Emilio I. Alarcon's research while affiliated with The University of Edinburgh and other places

Publications (83)

Article
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Methylglyoxal (MG) production after myocardial infarction (MI) leads to advanced glycation end‐product formation, adverse remodeling, and loss of cardiac function. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a main target for MG glycation. This suggests that ECM‐mimicking biomaterial therapies may protect the post‐MI environment by removing MG. In this study...
Article
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Expanding the toolbox of therapeutic materials for soft tissue and organ repair has become a critical component of tissue engineering. While animal- and plant-derived proteins are the foundation for developing biomimetic tissue constructs, using peptides as either constituents or frameworks for the materials has gained increasing momentum in recent...
Article
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Cardiomyocytes are the muscle cells that make the heart beat, pump oxygen, and deliver nutrient-rich blood throughout the human body. During a heart attack, the blood supply to the heart is interrupted. Cardiomyocytes then die and are replaced by scar tissue that can no longer contract. As a result, the heart is weakened and may beat abnormally. Fo...
Article
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Bioprinting has rapidly progressed over the past decade. One branch of bioprinting known as in situ bioprinting has benefitted considerably from innovations in biofabrication. Unlike ex situ bioprinting, in situ bioprinting allows for biomaterials to be printed directly into or onto the target tissue/organ, eliminating the need to transfer pre-made...
Chapter
Biomaterials are scaffolds designed to mimic the extracellular matrix and stimulate tissue repair. Biomaterial therapies have shown promise for improving wound healing in cardiac tissue after ischemic injury. An unintentional consequence of biomaterial delivery may be the stimulation of inflammation through recruitment of circulating monocytes into...
Article
The tail of replication-dependent histone H3.1 varies from that of replication-independent H3.3 at the amino acid located at position 31 in plants and animals, but no function has been assigned to this residue to demonstrate a unique and conserved role for H3.1 during replication. We found that TONSOKU (TSK/TONSL), which rescues broken replication...
Article
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We report the development, as well as the in vitro and in vivo testing, of a sprayable nanotherapeutic that uses surface engineered custom-designed multiarmed peptide grafted nanogold for on-the-spot coating of an infarcted myocardial surface. When applied to mouse hearts, 1 week after infarction, the spray-on treatment resulted in an increase in c...
Article
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Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl and the main precursor of advanced glycation end‐products (AGEs). After myocardial infarction (MI), MG‐derived AGEs accumulate in the heart and contribute to adverse remodeling and loss of cardiac function. In this study, the flavonoid fisetin, a dicarbonyl scavenger, is used to reduce the negative...
Article
The goal of this study was to develop strategies to localize human collagen-based hydrogels within an infarcted mouse heart, as well as analyze its impact on endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Collagen is a natural polymer that is abundantly used in bioengineered hydrogels because of its biocompatibility, cell permeability, and biode...
Article
We have studied the suitability of using a molecular rotor-based steady-state fluorometric assay for evaluating changes in both the conformation and the viscosity of collagen-like peptide solutions. Our results indicate...
Article
Purpose of review: This review describes the latest advances in cell therapy, biomaterials and 3D bioprinting for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recent findings: Cell therapies offer the greatest benefit for patients suffering from chronic ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Rather than replacing lost cardiomyocytes, the effects o...
Article
In the present work, we evaluated the supramolecular interactions between three photosensitizers, namely toluidine blue O (TBO, positively charged) and two fatty acid conjugates of 6 and 14 carbon atoms chain lengths (TBOC6 and TBOC14), with human serum albumin (HSA) and the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril (CB (Allison et al., 2004 [7])), alone or in co...
Conference Paper
Metal surface characteristics play a significant role in interacting with their biological environment. Copper surfaces have been identified for their antimicrobial properties. Improvement of antibacterial and antiviral performances can be tailored by surface microstructure modification. Severe plastic deformation is an effective surface modificati...
Article
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Biofilm formation in living organisms is associated to tissue and implant infections and it has also been linked to the contribution of antibiotic resistance. Thus, understanding biofilm development and being able to mimic such processes is vital for the successful development of anti-biofilm treatments and therapies. Several decades of research ha...
Article
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Rapid synthesis of nanomaterials in scalable quantities is critical for accelerating the discovery and commercial translation of nanoscale-based technologies. The synthesis of metal nanogold and silver in volumes larger than 100 mL is not automatized and might require of the use of harsh conditions that in most cases is detrimental for the producti...
Article
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Given the limited endogenous regenerative capabilities of cardiac tissue, patient-specific anatomy, challenges in treatment options, and shortage of donor tissues for transplantation, there is an urgent need for novel approaches in cardiac tissue repair. 3D bioprinting is a techn...
Article
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the COVID-19 global pandemic has infected over 25 million people worldwide and resulted in the death of millions. The COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) in many regions around the world, particularly in middle- and...
Article
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Small skin wounds in healthy people heal and close themselves, however healing of larger and stubborn wounds may need some form of medical treatment. Typically, stitches are used to close wounds and hold various tissues together. While the techniques and materials involved in closing wounds have improved over the years, the one problem that still r...
Article
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Covalent attachment of human serum albumin protein to the surface of spherical lipoic acid capped silver nanoparticles results in the generation of stable nanoparticle–protein hybrids with well defined surface composition.
Article
Injectable hydrogels are a promising method to enhance repair in the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). However, few studies have compared different strategies for the application of biomaterial treatments. In this study, we use a clinically relevant mouse MI model to assess the therapeutic efficacy of different treatment protocols for intramy...
Article
As cell therapies emerged, it was quickly realized that pro-regenerative cells directly injected into injured tissue struggled within the inflammatory microenvironment. By using microencapsulation, i.e. encapsulating cells within polymeric biomaterials, they are henceforth protected from the harmful extracellular cues, while still being able to rec...
Article
Introduction: Corneal transplantation surgery faces several fundamental problems, including graft failure, especially in complicated cases, and a marked shortage of human donor corneas. The purpose of this review is to examine several developments in biosynthetic alternatives to donor corneal transplantation. In particular, we focus on the regulato...
Article
While encapsulation of cells within protective nanoporous gel cocoons increases cell retention and pro-survival integrin signaling, the influence of cocoon size and intra-capsular cell-cell interactions on therapeutic repair are unknown. Here, we employ a microfluidic platform to dissect the impact of cocoon size and intracapsular cell number on th...
Article
A novel strategy is needed for treating non-healing wounds that is able to simultaneously eradicate pathogenic bacteria and promote tissue regeneration. This would improve patient outcome and reduce the number of lower limb amputations. In this work, we present a multifunctional therapeutic approach able to control bacterial infection, provide a pr...
Article
Using chemically modified extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, in combination with light for tissue bonding reduces inflammation and minimizes scarring. However, full length animal or recombinant human collagen proteins are difficult to isolate/produce. Thus, short biomimetic collagen peptides with properties equivalent to collagen at bo...
Chapter
With nanomedicines increasing in market value and disruptive potential, a rapidly moving field such as this will require engaging in the difficult task of responsible management and the development of appropriate guidelines, which falls into the jurisdiction of governmental agencies. While each is influenced by the countries politics and demands of...
Chapter
The rapid incorporation of nanostructures in regenerative medicine can be considered one of the biggest leaps in the production of novel materials for repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. However, despite a large number of articles published, clinical use of these materials is still in its infancy. The complexity and interdisciplinary nature...
Article
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Despite the success of current therapies for acute myocardial infarction (MI), many patients still develop adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. With the growing prevalence of heart failure, a new therapy is needed that can prevent remodeling and support tissue repair. Herein, we report on injectable recombinant human collagen type I (rHCI)...
Article
Full-text available
New antimicrobial textiles were prepared through direct chemical linkage of bioactive molecules eugenol and fluoroquinolone derivatives, onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The attachment through a triazine moiety minimizes the leaching of the antimicrobial molecule into the surroundings of the material. Bacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus au...
Article
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Synthetically derived peptide-based biomaterials are in many instances capable of mimicking the structure and function of their full-length endogenous counterparts. Combine this with the fact that short mimetic peptides are easier to produce when compared to full length proteins, show enhanced processability and ease of modification, and have the a...
Article
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The prevalence of hospital acquired infections and antibiotic resistant pathogens necessitates the development of bacteria sensing systems that do not require sample amplification via conventional cell culturing, which can be prohibitively time-consuming. To meet this need, we designed an optofluidic Raman detection platform which utilized a microf...
Article
The effect of accounting for total surface in the association of thiol-containing molecules to nanosilver was assessed using isothermal titration calorimetry, along with a new open access algorithm which calculates the total surface area for samples of different polydispersity. Further, we used advanced molecular dynamic calculations to explore the...
Chapter
The biomedical properties of nanoparticulated silver have been widely studied in the last decade; however, still there are concerns regarding its long-term toxicity. Recent developments in nanoparticle fabrication and surface manipulation, using different biomolecules, have allowed the preparation of nontoxic nanosilver. Thus, nanosilver has been s...
Article
In many diseases, tissue regeneration is compromised and/or insufficient to restore tissue/organ function. Therefore, novel regenerative therapies are being developed to enhance resident and transplanted cell proliferation and functional differentiation. Numerous biomaterials engineered to include nanocomponents have emerged as promising candidates...
Book
This book fills the gap between fundamental and applied research in the use of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, covering the most relevant areas, such as the fundamental concepts of the preparation of nanostructures and regulatory requirements for their safe use in biomedical devices. It also critically discusses what has been achieved in...
Article
We have prepared and tested in vivo a novel nanoengineered hybrid electroconductive cardiac patch for treating the infarcted myocardium. Of the prepared and tested patches, only those containing spherical nanogold were able to increase connexin-43 expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured under electrical stimulation. In vivo data indicate...
Article
Full-text available
In living organisms, biofilms are defined as complex communities of bacteria residing within an exopolysaccharide matrix that adheres to a surface. In the clinic, they are typically the cause of chronic, nosocomial, and medical device-related infections. Due to the antibiotic-resistant nature of biofilms, the use of antibiotics alone is ineffective...
Article
Full-text available
The severe worldwide shortage of donor organs, and severe pathologies placing patients at high risk for rejecting conventional cornea transplantation, have left many corneal blind patients untreated. Following successful pre-clinical evaluation in mini-pigs, we tested a biomaterials-enabled pro-regeneration strategy to restore corneal integrity in...
Article
Background. Myocardial infarction (MI) stimulates production of the toxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MG), and its accumulation postMI contributes to reduced vascularization and cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesized that using a collagen hydrogel to deliver fisetin, a methylglyoxal scavenger, would improve post-MI vascularity, morphology and function....
Article
A new hybrid cinnamoyl-coumarin probe was synthesised to study the formation and dynamics of a twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) excited state in homogeneous and biological membrane models. This probe showed a large bathochromic shift of the fluorescence band with the solvent polarity, which associated with the decrease on the fluorescence in...
Article
Although cocooning explant-derived cardiac stem cells in protective nanogels prior to intramyocardial injection boosts long-term cell retention, the number of EDCs that finally engraft is trivial and unlikely to account for salutary effects on myocardial function and scar size. As such, we investigated the effect of varying the nanogel content with...
Article
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Statement of significance: Although biomaterials comprising full-length recombinant human collagen and extracted animal collagen have been evaluated and used clinically, these macromolecules provide only a limited number of functional groups amenable to chemical modification or crosslinking and are demanding to process. Synthetic, customizable ana...
Article
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Coumarin compounds have been described as anti-inflammatories, and chemotherapeutic agents as well as antioxidants. However, the origin of the antioxidant activity of non phenolic coumarins remains obscure. In the present report, we demonstrate that non-phenolic 7-dialkyl-aminocoumarins may also have significant antioxidant properties against free...
Chapter
The term artificial cornea is used loosely to refer to a wide range of bioengineered implants from prostheses that are designed to replace the minimal function of the cornea to implants that promote regeneration of the different corneal structures and nerves. The trend is towards the use of biomaterials that promote corneal regeneration, with impla...
Chapter
Age-associated diseases are becoming more prevalent as the worldwide population is getting older. This chapter reviews the current developments in nanotechnology directed at combating the rise of diseases and ailments stemming from ageing. The major complications that are discussed are cancers, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegeneration. Medical...
Article
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We investigated two critical aspects of rose Bengal (RB) photosensitized protein cross-linking that may underlie recently developed medical applications. Our studies focused on the binding of RB to collagen by physical interaction and the effect of this binding and certain amino acids on RB photochemistry. Molecular dynamics simulations and free-en...
Chapter
The biomedical properties of nanoparticulated silver have been widely studied in the last decade; however, still there are concerns regarding its long-term toxicity. Recent developments in nanoparticle fabrication and surface manipulation, using different biomolecules, have allowed the preparation of nontoxic nanosilver. Thus, nanosilver has been s...
Article
Full-text available
Correction for ‘Functionalised type-I collagen as a hydrogel building block for bio-orthogonal tissue engineering applications’ by R. Ravichandran et al., J. Mater. Chem. B, 2016, 4, 318–326.
Article
8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (pyranine, PyOH) free radicals were induced by laser excitation at visible wavelengths (470 nm). The photochemical process involves photoelectron ejection from PyO- to produce PyO• and PyO•- with maxima absorption at 450 and 510 nm, respectively. The kinetic rate constants for phenolic antioxidants with PyO•,...
Article
Using a combination of methacrylated collagen and the photosensitizer rose Bengal, a new light-activated biomimetic material for tissue sutureless bonding was developed. This formulation was cross-linked using green light. In vivo tests in mice demonstrate the suitability of the material for sutureless wound closure.