Elizabeth A Koutsos's research while affiliated with University of Missouri - St. Louis and other places

Publications (63)

Chapter
Insects have application in poultry feed because of their capacity to sustainably repurpose wastes into nutrient-dense feeds, combined with the demand for poultry meat and eggs in the diets of the growing human population. Additionally, poultry naturally consumes insects, thus insects may enhance poultry welfare. Several insects are commercially re...
Article
Full-text available
When subjected to cold environmental temperatures, cheloniid sea turtles can experience debilitating lethargy, anorexia, and potential mortality in a phenomenon known as cold-stunning. Every year, hundreds to thousands of cold-stunned sea turtles are transported to rehabilitation centers for medical and nutritional care. The objective of this study...
Article
Full-text available
Insect-derived ingredients, including whole larvae, protein-rich meal, and oil, have been extensively studied in recent years and shown to be a sustainable source of quality nutrition for virtually all animal species and life stages. In addition to the ability to use these ingredients as a source of essential nutrition, more recent research has dem...
Article
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) oil is a sustainably sourced insect-derived lipid that is notably high in lauric acid. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of BSFL oil on nursery pig growth performance, and serological and hematological indices. This study was conducted using newly weaned nursery pigs (n = 143; BW = 6.70±0.09 kg...
Article
There is growing interest in using black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) due to its supposed sustainability and nutritional qualities. Because little research has been conducted to evaluate the use of BSFL in cats, our objective was to determine the palatability and apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility (ATTD) of BSFL-containing canned diets a...
Article
Approximately 40% of amphibian species are threatened with extinction. The welfare of amphibians maintained under managed care as assurance populations is of vital importance to guard against extinction and provide a viable source population for future reintroduction. To manage amphibian species properly ex situ, it is important to understand how s...
Article
Many amphibian species are threatened with extinction. Understanding their vitamin A (retinol), E (alpha-tocopherol), and carotenoid requirements is vital, as normal levels of these nutrients have a known connection to breeding success with abnormal levels leading to disease. This research examined vitamins A, E, and carotenoids (apocarotenoid, bet...
Chapter
Proper nutrition is fundamental to the health and well-being of animals, and an integral part of management programs for animals under human care. The core concepts of a sound nutrition program include an understanding of an animals' natural history and wild-type diet, gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, and any known nutritional requirements...
Article
Blood fatty acid profiles can indicate an animal's wild-type diet composition and fatty acid status, but have not been reported in sea turtles. Newer technologies allow for fatty acid profiles from very small (less than three drops) samples of whole blood. This study examined whole blood fatty acid profiles of presumably healthy, neritic, juvenile,...
Article
Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) are opportunistic carnivores that feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and fish. Sea turtle rehabilitation requires provision of a species‐specific, balanced diet that supplies nutrition similar to that of a wild diet; this can be challenging because free‐ranging loggerheads’ diets vary depending on their...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the US FDA and Association of American Feed Control Officials approved Black Soldier Fly larvae (BSFL) as a feed ingredient for poultry. The objectives of this work were 1) to evaluate the nutritional profile of BSFL oil and meal in laying hens, and 2) measure the impact of the BSFL treatments on hen performance and egg quality. In two ex...
Article
Two trials were conducted to assess the acceptance, safety and digestibility of diets containing various inclusion levels of partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) meal and BSFL oil by dogs. In Trial 1, five extruded diets were evaluated for acceptance in adult Beagle dogs (n=20; 10 male, 10 female) during a 48-hour...
Article
The housing of wild animals in managed care facilities requires attention to all aspects of husbandry. Diets of wild animals often differ in composition, consistency, and quantity when compared with those in managed care settings including zoos, rehabilitation facilities, and aquaria. It was hypothesized that dietary differences from wild versus ma...
Article
African elephants (Loxodonta Africana ) are currently considered a vulnerable species. One key to improving methods of species management is to better monitor and understand elephant nutrition. Analyzing circulating nutrients is one of the best and least invasive methods of monitoring managed elephant nutrition, but limited reference values are ava...
Article
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) is an alternative protein source for animals, including dogs and cats. The larval diet may affect their nutrient composition and overall nutritional value. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) are common Ca sources, but differ in solubility (CaCO3 is insoluble; CaCl2 is soluble), so their intestinal...
Article
Insect-derived protein and lipid sources are sustainable, alternative ingredients for the feed industry. The present study was conducted to determine the impact of increasing levels of supplemental black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) oil on growth performance and serological and hematological indices in nursery pigs. Newly weaned, 21-day old pigs (n =...
Article
Edible insects such as black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are alternative protein sources for animal feeds due to their high protein content and low environmental footprint. However, protein quality and amino acid (AA) content may vary across insect species and life stage. Our objective was to determine the effects of life stage on true nutrient and A...
Article
To more closely simulate the diet of free‐ranging elephants, the diet of six (2.4) African elephants (Loxodonta africana) was altered to include more browse and less pelleted complete feed (5% total diet). Dietary proximate compounds, minerals, vitamins A (and carotenoids), D and E, and fatty acids were analyzed on pelleted diet items and forages i...
Chapter
Proper nutrition is the cornerstone of good health and is considered a key part of a preventative medicine program for zoological institutions that display sea turtles. Understanding the nutritional needs of sea turtles is also critical for rehabilitation facilities faced with the challenge of getting sick and injured animals to eat while providing...
Article
The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney's Animal Kingdom Workshop on "Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition," identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize th...
Article
This study measured starch and fiber digestion and microbial fermentation of three commercial exotic animal feeds using mule deer (MD) or dairy cow (DC) rumen inoculum. Diets were formulated to provide either high starch/low fiber (based on neutral detergent fiber fraction; NDF) with either alfalfa (diet A) or grain and oilseed byproducts (diet B)...
Article
The effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3 PUFA) and vitamin E supplementation on blood fatty acids and vitamin E in alpaca were studied, and fatty acid profiles of managed alpaca were compared to Peruvian alpaca consuming native forage. In Experiment 1,16 adult female alpaca, blocked by phenotype (n=8 Huacaya, 8 Suri), were offered eithe...
Article
Cataracts and ocular disease are common lesions of marine mammals in zoological collections. Lutein, an oxygenated carotenoid, may have therapeutic or prophylactic effects on ocular disorder. Therefore, this study examined the ability of marine mammals to absorb dietary lutein. Two preliminary trials examined lutein in two forms (beadlet or ester)...
Data
Full-text available
Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be rel...
Article
Many frugivorous avian species kept in captivity develop iron storage disease (ISD) as indicated by high concentrations of hepatic iron and hemosiderin deposits in hepatocytes or phagocytes. In several susceptible species fed diets containing moderate levels of iron, ISD develops because of an inability to match rates of iron absorption to tissue n...
Article
Full-text available
These studies were designed to determine the relative bioavailability and tolerance of tribasic Mn chloride (TBMC) for growing broiler chickens. In experiment 1, birds were fed a basal diet (starter, 102 ppm; grower, 209 ppm) or the basal diet supplemented with 3,600, 4,500, or 5,400 ppm Mn from either TBMC or manganese sulfate (MnSO4), and BW, fee...
Article
Nutrition of the newly hatched chick is complex and requires an understanding of the wild-type feeding strategy of the species, the known nutrient requirements of birds, and appropriate application to the species in question. Next, composition of available food items, appropriate physical form, volume and frequency of food items, and desired end re...
Article
In response to new recommendations for feeding giraffe in zoos, giraffe (n = 6) were transitioned from a typical hoofstock diet to diets containing reduced starch, protein, Ca and P and added n3 fatty acids. This diet was fed as a 50:50 mix with alfalfa and grass hay. Over the next 4 years, serum Ca, P, and fatty acids were measured every 6 months...
Article
Full-text available
Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be rel...
Article
To compare the effects of a low-starch, high-fibre diet [LSHF; 51.6% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 3.0% starch, 14.8% crude protein (CP)] and a high-starch, low-fibre diet (HSLF; 33.3% NDF, 20.0% starch, 19.6% CP) on the nutritional status of captive exotic ruminants, 16 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were fed one of these two diets ad libitum wi...
Article
These trials examined whether the demonstrated effects of embryonic and dietary carotenoid exposure on the inflammatory immune response in fast growing chickens also occur in slow growing chickens. The systemic and local inflammatory responses of chicks were examined in two experiments with two in ovo lutein levels (C+, carotenoid replete; or C-, c...
Article
Feeding fish to captive piscivores can be challenging owing to cost, availability, variability in nutrient, and caloric composition, as well as handling and storage concerns. This trial evaluated the response of three belugas to being fed Fish Analog, an alternative to frozen fish. Body condition, gut transit time, serum chemistry and metabolic hor...
Article
This research (involving two separate institutions) assessed the serum chemistries and body weights of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over a 6-10-week feeding trial to determine the acceptability of a commercially available manufactured diet intended for the feeding of insectivorous animals. Five animals at two zoos were heavier than desired and oth...
Article
Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally r...
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoids are partially responsible for the colors of plants and when consumed by humans and animals are deposited into tissues (e.g., skin and egg yolk in laying hens) and may have health benefits. Because carotenoids are more available when consumed from egg yolk sources than vegetables, this research examined the ability of the laying hen to d...
Chapter
The type or intensity of an immune response to a vaccine or a challenge can be influenced by intrinsic factors, such as age and sex of the individual, as well as extrinsic factors, such as environmental conditions, social interactions, type of diet, and exposure to toxicants. This chapter explores the non-genetic factors that influence the immune r...
Article
Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient that affects immune function, especially within the digestive system, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study examined the effects of short-term moderate Zn restriction on intestinal health and immune function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice through plasma cytokine profil...
Chapter
Overview of Psittacine NutritionWild-Type DietsDigestive Anatomy and PhysiologyGustation in PsittacinesTheoretical and Calculated Nutrient RequirementsEffects of Nutrient Deficiencies/ExcessesConclusions References
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted simultaneously and evaluated the Thr needs of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers. Broilers in the 2 studies were reared under 2 litter conditions: new (NL) vs. used built-up soft wood shavings (BL). Separated by a center aisle, all floor pens from 1 side of the close-sided house contained NL, whereas the opposite side containe...
Article
Full-text available
This trial examined effects of lutein supplied from maternal (i.e., in ovo) and dietary routes on cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity responses in chickens. Chicks hatched from one of two in ovo carotenoid levels (n=100/level; carotenoid-replete or carotenoid-deplete eggs) were fed one of two diet lutein levels (0 or 40 mg diet lutein/kg diet). At...
Article
Thyroxine increases during a molt in wild and captive birds, and thyroidectomy prevents induction of molt. This trial examined the effect of dietary thyroxine on molt induction molt in chickens (laying hens, 59 weeks of age). In a completely randomized design (n=15 hens/replication; 6 replications/treatment), hens were randomly assigned to either a...
Article
Full-text available
This trial examined the effect of 2 turkey breeder hen ages (33 or 55 wk of age) on performance, intestinal histology, and inflammatory immune response of female turkey poults grown to market weight. Using a randomized design, female poults were separated by breeder flock age (n = 8 floor pens/breeder flock age; n = 26 poults/pen; 0.195 m2/bird), f...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary copper sulfate (CuSO4) and tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) were examined for their effects on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens. In 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), day-old broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet with no supplemental copper (Cu; negative control), a basal diet + 188 mg of Cu/kg of diet from...
Article
Full-text available
Lutein, a dihydroxycarotenoid, has antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential. Two 2 x 2 x 2 factorial designs examined effects of carotenoids during in ovo embryogenesis and, in the diet posthatch, on the systemic inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In both trials, breeder hens were fed a carotenoid-replete (40 mg lutein/kg) or a ca...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between dietary lutein and fat levels in broiler chicks hatched from lutein depleted (Experiment I) and repleted (Experiment II) eggs. In both experiments, a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments resulted in six dietary treatments (fat at 3% and 6% and lutein at 0, 25 and 50 mg/kg feed) th...
Article
Full-text available
Extremely complex interactions exist between the components of intestinal ecology, including the host intestinal anatomy, intestinal microbial populations, and the nutrition of the animal. The anatomical regions of the gastrointestinal tract can be characterized based on cell type and function and include the epithelial cell layer, lamina propria,...
Article
Full-text available
Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient for overall health and proper immune function, especially within the digestive system, although the specific mechanisms by which it exerts these effects are not well understood. In this study we examined the effects of short term exposure to a marginal Zn diet on the intestinal health and immune function of lipopo...
Article
The experiments examined the physiological response of growing cockatiel chicks to varying levels of dietary vitamin A (VA) or beta-carotene and the rate of liver VA uptake. Adult cockatiels breeding pairs (n=10 pairs) were fed a VA-deficient diet for approximately 90 days prior to onset of egg laying. Breeding pairs were then allowed to feed their...
Article
Excess phosphorus (P) in manure is a major environmental pollutant associated with poultry and swine production and is directly related to eutrophication, which results in the death of aquatic organisms and loss of biodiversity. Phytate accounts for 50–80% of plant phosphorus and this phytate-bound P is unavailable to simple-stomached animals. As a...
Article
Plasma, liver and skin carotenoids decrease following infectious disease challenges. Since these challenges often involve substantial host pathology and chronic immune responses, the mechanism underlying altered carotenoid deposition is unclear. Therefore, changes in tissue carotenoid levels were examined during an acute phase response induced by l...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the physiological responses of adult cockatiels at maintenance to dietary vitamin A (VA) concentrations, and to identify concentrations associated with deficiency and toxicity. Adult cockatiels at maintenance (n = 22, 2-3 y of age) were fed a diet of 0, 600, 3000 or 30,000 microg VA/kg (0, 2000, 10,000...
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoids provide pigmentation to avian species, and also have immunomodulatory potential, although experimental results are often inconsistent. Therefore, dietary carotenoid deposition into immune tissue of growing chicks was examined in relation to their maternal carotenoid status (i.e., yolk carotenoid level). Single-comb white leghorn chicks...
Article
To determine the ability of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), a granivorous avian species, to adapt metabolically to high dietary protein levels, adult males (n = 26) were fed isocaloric diets containing 11, 20, 35 or 70% crude protein (CP) for 11 mo. Throughout the trial, body weight and breast muscle weight were maintained by 11, 20 or 70% CP....
Article
Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from S. typhimurium) or muramyl dipeptide (MDP, N-acetylmuramyl-L-ala-isoglutamine) in Japanese quail. Doses of MDP between 0.3 and 10 mg/kg body wt. had no effect on body temperature. In contrast, doses of 1.0-22.5 mg LPS/kg body wt. caused significant incr...
Article
Full-text available
Over 350 species of birds make up the order Psittaciformes; many of these are maintained in captive environments. Malnutrition is commonly diagnosed in captive psittacine birds; therefore, providing nutritionally adequate diets must be a primary concern. This review integrates quantitative information on the dietary habits and nutritional requireme...
Article
This trial examined the effect of 2 turkey breeder hen ages (33 or 55 wk of age) on performance, intestinal histology, and inflammatory immune response of female turkey poults grown to market weight. Using a randomized design, female poults were separated by breeder flock age (n = 8 floor pens/breeder flock age; n = 26 poults/pen; 0.195 m2/bird), f...

Citations

... Marine toads (Rhinella marina) have been classified in the top 100 most destructive invasive species due to their toxicity, successful reproduction, and outcompeting native species [18][19][20][21][22]. Population control programs have been used to manage the impact of this invasive species and toads in this trial were collected as part of a population control program to be humanely euthanized. Thus, biological samples from these animals were collected to gather data as a potential amphibian model similar to prior publications [23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Marine toads (Rhinella marina) have been classified in the top 100 most destructive invasive species due to their toxicity, successful reproduction, and outcompeting native species [18][19][20][21][22]. Population control programs have been used to manage the impact of this invasive species and toads in this trial were collected as part of a population control program to be humanely euthanized. Thus, biological samples from these animals were collected to gather data as a potential amphibian model similar to prior publications [23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Fishes collectively have diverse feeding strategies and correspondingly varied species-specific macro-and micronutrient needs. Basic nutritional requirements and related nutritional diseases are well documented in only a small number of commercially important species, most of which are reared in freshwater and used for human food fish production, with nutritional emphasis placed on attainment of rapid growth rates and efficient production (NRC 2011;Hoopes and Koutsos 2021). In 2016, aquacultured products contributed 46.8% of global seafood production (FAO 2018). ...
... Loggerhead turtles have large heads and strong jaws, as well as larger shells with a heart-shaped carapace (Evans et al., 2019). Adults are carnivores who devour crabs, whelks, and conchs, but hatchlings are omnivores (Molter et al., 2021). Olive ridley sea turtles are one of the tiniest sea turtles with an olive-coloured heart-shaped carapace (Kitayama et al., 2021). ...
... Consequently, fatty acid profiles are a focal point for the development of evidence-based diets for animals in managed care settings. Dried blood spot cards and subsequent gas chromatography allow for the determination of fatty acid profiles from just two to three drops of whole blood [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. These spot cards are easy to transport and do not require immediate freezing or refrigeration, making them convenient for use in field settings. ...
... ruddin et. al., 2022). The BSF has a larger size than most other flies with a length of about 15-20 mm, black and transparent in the abdominal segment (Amrul et. al., 2022;Oliveira et. al., 2015). The larvae of BSF/BSFL has been known as a substitute for animal feed among fish, chicken, or even bird breeders Heuel et. al. [5]; (Katya et. al., 2017;Patterson et. al., 2021). Several study informed that BSFL reduces the cost of large animal feed production (Al-Qazzaz et. al., 2016) and has a fairly high protein content of about 40% and the BSFL prepupae has a capability to accumulate 58% of lipid in its body (Mohd-Noor et. al., 2017). Besides high protein content, BSFL also has benefits for the environment, ...
... According to Freel et al. (2021), acceptance of diets containing BSF fat was high in dogs. Factors such as the dogs' weight, stool quality and blood parameters were within normal reference range value. ...
... Consequently, fatty acid profiles are a focal point for the development of evidence-based diets for animals in managed care settings. Dried blood spot cards and subsequent gas chromatography allow for the determination of fatty acid profiles from just two to three drops of whole blood [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. These spot cards are easy to transport and do not require immediate freezing or refrigeration, making them convenient for use in field settings. ...
... Nutritional management of southern white rhinoceroses is one component of human care management that has not been explicitly examined with this species but is one of the five welfare domains under the 2021 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accreditation standards [4]. However, on-going work by the authors and their collaborators have focused on the role of nutrition on blood nutrient parameters, including fatty acids in similar African megaherbivore species [5,6]. ...
... To assign the trophic level of the sampled species of adult sea turtles, we used a five trophic level marine food web model in which categorized the species referenced to each diet (Godley et al., 1998;Hoopes et al., 2017) placing adult green turtle (C. mydas) as secondary consumer with a mainly herbivorous diet, adult hawksbill turtle (E. ...