Elizabeth Burd's research while affiliated with The University of Newcastle, Australia and other places

Publications (71)

Article
Full-text available
The widespread availability of affordable head-mounted displays and easy access to virtual reality (VR) applications and games has significantly increased the use of such technology by the general public. Thus there is increasing interest in determining any risks of using such technology and any aftereffect from exposure. Head-mounted display manuf...
Conference Paper
There is increasing interest in the application of serious games for learning. Growth in the take-up of digital devices, e.g. smartphones and tablets, and their use for gaming provides new opportunities for mobile learning (m-learning). A serious game m-learning app for improving adult learners' apostrophe usage, called Apostrophe Power, has been d...
Conference Paper
Soft skills such as effective communication are becoming increasingly important for engineering graduates. Employers prize excellent written and oral abilities and literacy proficiency. High levels of academic literacy can significantly improve students' success in their university study. Traditional approaches to literacy improvement can limit stu...
Article
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) potentially challenge the traditional dominance of brick and mortar institutions as providers of quality higher education. The benefits for students include reduced education costs and global access to exclusive institution courses and instructors. However, the benefits for institutions are less clear as there is...
Article
Full-text available
Using interactive surfaces in a classroom requires an understanding of multiple users and stakeholders. While research on how students using tables provides some insight, exploring the roles and needs of the teacher, and the interaction between groups in a classroom, adds an additional dimension to this design challenge. We summarize three years of...
Article
The special issue of International Journal of Human-Computer Studies provides a diverse sampling of research being conducted into the development, evaluation, and deployment of multi-touch systems. The papers published in the issue consider new design methods, interaction technique evaluation, real world applications and ubiquitous computing, and p...
Article
In this paper, we review our findings from three years of research into multi-touch tables to support collaborative learning in classrooms. Findings indicate that multi-touch tables can lead to the development of joint problem spaces and more interactive discussions, and that when placed in a classroom setting, can be used to facilitate small group...
Article
Interactive surfaces and spaces are entering classrooms and other learning settings. This symposium brings together leaders in the field to establish a coherent research agenda for interactive surfaces inside the learning sciences. We demonstrate the broad applicability of these technologies, outline advantages and disadvantages, present relevant a...
Article
Full-text available
While much research on collaborative learning has focused on what goes on within groups to lead to success, in this paper, we consider the classroom context within which collaborative learning occurs. Drawing on concepts of classroom orchestration and repertoires of collaborative practices we discuss how multi-touch technology can be used to suppor...
Article
This article reviews the research and evidence about multi-touch tables to provide an analysis of their key design features and capabilities and how these might relate to their use in educational settings to support collaborative learning. A typology of design features is proposed as a synthesis of the hardware and physical characteristics of the t...
Article
Full-text available
Since the mid 90s, we have been studying Web development and maintenance at Durham. One aspect of the research has been concerned with characterizing the evolution of We b sites over time. Another has been concerned with determining appropriate process models of Web development and maintenance. Overlaying this research has been work on Web metrics:...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of human fingers as an object selection and manipulation tool has raised significant challenges when interacting with direct-touch tabletop displays. This is particularly an issue when manipulating remote objects in 3D environments as finger presses can obscure objects at a distance that are rendered very small. Techniques to support remote...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-touch interactive tabletops are becoming increasingly affordable and are likely to become commonplace in schools. Despite the significant research exploring collaboration around tabletops, little has been done to integrate multi-touch technology for collaborative learning in classrooms. This paper explores the teachers' requirements and the c...
Article
This article describes an approach whereby patterns are used to describe management issues and solutions to be used during the project management of team-based software development. The work describes how web 2.0 technologies have been employed to support the use and development of such patterns. To evaluate the success of patterns and the technolo...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present SWLinker, a system that aims to empower browsing of Web learning resources by the integration of Semantic Web technologies. It leverages the synergy of learning objects (LOs) on the Semantic Web and ontology based dynamic linking in order to enrich Web pages with semantic layers of complementary knowledge. Furthermore, we d...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a need to differentiate Web maintenance from traditional software maintenance. The maintenance of a Web site is different than that of software as it is under constant maintenance and works by default in "modified environments". Building on the authors' previous work of automated quality measurement, a case study of large scale...
Conference Paper
Two studies were conducted, focusing on the perceptions and current state of Web accessibility. It found a strong trend towards content management software, and considerable differences between how those who specialise in accessibility and those charged with Web maintenance assess and perceive accessibility. Both studies also revealed that there is...
Chapter
IntroductionExisting Studies of Software EvolutionCase Study ApproachResultsGeneral RecommendationsConclusions References
Conference Paper
Web accessibility has received a lot of attention within the UK recently. This paper gauges how the accessibility of Web sites with the UK has changed over recent years. Web sites were chosen from 3 groups (public organisations, FTSE companies and universities) and using the Internet Archive yearly samples were taken and accessibility assessment ca...
Conference Paper
Ensuring a Website is accessible for diverse sets of users is a crucial and in some circumstances a legal requirement. It can also be a time consuming and frustrating fire fighting exercise. This research paper describes a visual evaluation of the accessibility of a Website using Tree-Maps. Its goal is to highlight areas of a site that need attenti...
Article
Full-text available
Dominance trees have been used as a means for reengineering legacy systems into potential reuse candidates. The dominance relation suggests the reuse candidates which are identified by strongly directly dominated subtrees. We review the approach and illustrate how the dominance tree may fail to show the relationship between the strongly direct domi...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the results of a process whereby the detection capability of 5 code replication detection tools for large software application are evaluated. Specifically this work focuses on the benefits of identification for preventative maintenance that is with the aim to remove some of the identified clones from the source code. A number o...
Conference Paper
This paper describes an experiment whereby the benefit of using animation to improve the comprehensibility of UML sequence diagrams is assessed. The paper hypothesizes that through animation the control flow of sequence diagram will become more evident. The development a system that seeks to enable stakeholders to better interpret UML modeling beha...
Conference Paper
Chapter 7 investigates how the study of evolutionary trends can be used to assist the maintenance process. A number of different techniques are used; this includes call, file and data analysis. The results of each of these techniques are investigated by using versions of four different industrial applications. The results of the analysis process ar...
Conference Paper
Within the endeavour of work to increase the accessibility of Web pages, little attention has been paid to the contribution that simplifying the textual content could make. Furthermore, attention needs to be given to alternative renderings of Web page content as the Web becomes more graphically and aurally orientated. This paper describes the role...
Article
Software Clustering and Concept Analysis are two types of technique that can be used to determine the structure of a software system. This position paper proposes the use of such techniques to aid the study of software evolution. Basic Software Clustering and Concept Analysis techniques are described. By applying these techniques to different versi...
Article
This paper describes a case study where versions of software are used to track actual changes made to software applications. The process of evolution within a number of software applications is described. The applications are developed using two different software development languages; C and COBOL. The evolution of the applications is tracked and...
Article
This paper will address how program comprehension can be aided within software maintenance through the use of high level representations of code, specifically the use of dominance trees. The paper proposes that dominance trees should be used as a standard approach within the program comprehension process. A number of ways in which the dominance tre...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a number of metrics to assess the maintainability of code. Dominance relations are used to express the complexity of call relations and an assumption is made that when more complex relations are present within a source code module it is harder for an application to be maintained. The paper describes a case study whereby the chan...
Conference Paper
The paper describes the analysis and results of studies in software evolution. Four major applications have been studied, three of which are from the commercial sector. The study concentrates on analysing changes in data complexity, as a direct result of the maintenance processes through comparing versions of the same application. Reverse engineeri...
Conference Paper
The paper describes the investigation of a technique for remodularising legacy software; that of cluster analysis. This technique takes into account data cohesion as an influencing factor of the remodularisation process and compares and contrasts this with calling structure analysis. Cluster analysis is a well-established discipline used in other s...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the investigation of a technique for remodularizing legacy software; that of cluster analysis. This technique takes into account data cohesion as an influencing factor to the remodularization process and compares and contrasts this with calling structure analysis. Cluster analysis is a well-established discipline used in other...
Chapter
Blum (1996) states in his book regarding the future issues of software development that, in the future, software development will have a different character. He states that: There already is enormous investment in software, and there is little likelihood that the software can ever be replaced. It would be too costly to reprogram, and few understand...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proposes a number of metrics to assess the maintainability of code. Dominance relations are used to express the complexity of call relations and an assumption is made that, when more complex relations are present within a source code module, it is harder for an application to be maintained. The paper describes a case study whereby the changes in do...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a number of metrics to assess the maintainability of code. Dominance relations are used to express the complexity of call relations and an assumption is made that when more complex relations are present within a source code module it is harder for an application to be maintained. The paper describes a case study whereby the chan...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a case study where versions of software are used to track actual changes made to software application. The analysis of 30 sequential version of the gcc C compiler are described within this paper. The results, where possible, are highlighted using graphical representations of the change process. The discussion of results aims to...
Article
Reuse reengineering is a process where objects are extracted from legacy systems and used to form new candidates for reuse. One of the hardest processes of reuse reengineering is object identification. The identification process is where the multiple functionality of a legacy application is identified and encapsulated into a self-sufficient unit. T...
Conference Paper
This paper evaluates the suitability of dominance trees as a means of re-modularising legacy systems. It uses two factors to assess the suitability of the dominance tree approach as a restructuring mechanism. Firstly, it considers if dominance tree analysis identifies suitable reuse candidates and secondly, if the candidates generated represent an...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Durham, 1999.
Conference Paper
The international workshop on software transformation systems aims to bring together the most active researchers in the area of transformation systems so that a substantive evaluation and comparison of software transformation techniques can be made. Its purpose is to foster collaborations among researchers, opening up stronger communications channe...
Conference Paper
As software applications increase in size, grouping the application into smaller, more manageable components is often proposed as a means of assisting software maintenance activities. This paper investigates the suitability of components generated using data clustering techniques. The suitability of the approach is based on real case studies from a...
Article
This paper describes a method for reengineering legacy systems into potential reuse candidates so that they can eventually be replaced by more flexible and maintainable software. The method consists of 10 steps to obtain the reuse candidates and employs both the analysis of code and the assistance of domain specialists. The inclusion of non-technic...
Article
As software applications increase in size, grouping the application into smaller, more manageable components is often proposed as a means of assisting software maintenance activities. This paper investigates the suitability of components generated using data clustering techniques. The suitability of the approach is based on real case studies from a...
Article
As software applications increase in size, grouping the application into smaller, more manageable components is often proposed as a means of assisting software maintenance activities. This paper investigates the suitability of components generated using data clustering techniques. The suitability of the approach is based on real case studies from a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper evaluates the suitability of reuse candidates identified through the dominance relation approach and their ability to support the process of software evolution. The paper provides an overview of the dominance relation and how it is used to identify the reusable candidates. The reuse candidates that are identified by this approach are then...
Conference Paper
Reengineering is a necessary but expensive process. Therefore if ways of reducing the cost of reengineering can be found, then this can help to direct limited budgets to where they are most needed. This paper evaluates a number of ways in which early predictions of the benefits of performing reengineering work can be made. The early predictions est...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper describes the process whereby we investigate the implementation of non-functional requirements and their implications on the reengineering process. The authors' work has so far concentrated on the identification of reusable units from existing legacy systems. However, the results from their approaches so far have found that the functional...
Article
This paper describes the work of a reverse engineering project. The project is concerned with the identification of reusable modules of code from legacy systems. We apply a number of existing techniques and methods to large COBOL programs and attempt to integrate the methods to satisfy the needs of our industrial sponsors. We have found that the is...
Article
This paper describes an investigation into the use of code replication within legacy software systems. Two cases of replication are investigated. These are replication with an individual program and replication of an entire or part of a program across a program suite. For each of the cases an example is given from code used within the commercial se...
Article
This paper describes work performed for the IDENT project which is concerned with the identification and encapsulation of reusable modules. The aim of the project is to look at the integration of two methods for supporting maintenance; RE 2 and RECAST. In this paper we describe a case study where we try to extract reusable modules from a 21,000 lin...
Article
This paper describes the process whereby we investigate the implementation of non-functional requirements and their implications on the reengineering process. Our work has so far concentrated on the identification of reusable units from existing legacy systems. However, the results from our approaches so far have found that the functionality is dif...
Article
This paper describes work performed for the IDENT project which is concerned with the identification and encapsulation of reusable modules. The aim of the project is to look at the integration of two methods for supporting maintenance; RE 2 and RECAST. In this paper we describe a case study where we try to extract reusable modules from a 21,000 lin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an investigation into the use of code replication within legacy software systems. Two cases of replication are investigated. These are replication with an individual program and replication of an entire or part of a program across a program suite. For each of the cases an example is given from code used within the commercial se...
Article
This paper describes the work of a reverse engineering project. The project is concerned with the identification of reusable modules of code from legacy systems. We apply a number of existing techniques and methods to large COBOL programs and attempt to integrate the methods to satisfy the needs of our industrial sponsors. We have found that the is...
Article
This paper describes the process whereby we investigate the implementation of non-functional requirements and their implications on the reengineering process. Our work has so far concentrated on the identification of reusable units from existing legacy systems. However, the results from our approaches so far have found that the functionality is dif...
Article
This paper describes work performed for the IDENT project which is concerned with the identification and encapsulation of reusable modules. The aim of the project is to look at the integration of two methods for supporting maintenance; RE 2 and RECAST. In this paper we describe a case study where we try to extract reusable modules from a 21,000 lin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper describes the process of code scavenging for reuse. In particular we consider enriching program comprehension for the identification and integration of reuse components by information abstraction and the use of graphical representations. The requirements of good reuse candidates are described, and then a description of a process of identi...
Conference Paper
We describe work performed for the IDENT project which is concerned with the identification and encapsulation of reusable modules. The aim of the project is to look at the integration of two methods for supporting maintenance; RE<sup>2</sup> and RECAST. We describe a case study where we try to extract reusable modules from a 21,000 line COBOL progr...
Conference Paper
The paper describes the work of a reverse engineering project. The project is concerned with the identification of reusable modules of code from legacy systems. The authors apply a number of existing techniques and methods to large COBOL programs and attempt to integrate the methods to satisfy the needs of their industrial sponsors. They have found...
Article
In this paper we define the AMES application management model. This is followed by a description of the development of a maturity assessment matrix. Our assessment method comprises extensions to the CMM with some input from BOOTSTRAP and SPICE. In particular we have specialized the CMM assessment questionnaire to specifically address application ma...
Conference Paper
This paper describes some of the work being performed in the Esprit AMES (Application Management Environments Support) project. The different types of life cycle traceability are reviewed and examples of each are given. The aim of this paper is to present a method for the identification of traceability links of high level domain concepts. The objec...
Conference Paper
AMES (Application Management Environments Support), ESPRIT Project no. 8156, is concerned not simply with program comprehension but with application understanding. This paper considers the difficulties of gaining an understanding of the detailed functioning of an application in order to perform maintenance, and describes a method and tool support w...
Article
This document describes a Reuse Spiral based on the Spiral Model. This forms a risk based approach to the analysis and assessment of development options considering reuse. The earlier sections of this report describe what are risks and how they can be tackled using standard risk assessment techniques. In addition we add the use of categorisation to...
Article
Full-text available
Reusing existing web resources for e-learning has received increasing attention in the field of web- based education, especially because developing learning contents from scratch can be very expensive and time consuming. Knowledge engineering and the Semantic Web are very promising technologies for reusing and personalising learning resources in in...
Article
This paper describes the process whereby we investigate the implementation of non-functiona l requirements and their implications on the reengineering process. Our work has so far concentrated on the identification of reusable units from existing legacy systems. However, the results from our approaches so far have found that the functionality is di...

Citations

... First, we recognized that implementing each model component to VR is somehow difficult. VR helmets can only be worn for a limited time, approximately 30 min, without limitations (e.g., headaches, dizziness) [48]. Outsourcing certain model components (e.g., supportive information) to the real world may reduce the cognitive load of wearing VR helmets but may compromise integrated competence acquisition. ...
... This involved a stream of research that has focused on the use of digital resources for teaching students, with examples on the use of videos (e.g., Zhang et al., 2006) and the implementation of digital resources for computers in classrooms (Santiago et al., 2009;Lopez-Rosenfeld et al., 2013;Goldin et al., 2014;Mateos et al., 2016). Today, with the increase in the number and use of electronic devices (computers, smartphones, and tablets), the market for digital educational material is constantly growing (Blumberg and Fisch, 2013;Hirsh-Pasek et al., 2015;Hickmott et al., 2016). This growth has led to a greater use of technologies in the classroom (Lieberman et al., 2009). ...
... As one of the popular technologies, the seriousness (educational) and entertaining nature of serious games make it an effective tool for education and teaching. Serious games have the characteristics of relaxation and entertaining [4], and at the same time impart knowledge and skills to players. In fact, serious games can produce better teaching effects than other methods [5], and they play a unique role in education. ...
... Scott et al. (2003) proposed a number of guidelines for the use of single-tabletop applications, identifying affordances for the use of shared objects, physical user arrangement, and the possibility of leveraging learners' digital traces. However, there have been very few studies of interactive multi-tabletops for class groups (Hatch et al., 2009;AlAgha et al., 2010;Mercier et al., 2012;Martinez-Maldonado et al., 2012a;Kharrufa et al., 2013a). To show how our work relates to those studies, Table 1 overviews their key characteristics. ...
... Already at this time it was clear that web systems presented many of the challenges of more traditional large software systems and that existing methods and tools could be employed in their development and maintenance albeit with some adaptation. A fuller summary of this pioneering research on web system engineering can be found in the abstract quoted below from [3]: Since the mid 90s, we have been studying Web development and maintenance at Durham. One aspect of the research has been concerned with characterizing the evolution of Web sites over time. ...
... This work was conducted within the SynergyNet classroom project, where a range of teacher tools were examined to explore their potential in a networked classroom (e.g. Mercier et al., 2012). ...
... Numerous studies [3,6,9] have been done from time to time to find out the effectiveness of digital mediums in education as well as learner's perception about those mediums. The Report Card of online education shows that more than 70% academic leaders believe online instruction as the same or superior to face-to-face instruction [1]. ...
... Burd and Munro defined a set of measurements to quantify the dominance relations which are used to depict the complexity of the calls. They correlated the changes in these measurements with the types of maintainability activities [30]. Taylor and Munro visualized file changes with a technique called revision towers [31]. ...
... A user wishing to move when using such interfaces may disrupt others who are also interacting with the system. Solutions involving the remote control of out of reach content items result in users manipulating content items through a proxy [23]. This means that their interaction is no longer direct, which can be undesirable as it counteracts the benefits of direct touch interaction [24]. ...
... This situation has led to a change in people's habits [1,2]. The natural and intuitive interaction [3] between the end-user and touchscreens via touch gestures has transformed smartphones and tablets into the most widely used pieces of technology in today's society [4]. In fact, interactive screens are so natural and intuitive that studies such as that by Plowman confirm that even small children are capable of using these devices, and do so even before verbal communication development is completed [5]. ...