# Emiliano Lorini's research while affiliated with Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III and other places

## Publications (199)

Chapter
Binary classifiers are traditionally studied by propositional logic (PL). PL can only represent them as white boxes, under the assumption that the underlying Boolean function is fully known. Binary classifiers used in practical applications and trained by machine learning are however opaque. They are usually described as black boxes. In this paper,...
Conference Paper
We compare the syntactic multi-agent belief base approach, and the dynamic epistemic logic possible world semantic approach. In the belief base approach, the language provides an implicit and an explicit belief operators, plus a dynamic modality for actions consisting in adding formulae to bases. For the semantic approach, we rely on action models...
Conference Paper
We introduce a simple model of agency that is based on the concepts of control and attempt. Both relate agents and propositional variables. Moreover, they can be nested: an agent i may control whether another agent j controls a propositional variable p; i may control whether j attempts to change p; i may attempt to change whether j controls p; i ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we propose a framework for ethical decision making in the context of planning, with intended application to robotics. We put forward a compact but highly expressive language for ethical planning that combines linear temporal logic with lexicographic preference modelling. This original combination allows us to assess plans both with re...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a multi-agent logic of explicit, implicit belief and awareness with a semantics using belief bases. The novelty of our approach is that an agent’s awareness is not a primitive but is directly computed from the agent’s belief base. We prove soundness and completeness of the logic relative to the belief base semantics. Furthermore, we pr...
Article
We present a formal semantics for deontic logic based on the concept of ceteris paribus preferences. We introduce notions of unconditional obligation and permission as well as conditional obligation and permission that are interpreted relative to this semantics. We show that these notions satisfy some intuitive properties and, at the same time, do...
Chapter
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We present a logical analysis of influence and control over the actions of others, and address consequential causal and normative responsibilities. We first account for the way in which influence can be exercised over the behaviour of autonomous agents. On this basis we determine the conditions under which influence leads to control on the implemen...
Chapter
Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in Boolean functions in explaining binary classifiers in the field of explainable AI (XAI). The standard approach to Boolean functions is based on propositional logic. We present a modal language of a ceteris paribus nature which supports reasoning about binary classifiers and their properties. We stud...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a generalization of belief base revision to the multi-agent case. In our approach agents have belief bases containing both propositional beliefs and higher-order beliefs about their own beliefs and other agents’ beliefs. Moreover, their belief bases are split in two parts: the mutable part, whose elements may change under belief revision...
Preprint
Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in Boolean function in explaining binary classifiers in the field of explainable AI (XAI). The standard approach of Boolean function is propositional logic. We present a modal language of a ceteris paribus nature which supports reasoning about binary classifiers and their properties. We study families...
Article
We present a novel approach to cognitive planning, i.e., an agent's planning aimed at changing the cognitive attitudes of another agent including her beliefs and intentions. We encode the cognitive planning problem in an epistemic logic with a semantics exploiting belief bases. We study a NP-fragment of the logic whose satisfiability problem is red...
Chapter
We present a logic of graded beliefs with a formal semantics grounded on the notion of belief base. It has modal operators which represent what an agent would believe if she removed k pieces of information from her belief base. We provide a sound and complete axiomatics for our logic as well as an optimal model checking algorithm. To illustrate its...
Article
Abstarct We present a general logical framework for reasoning about agents’ cognitive attitudes of both epistemic type and motivational type. We show that it allows us to express a variety of relevant concepts for qualitative decision theory including the concepts of knowledge, belief, strong belief, conditional belief, desire, conditional desire,...
Preprint
We present a general logical framework for reasoning about agents' cognitive attitudes of both epistemic type and motivational type. We show that it allows us to express a variety of relevant concepts for qualitative decision theory including the concepts of knowledge, belief, strong belief, conditional belief, desire, conditional desire, strong de...
Chapter
We present an epistemic language for representing an artificial player’s beliefs and actions in the context of the Yōkai board game. Yōkai is a cooperative game which requires a combination of Theory of Mind (ToM), temporal and spatial reasoning to be played effectively by an artificial agent. We show that the language properly accounts for these t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present two models for reasoning about strategic actions in opinion diffusion. In both models, the agents are endowed with goals expressed compactly in a suitably defined language of linear temporal logic and are connected in an influence network which defines the underlying opinion diffusion process. The agents can act by exertin...
Chapter
We model persuasion, viewed as a deliberate action through which an agent (persuader) changes the beliefs of another agent’s (persuadee). This notion of persuasion paves the way to express the idea of persuasive influence, namely inducing a change in the choices of the persuadee by changing her beliefs. It allows in turns to express different aspec...
Chapter
Full-text available
We introduce a multi-agent logic of explicit, implicit belief and awareness with a semantics using belief bases. The novelty of our approach is that an agent’s awareness is not a primitive but is directly computed from the agent’s belief base. We prove soundness and completeness of the logic relative to the belief base semantics. Furthermore, we pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a formal semantics for deontic logic based on the concept of ceteris paribus preferences. We introduce notions of unconditional obligation and permission as well as conditional obligation and permission that are interpreted relative to this semantics. We show that these notions satisfy some intuitive properties and, at the same time, do...
Chapter
In [4] a new epistemic logic $$\textsf {LDA}$$ of explicit and implicit belief was introduced, and in [5] we presented a tableau-based satisfability checking procedure as well as a dynamic extension for it. Based on such procedure, we created a portable software implementation that works for the family of multi-agent epistemic logics, as well as fo...
Conference Paper
This work deals with logical formalization and problem solving using automated solvers. We present the automatic translator TouIST that provides a simple language to generate logical formulas from a problem description. Our tool allows us to model many static or dynamic combinatorial problems and to benefit from the regular improvements of SAT, QBF...
Conference Paper
This work deals with logical formalization and problem solving using automated solvers. We present the automatic translator TouIST that provides a simple language to generate logical formulas from a problem description. Our tool allows us to model many static or dynamic combinatorial problems and to benefit from the regular improvements of SAT, QBF...
Chapter
A cognitive agent is an agent characterized by properties that are generally attributed to humans. Cognition is viewed here as a general mechanism of reasoning (in contrast with reactive agents) about knowledge. Such agents can perceive their environment, reason about fact or epistemic states of other agents, have a decision making process, etc. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a ceteris-paribus semantics for deontic logic, a state of affairs where a larger set of prescriptions is respected is preferable to a state of affairs where some of them are violated. Conditional preference nets (CP-nets) are a compact formalism to express and analyse ceteris paribus preferences, which nice computational properties. This paper s...
Article
We introduce a new semantics for a family of logics of explicit and implicit belief based on the concept of multi-agent belief base. Differently from standard semantics for epistemic logic in which the notions of possible world and doxastic/epistemic alternative are primitive, in our semantics they are non-primitive but are computed from the concep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We will work in this paper on the central role of "expectations" in mental life and in purposive action. We will present a Cognitive Anatomy of expectations, their reduction in terms of more elementary ingredients: beliefs and goals. We will base several predictions on this analytical decomposition and we will present a theory of hope, worry, frust...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evidence logics model agents' belief revision process as they incorporate and aggregate information obtained from multiple sources. This information is captured using neighbourhood structures, where individual neighbourhoods represent pieces of evidence. In this paper we propose an extended framework which allows one to explicitly quantify either t...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a semantics for epistemic logic exploiting a belief base abstraction. Differently from existing Kripke-style semantics for epistemic logic in which the notions of possible world and epistemic alternative are primitive, in the proposed semantics they are non-primitive but are defined from the concept of belief base. We show that this se...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a semantics for epistemic logic exploiting a belief base abstraction. Differently from existing Kripke-style semantics for epistemic logic in which the notions of possible world and epistemic alternative are primitive, in the proposed semantics they are non-primitive but are defined from the concept of belief base. We show that this se...
Chapter
We present a general logical framework for reasoning about agents’ cognitive attitudes of both epistemic type and motivational type. We provide a sound and complete axiomatization for our logic and we show that it allows us to express a variety of relevant concepts for qualitative decision theory including the concepts of knowledge, belief, strong...
Book
Published online Dec. 28, 2017
Book
This LNCS book is part of the FOLLI book series and constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Logic, Rationality, and Interaction, LORI 2019, held in Chongqing, China, in October 2019. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 56 submissions. They focus on the following topics: agency; arg...
Preprint
We introduce a new semantics for a logic of explicit and implicit beliefs based on the concept of multi-agent belief base. Differently from existing Kripke-style semantics for epistemic logic in which the notions of possible world and doxastic/epistemic alternative are primitive, in our semantics they are non-primitive but are defined from the conc...
Conference Paper
We study agents expressing propositional goals over a set of binary issues to reach a collective decision. We adapt properties and rules from the literature on Social Choice Theory to our setting, providing an axiomatic characterisation of a majority rule for goal-based voting. We study the computational complexity of finding the outcome of our rul...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents a new logic for reasoning about the formation of beliefs through perception or through inference in non-omniscient resource-bounded agents. The logic distinguishes the concept of explicit belief from the concept of background knowledge. This distinction is reflected in its formal semantics and axiomatics: (i) we use a non-standar...
Article
In this study we present a game-Theoretic model of guilt in relation to sensitivity to norms of fairness. We focus on a specific kind of fairness norm a la Rawls according to which a fair society should be organized so as to admit economic inequalities to the extent that they are beneficial to the less advantaged agents. In a first step, we analyze...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present the main logical theories of action. We distinguish theories identifying an action with its result from theories studying actions in terms of both their results and the means that result is obtained. The first family includes most prominently the logic of seeing-to-it-that and the logic of bringing-it-about-that. The second includes prop...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we establish equivalence results for the different semantics for the temporal STIT logic T-STIT, that includes temporal operators and the group agency operator for the grand coalition, and we study a semantics for temporal STIT that is based on the concept of interpreted system a la Fagin et al. We discuss the descriptive adequacy of...
Conference Paper
This paper provides a formalization of the other-condemning anger emotion which is a social type of anger triggered by the behaviour of other agents. Other-condemning anger responds to frustration of committed goals by others, and motivates goal-congruent behavior towards the blameworthy agents. Understanding this type of anger is crucial for model...
Conference Paper
We present a logic for reasoning about the interplay between belief, evidence and trust in a multi-agent setting. We call this logic DL-BET which stands for “Dynamic Logic of Belief, Evidence and Trust”. According to DL-BET, if the amount of evidence in support a given fact $$\varphi$$ and the ratio of evidence in support of $$\varphi$$ to the to...
Conference Paper
We present a simple Ceteris Paribus Logic (CP) and study its relationship with existing logics that deal with the representation of choice and power in games in normal form including atemporal STIT, Coalition Logic of Propositional Control (CL-PC) and Dynamic Logic of Propositional Assignments (DL-PA). Thanks to the polynomial reduction of the sati...
Article
Full-text available
In the typical framework for boolean games (BG) each player can change the truth value of some propositional atoms, while attempting to make her goal true. In standard BG goals are propositional formulas, whereas in iterated BG goals are formulas of Linear Temporal Logic. Both notions of BG are characterised by the fact that agents have exclusive c...
Chapter
Important decisions are often based on a distributed process of information processing , from a knowledge base that is itself distributed among agents . The simplest such situation is that where a decision-maker seeks the recommendations of experts. Because experts may have vested interests in the consequences of their recommendations, decision-mak...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to propose a formal approach to reasoning about desires, understood as logical propositions which we would be pleased to make true, also acknowledging the fact that desire is a matter of degree. It is first shown that, at the static level, desires should satisfy certain principles that differ from those to which beliefs obe...
Article
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We present a family of logics for reasoning about agents' positions and motion in the plane which have several potential applications in the area of multi-agent systems (MAS), such as multi-agent planning and robotics. The most general logic includes (i) atomic formulas for representing the truth of a given fact or the presence of a given agent at...
Conference Paper
Ockhamist Propositional Dynamic Logic ($$\mathsf {OPDL}$$) is a logic unifying the family of dynamic logics and the family of branching-time temporal logics, two families of logic widely used in AI to model reactive systems and multi-agent systems (MAS). In this paper, we present two variants of this logic. These two logics share the same language...
Article
Full-text available
The mental attitudes of belief, desire, and intention play a central role in the design and implementation of autonomous agents. In 1987, Bratman proposed their integration into a belief–desire–intention (BDI) theory that was seminal in AI. Since then numerous approaches were built on the BDI paradigm, both practical (BDI architectures and BDI agen...
Article
Full-text available
This volume includes extended versions of a selection of the best papers presented at the workshop Information Dynamics in Artificial Societies (IDAS) and its special track on Sociolinguistics and Network Games (SLANG), of the 26th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI), 2014. This workshop focused on information exchang...
Chapter
As extensively studied in the artificial intelligence literature, agents may have to revise their beliefs when they receive a new piece of information, for avoiding inconsistency in their epistemic states, since one cannot believe p and believe $$\lnot p$$ at the same time. Similarly desiring p and $$\lnot p$$ simultaneously does not sound reasonab...
Article
In this work we build on these models to look at social influence from a strategic perspective. We do so by introducing a new class of games, called games of influence. Specifically, a game of influence is an infinite repeated game with incomplete information in which, at each stage of interaction, an agent can make her opinions visible (public) or...
Conference Paper
We study an epistemic logic where knowledge is built from what the agents observe (including higher-order visibility) and what the agents learn from public announcements. This fixes two main drawbacks of previous observability-based approaches where who sees what is common knowledge and where the epistemic operators distribute over disjunction. The...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a minimal logic for interactive epistemology based on a qualitative representation of epistemic individual and group attitudes including knowledge, belief, strong belief, common knowledge and common belief. We show that our logic is sufficiently expressive to provide an epistemic foundation for various game-theoretic solution concepts in...
Article
Full-text available
In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is...
Article
Full-text available
We study the strategic aspects of social influence in a society of agents linked by a trust network, introducing a new class of games called games of influence. A game of influence is an infinite repeated game with incomplete information in which, at each stage of interaction, an agent can make her opinions visible (public) or invisible (private) i...
Article
We study the impact of social ties on behavior in two types of asymmetric coordination games. Social ties are varied by making players interact with partners from different in-groups (fellow members of their own sports team, members of their sports club, students of their university). Subjective social ties are further measured by direct questionna...
Conference Paper
We introduce a dynamic epistemic logic that is based on what an agent can observe, including joint observation and observation of what other agents observe. This generalizes van der Hoek, Wooldridge and colleague’s logics ECL-PC(PO) and LRC where it is common knowledge which propositional variables each agent observes. In our logic, facts of the wo...
Article
In this paper we propose a method for modeling social influence within the STIT approach to action. Our proposal consists in extending the STIT language with special operators that allow us to represent the consequences of an agent’s choices over the rational choices of another agent.
Conference Paper
In this study we present a game-theoretic model of guilt in relation to sensitivity to norms of fairness. We focus on a specific kind of fairness norm à la Rawls according to which a fair society should be organized so as to admit economic inequalities to the extent that they are beneficial to the less advantaged agents. We analyze the impact of th...
Article
Full-text available
In the literature there are at least two main formal structures to deal with situations of interactive epistemology: Kripke models and type spaces. As shown in many papers (see Aumann and Brandenburger in Econometrica 36:1161–1180, 1995; Baltag et al. in Synthese 169:301–333, 2009; Battigalli and Bonanno in Res Econ 53(2):149–225, 1999; Battigalli...
Chapter
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We overview the existing philosophical accounts of group belief, including both aggregative (or reductionist) approaches reducing collective belief to individual beliefs and non-reductionist approaches ascribing beliefs to the group as a whole. We then provide a modal logic of group belief $$\mathcal{G}\mathcal{L}$$ that follows a non-reductionist...
Book
This book offers a widely interdisciplinary approach to investigating important questions surrounding the cognitive foundations of group attitudes and social interaction. The volume tackles issues such as the relationship between individual and group attitudes, the cognitive bases of group identity and group identification and the link between emot...
Chapter
We present a logic which allows to reason about the relationship between an agent’s beliefs and the information that the agent obtains by his senses. Our logic reconstructs standard doxastic logic by primitives denoting that an agent receives from his senses the datum that some propositional variable is true or false. We give a sound and complete a...
Chapter
We propose a Dynamic Logic of Propositional Control (DL-PC) that is equipped with two dynamic modal operators: one of ability and one of action. We integrate into DL-PC the concept of ‘seeing to it that’ (abbreviated by stit) as studied by Belnap, Horty and others. We prove decidability of DL-PC satisfiability and establish the relation with the lo...
Article
Full-text available
If an agent desires that ψ and desires that φ this agent often also desires that ψ and φ hold at the same time (ψ φ). However, there are cases where ψ φ may be found less satisfactory for the agent than each of ψ or φ alone. This paper is a first attempt at modeling such nonmonotonic desires. The approach is developed in the setting of possibility...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a modal logic that supports reasoning about trust-based belief change. The term trust-based belief change refers to belief change that depends on the degree of trust the receiver has in the source of information.
Chapter
We give informal definitions of the concepts of direct and indirect common belief, illustrating them by an example. We then provide an analysis of these concepts within public announcement logic (PAL). The conceptual distinction between direct common belief and indirect common belief is important because it identifies two social phenomena which rel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an agent that is able to reason about the user's emotions and to perform or suggest coping strategies to deal with them in order to improve the user's well-being. Concretely, this agent uses the PLEAID reasoning engine that we extended to implement Dastani and Lorini's BDI logic for graded emotions and coping strategies. W...
Article
In this paper we propose a new methodology for evaluating the relative power of agents in a strategic situation formally represented by a boolean game. The methodology consists in extracting a power ranking from the dependence relation induced by a certain boolean game. Our approach is axiomatic. We provide a number of desirable postulates that a n...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the influence that social ties can have on behavior. After defining the concept of social ties that we consider, we introduce an original model of social ties. The impact of such ties on social preferences is studied in a coordination game with outside option. We provide a detailed game theoretical analysis of this game whil...
Article
The two-dimensional map by Bentley et al. concerns decision-making and not games. The east-west dimension is interpreted as the level at which individuals identify with some larger group. We think that this should be linked to the concept of social ties. We argue that social ties will lead to different outcomes in the "north" compared to the "south...
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In this article we analyze the influence of a concrete moral emotion (i.e. moral guilt) on strategic decision making. We present a normal form Prisoner’s Dilemma with a moral component. We assume that agents evaluate the game’s outcomes with respect to their ideality degree (i.e. how much a given outcome conforms to the player’s moral values), base...
Book
Editors : Pierre Marquis, Odile Papini, Henri Prade
Article
In this paper we propose a method for modeling social influence within the STIT approach to action. Our proposal consists in extending the STIT language with special operators that allows us to represent the consequences of an agent's choices over the rational choices of another agent. Copyright © 2014, International Foundation for Autonomous Agent...
Article
This paper proposes a logical framework for representing static and dynamic properties of different kinds of individual and collective attitudes. A complete axiomatization as well as a decidability result for the logic are given. The logic is applied to game theory by providing a formal analysis of the epistemic conditions of iterated deletion of w...