Elizabeth R. DeSombre's research while affiliated with Wellesley College and other places

Publications (15)

Article
This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note...
Article
Many international commercial fish stocks are threatened with depletion; in some cases they are already badly depleted. Through Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs), member countries are committed in principle to sustainable and scientific management of these fisheries. However, in practice, national policies toward international fis...
Article
Global fisheries are increasingly overfished. The existing international regulatory structure, a set of regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs), has failed to prevent overfishing. Regulatory problems exist because of the common pool resource character of fisheries and the fishing overcapacity that results from short-term planning and th...
Article
There are few issue areas within international relations in which the policy realm has followed the scholarship quite as quickly or as far as in the area of the environment. After simple identification of the existence and causes of existing environmental problems, both scholarship and policy initially focused on formal institutional approaches for...
Chapter
Flags of Convenience and Registry of Fishing Vessels RFMOs and Trading Clubs International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas Indian Ocean Tuna Commission Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Cooperation among Tuna RFMOs Other RFMOs But Is It Legal? Effects of Trade Restrict...
Article
This article examines the impact of globalization on international environmental, safety, and labor standards through the lens of impact of open registration in shipping—the ability of shipowners to choose in which states to register their ships. Shipowners have moved registration of ships to low-standard states, while traditional national registri...
Book
Shipping is among the most globalized of industries. Ship owners can choose where to register their vessels, based on cost, convenience, and the international and domestic regulations that would govern their operation. This system of open registration, also known as flags of convenience (FOC), can encourage a competition in regulatory laxity among...
Article
Global warming is indeed a difficult international environmental problem to address: it has tragedy of the commons characteristics, and problems of time horizons and uncertainty. But previous efforts at international cooperation on other environmental issues such as ozone depletion suggest that international cooperation should be possible–though di...
Article
Issues of international cooperation are plagued by the possibility of free-riders; in the case of public goods, cooperative outcomes, although underprovided, may nevertheless be effected by a sufficiently motivated subset of relevant actors. Global common pool resources, on the other hand, are rival, and therefore lack of participation by all signi...

Citations

... Similarly, in our case, people's attitudes towards the regulation of online targeted political advertising are partially driven by the desire to set rules that benefit people's preferred party, even if they view online targeted political advertising as harmful to societal norms. This behavior might be perceived as a threat to perceptions of the fairness of elections, which could then undermine peoples' support for a electoral system that relies on a shared understanding of democratic norms [83][84][85][86][87][88]. We show that the rise of new technologies could potentially contribute to perceptions of "democratic backsliding" [78], as people might be willing to use the newly-required technologies to pursue their partisan self-interest. ...
... 129 There is an information deficit on the vast majority of stocks and their natural variability; thus, the precautionary principle would require fishing at well below the MSY level. 130 Environmental NGOs have also been vocal in their criticism of MSY-based management systems. 131 Greenpeace has strongly criticised the MSY-based fisheries models, stipulating that 'experience and theoretical studies have shown that aiming to obtain the theoretical Maximum Sustainable Yield can be very dangerous. ...
... In doing so, China expects that its power may be accepted internationally as legitimate while persisting with the pursuit of existing maritime interests such as alleged IUU fishing and the advancement of its geopolitical position through fishing. Other great powers, such as Japan and the US, have taken a similar approach of asserting legitimacy while maintaining domestic interests (Barkin et al. 2018, Wirth 2020. They were able to build international fishing power during the 20 th century and developed international fisheries institutions with their influence to fit their DWF interests. ...
... However, the connections of spillover systems to their telecoupled flows are understudied [41]. For example, while much research has been conducted on the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the global shipping industry that carries the vast majority of globally traded goods [42][43][44][45], little research has connected these 'spillover' effects with the sending and receiving systems ultimately driving shipping demand. ...
... Although the temperature increment due to the GHG concentration is triggered by the combined effects of individual mitigation fundamentally, the externality of GHG results in the lack of motivation to conduct carbon abatement for each country alone. Chander and Tulkens (2006), Wood (2011) and other researchers (Desombre, 2004;Hovi, Sprinz and Bang, 2012;Kroll and Shogren, 2008) have already revealed the failure of cooperation from perspective of theoretical game theory. ...
... There are many different reasons why these RFMOs are lacking in fulfilling their mandate. One of these reasons is, for example, the formerly mentioned problem of the decision-making model (BARKIN;DESOMBRE, 2013;DE BRUYN et al., 2013). It is also important to acknowledge the importance of member countries and RFMOs, which have different economic aspirations (PONS et al. 2017), which might influence the political will to address important issues such as the precautionary or ecosystem approach (BARKIN; DESOMBRE, 2013;MCDORMAN, 2005). ...
... They have been setting good examples while implementing green governance approaches. For example, the European agreements on acid rain include a monitoring process that is able to evaluate the accuracy of emissions data reported by states and increase the reliability of reported information [43]. Through continuous legislative efforts, Great Britain has been gradually implementing green governance, and ethical businesses have formed [44]. ...
... Indeed, the obligation to cooperate by ensuring that vessels do not engage in 'inconsistent' unregulated fishing, and that they refrain from fishing unless in possession of RFMO authorisation, cannot be traced to any LOSC provision or general international law, deriving instead from the Compliance Agreement and the UNFSA [51]. Cooperation commitments have been made by State parties of those fisheries agreements in recognition that 'inconsistent' unauthorized unregulated fishing can undermine regional conservation measures, being at once detrimental to all fishery participants in the conservation and management scheme, whilst beneficial for the free-rider [52]. In particular, State parties to the UNFSA agree to abide by RFMO conservation measures, irrespective of membership, by virtue of UNFSA Articles 8, 17 and 18, which respectively cover cooperation for conservation and management, nonmembers, and duties of the flag State [53]. ...
... Second, power dynamics between member states differ following the system allowing ship-owners to register their ships wherever, a phenomenon called "flag of convenience" [10]. As many ship-owners have registered their ships in nations with for example lower taxes or less strict labour laws, big ship-owner nations such as Panama, Liberia and the Marshall Islands in some cases hold more power during IMO negotiations than in other UN contexts [8]. ...