full version [69] that Paralysis Proofs can be constructed, though with significantly higher complexity. Moreover, it is unclear when or whether covenants will be adopted in Bitcoin. ...
... The popularity of Bitcoin shows that permissionless proofof-work is an effective mechanism for developing an tructure, with hundreds of millions of dollars [59] across dozens of companies being invested in new innovations spanning chip and network design, datacenter management, and cooling systems [60]. The value of the security offered by this conglomerate of resources is immense. ...