Eljas Orrman's scientific contributions

Publications (3)

Chapter
During the eleventh century Christianity was accepted as the public religion in most of Scandinavia (see Chapter 7). By the end of that century the Christian faith had superseded pagan beliefs in Denmark, Norway and the Norse island communities of the Atlantic, but this happened more slowly in eastern Scandinavia.In Sweden, pagan attitudes persiste...
Chapter
The decline and stagnation in settlement caused by the Black Death and the ensuing plague epidemics led to various kinds of crisis phenomena in rural societies throughout central, western and southern Europe. This is the reason why the term “late medieval agrarian crisis’ has been coined to describe the period from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-fif...
Article
Development of settlement Sedentary settlement in Scandinavia was predominantly agrarian during the Iron Age and the Middle Ages. Grain cultivation and animal husbandry were the basic means of providing sustenance, but were complemented, according to local conditions, by various forms of hunting, fishing and gathering. We have seen (Chapter 1) that...

Citations

... By the 12th century, this relationship had become so close that the kingdom expanded to new areas, especially in Finland, as a network of churches. Often, a parish organized around a local church was the first tie that linked communities on the Finnish borderlands to the administration and taxation of the kingdom (Lindkvist, 2003: 227-229, 233;Orrman, 2003). This was especially true in Northern Ostrobothnia, where churches long predated such foci of royal power as castles. ...
... Similarly, women worked alongside men in agricultural fields, especially during the harvest, and it was not uncommon for unwed daughters to be employed working nearby fields (Orrman, 2003b;Sawyer & Sawyer, 1993). Thus, generally speaking, sex-division of labor in Denmark was relatively low, especially as compared with other parts of Europe, and in many instances, men and women occupied the same spheres. ...
... Primarily, there were no large, urbanized centers as existed further south, and the "cities" of Denmark were more akin to large towns due to a smaller population and smaller industry (Petersen et al., 2006). However, there were still distinctions between the lives of country and city peoples, even if they were not as extreme as in other countries (Orrman, 2003a). ...
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