Emily Hammer's research while affiliated with University of Pennsylvania and other places

Publications (18)

Article
Full-text available
Archaeological and archaeogenetic evidence points to the Pontic–Caspian steppe zone between the Caucasus and the Black Sea as the crucible from which the earliest steppe pastoralist societies arose and spread, ultimately influencing populations from Europe to Inner Asia. However, little is known about their economic foundations and the factors that...
Article
Over the past 25 years, CORONA satellite imagery has become an integral part of archaeological research, especially for arid, sparsely vegetated regions such as the Middle East. Since 2020, a new archive of satellite imagery gathered by the US spy satellite programme that succeeded CORONA—HEXAGON—has become widely available for download via the Uni...
Article
Full-text available
In the 12,000 years preceding the Industrial Revolution, human activities led to significant changes in land cover, plant and animal distributions, surface hydrology, and biochemical cycles. Earth system models suggest that this anthropogenic land cover change influenced regional and global climate. However, the representation of past land use in e...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we report genome-wide data analyses from 110 ancient Near Eastern individuals spanning the Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age, a period characterized by intense interregional interactions for the Near East. We find that 6 th millennium BCE populations of North/Central Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus shared mixed ancestry on a genetic cline...
Article
New fieldwork at Ur has begun to investigate urban scale, city organization, and the environment of the city's hinterland. Analysis of new sources of declassified aerial and satellite imagery from the 1950s and 1960s, recent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photos, and a systematic surface collection show that Ur may have expanded to between 120–500 h...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a history of pastoralism in the ancient Near East from the Neolithic through the Bronze Age. We describe the accretional development of pastoral technologies over eight millennia, including the productive breeding of domestic sheep, goats, and cattle in the early Neolithic and the subsequent domestication of animals used p...
Article
Bronze and Iron Age fortresses in South Caucasia have long been interpreted as evidence for the region's first territorial polities with complex bureaucracies, but it has only been through recent intensive survey and examination of settlements beside fortresses that archaeologists have developed a better understanding of the inhabitants of fortress...
Article
Full-text available
Recently declassified photographs taken by U2 spy planes in the 1950s and 1960s provide an important new source of historical aerial imagery useful for Eurasian archaeology. Like other sources of historical imagery, U2 photos provide a window into the past, before modern agriculture and development destroyed many archaeological sites. U2 imagery is...
Article
Analysis of spatial and temporal patterns in looting and destruction at archaeological sites using satellite imagery has become a focus of multiple research groups working on cultural heritage in conflict zones, especially in areas controlled by the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq. In this paper, we apply similar methods to investigate looting and...
Article
In response to increased international collaboration in archaeological research of the South Caucases, a recent workshop has addressed important issues in applying GIS to the study of heavily modified landscapes in the former Soviet republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.
Article
Remote survey using high-resolution satellite images allows archaeologists to study ancient landscapes in regions made inaccessible by ongoing conflict as well as in regions located between zones of better archaeological knowledge. Such studies frequently suffer from a lack of chronological information. This paper presents the results of remote lan...
Article
High-resolution satellite imagery has proved to be a powerful tool for calculating the extent of looting at heritage sites in conflict zones around the world. Monitoring damage over time, however, has been largely dependent upon laborious and error-prone manual comparisons of satellite imagery taken at different dates. The semi-automated detection...
Article
Large mass-kill hunting traps known as desert kites are the badia's most visually striking and long-studied archaeological features. Kites are best understood from a vertical perspective with help from aerial and satellite imagery, most commonly modern Google Earth imagery. The declassification of historical U2 spyplane imagery from 1958–1960 provi...
Article
Archaeological and historical data show that pastoral systems in Anatolia over the last ten thousand years were characterised by a high degree of variability in degree of mobility, land-use and animal preferences, target products and herd management strategies, and political organisation. Longdistance pastoral nomadism was a historically late devel...

Citations

... For example, 1950s-1960s U2 aerial imagery was collected at the same time as the CORONA imagery (1959)(1960)(1961)(1962)(1963)(1964)(1965)(1966)(1967)(1968)(1969)(1970)(1971)(1972), but U2 images are much higher resolution and are varyingly available across populated areas of Western Asia [46]. For the period between 1971-1986, declassified, high resolution (< 1 m) HEXAGON KH-9 imagery is available across the globe [47][48][49] and provides an important time frame missing from this study. It should be noted that both U2 and HEXAGON imagery have either significant accessibility or spatial distortion challenges that currently require access to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in the USA or georeferencing expertise to overcome [46,49]. ...
... Biodiversity effects (changes in biogeographic and evolutionary processes) are depicted for the relative size and isolation of woodland habitat patches, megafauna biomass (not including humans; native and domesticated), plant species richness of native, exotic, and domesticated plants, and relative landscape area without human populations or land use ("wild"), shaped by human influences but not used intensively ("novel") and intensively used ("intensive"). Figure adapted from Reference 17. Defined as societies dependent on hunting, foraging, and fishing (22,53), hunter-gatherer is more of a broad category than a type of land use regime (54). Some definitions encompass all hominin societies (55) and even the mega-omnivore niche in general (26). ...
... Spatially explicit datasets and maps based on this second generation of REVEALS reconstructions are currently being produced within PAGES LandCover6k and used to evaluate and revise the HYDE (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2017) and KK10 (Kaplan et al., 2009) ALCC scenarios. Moreover, LandCover6k archaeology-based reconstructions of past land-use change (Morrison et al., 2021) will be integrated with the datasets of REVEALS land cover. Besides the uses listed above, the second generation of REVEALS reconstruction for Europe offers great potential for use in a large range of studies on past European regional vegetation dynamics and changes in biodiversity over the Holocene as well as the relationship between regional plant cover, land use and climate over millennial and centennial timescales. ...
... A number of aDNA studies from different time periods in the Middle East have provided a general overview of the genetic history in this region. These include descriptions of the earliest local farming groups from the Neolithic 1 and their expansions into Europe 2,3 as well as genetic differentiation among contemporary Neolithic groups [4][5][6] . In the later Chalcolithic period, evidence of distinctive cultural practices and associated population movements highlight the dynamic history of the region, especially in the Southern Levant 7,8 . ...
... While there are scientific studies on human and animal mobility from other geographical regions, there are relatively limited data from Mesopotamia relevant to this issue (e.g., [26,27,53]). The environmental micro-regions of southern Mesopotamia, with resource clusters and differential water access, offered choices for strategies of herding and farming [32,40,53,54]. ...
... In particular, future work could include additional, higher resolution imagery datasets between the 1950s and 2011. For example, 1950s-1960s U2 aerial imagery was collected at the same time as the CORONA imagery (1959)(1960)(1961)(1962)(1963)(1964)(1965)(1966)(1967)(1968)(1969)(1970)(1971)(1972), but U2 images are much higher resolution and are varyingly available across populated areas of Western Asia [46]. For the period between 1971-1986, declassified, high resolution (< 1 m) HEXAGON KH-9 imagery is available across the globe [47][48][49] and provides an important time frame missing from this study. ...
... The relationship of this settlement to the building remains at the summit of the hill is not yet clear, but it seems probable that the structure on the summit of the hill is contemporaneous only with the latest phase of the settlement at its base. The settlement may have extended further across the plain to the south, but geophysical survey has been unsuccessful in identifying any architectural remains in the cultivated fields to date, probably due to substantial alluviation (Herrmann and Hammer, 2019). One small sounding in the cultivated fields between Oğlanqala and Qızqala revealed over a meter of sterile clay deposit beneath the plough zone, at the bottom of which were three sherds of IA 1 date. ...
... Since 2011, looting has only been recorded at 8 sites (1.1%). These results align well with studies in the greater Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and beyond reporting agriculture, urbanisation, and development as the most destructive and on-going threats to cultural heritage--not looting [26,[41][42][43][44][45]. ...
... The traditionally extensively managed herding of pigs in Greece (Halstead and Isaakidou, 2011) seems to have been a re-application of sheep and cattle herding practices. In the Neolithic Near East, it is believed that sheep and goats were domesticated at the same time as or earlier than pigs (Zeder, 2008;Arbuckle and Hammer, 2019). Therefore, the prehistoric Near East populations who owned domesticated pigs would also have known how to herd and pasture these herd ruminant livestock (Arbuckle and Hammer, 2019;Arbuckle and Kassebaum, 2021) as the Greek pig herders. ...
... Comprehending past land use strategies in Ifugao therefore requires an interdisciplinary approach that draws upon history, ethnography, archaeology, anthropology, linguistics, ecology, and geography (Wilson, 1998;Izdebski et al., 2016;Rick and Sandweiss, 2020). Recently, an interdisciplinary community effort has emerged (Kay and Kaplan, 2015;Morrison et al., 2018;Kay et al., 2019;Morrison et al., 2021) to synthesize and quantify the longstanding interconnectivity of human and climate history first expounded by Ladurie (1971) and Lamb (1997; see also Harrison et al., 2018;Gaillard et al., 2018;Widgren, 2018). ...