Elissa J. Brown's research while affiliated with ST. JOHN’S RIVERSIDE HOSPITAL and other places

Publications (64)

Article
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Research has used cluster analysis to identify clusters, or groups, of sexual victimization survivors who share similar assault experiences. However, researchers have not investigated whether disclosure status is a key component of the survivors’ experience. The current study identified two clusters among 174 disclosing and non-disclosing sexual vi...
Article
Background Child maltreatment is associated with short- and long-term mental health sequelae. Extant research has demonstrated that exposure characteristics (i.e., severity, frequency, duration, onset) are important in the measurement of maltreatment experiences. Emerging research has highlighted the contributions of these characteristics on sympto...
Article
Many sexual victimization survivors disclose their experience; however, there is limited research investigating why women disclose this experience and how reasons relate to psychopathology. The current online study aims to further understand the experiences of 142 female survivors (aged 18–29 years) by identifying their reason for disclosure and in...
Article
Background Traumatic experiences are common in youth and can be classified as acute (one incident or short-term) or complex (chronic exposure to multiple traumas) experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common response to trauma, often co-occurring with other mental health symptoms. According to the International Classification of Di...
Poster
Sexual assault is a public health crisis in the United States. Nearly 1 in 4 undergraduate women report having been sexually assaulted during college (Cantor et al., 2015). In a sample of college-aged survivors of unwanted sexual contact, researchers found that 79% of female survivors disclosed experiences of sexual assault to at least one other in...
Article
Background Childhood trauma exposure is unfortunately common and is associated with the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as well as a number of other serious medical and mental and health disorders. After experiencing trauma, children depend on their non-offending parents to believe and support them, reframe the meaning of the tr...
Article
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The study was an evaluation of Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al. 2017) with child-caregiver dyads who experienced the death of a loved one from terrorism, using a hybrid efficacy/effectiveness design in which there were no required minimum symptom levels. Forty children ages 4–17 years old whose fathers died in the l...
Poster
The CDC has identified substance use, self-injury, and sexual risk-taking as risky behaviors that contribute to the leading cause of death and disability among adolescents (Kann, McManus, & Harris, 2017). Exposure to interpersonal violence, heightened arousal, and poor parental monitoring separately have been associated with more engagement in risk...
Article
The clinical team at an urban trauma clinic sought to evaluate a protocol representing an integration of empirically validated treatment components to address trauma sequelae among female adolescents with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse. PARTNERS with teens is an exposure-based, trauma-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol. Speci...
Article
Disclosure of traumatic experiences is typically encouraged and associated with positive outcomes. However, there is limited research on nondisclosure of sexual trauma and consequent symptomology. This online study of undergraduate females examines reasons for nondisclosure and associated symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depress...
Article
Emerging adulthood is a developmental period spanning roughly from 18 to 25 years old and is marked with high rates of co-occurring substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, especially for those who are “disconnected,” such as high school dropouts. This comorbidity can lead to more functional impairments than symptoms of either al...
Article
Interventions for bereaved children and families range from supportive counseling, designed to promote social connectedness and expression of feelings and thoughts about the deceased, to intensive trauma/grief-specific therapy, designed to ameliorate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. That said, professionals have few...
Article
Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge fro...
Article
A common critique of empirically supported treatments for abuse-related psychopathology is attrition during critical phases of therapy (i.e., exposure). The goal of this study was to examine whether child and caregiver symptoms were predictive of attrition among families in abuse-specific cognitive–behavioral therapies (CBTs). Children (N = 104) an...
Article
College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and c...
Article
Objective: Efficacy of trauma-specific cognitive–behavioral therapies (Trauma-Focused CBT; Alternatives for Families CBT) in treating sequelae (posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD; depression; conduct problems) for affected youth and families is established. Despite the emphasis on emotional and cognitive processes in explanatory models of sequelae...
Article
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Objectives: Past research has established that the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) exhibits measurement invariance across diverse ethnic groups. However, relatively little research has evaluated whether this measure is invariant across generational status. Thus, the present study evaluates the invariance of the MEIM across foreign-born,...
Article
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There has been increased recognition that identity operates within several “components” and that not every component is likely to be equally central to one’s sense of self. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which identity components (i.e., personal, relational, collective, and public) are differentially central to emerging...
Article
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This study examined the latent personal-social identity profiles that emerged from simultaneous consideration of ethnic, national (United States), and personal identities among ethnic minority college students (N = 3,009) as well as how personal and social identities are jointly associated with self-esteem. Results indicated that the structure of p...
Article
This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults (N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with...
Article
Using a national data set, this study examined the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory (MASI) across Latino and Asian Americans, gender, and nativity (U.S.- vs. foreign-born). Results showed that a four factor model of acculturative stress provided good fit to the data. Tests of factorial...
Article
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The present study was conducted to contribute to our understanding of young adult identity development by deriving latent profiles from intrapersonal and interpersonal indices of identity synthesis and confusion. A sample of 9737 college-attending young adults completed measures of identity, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Four latent pro...
Article
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This study examines the predictive power of avoidant and confrontive coping, and of coping adaptability, on the psychological outcome of children responding to community violence. Participants (n = 102) were recruited from four elementary schools in New York City, NY. Moderator analyses confirmed the hypothesis that the relation between use of avoi...
Article
This investigation explored patterns of blame attributions in 128 youth, primarily (87%) female, with maltreatment histories. Second, the study also evaluated the relative variance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, emotional distress, and interpersonal functioning outcomes, accounted for by age, abuse characteristics, and bl...
Article
This study investigated the role of searching for meaning, finding meaning, trauma exposure, and their interaction in the prediction of depressive symptoms among trauma-exposed and nontrauma-exposed emerging adults. Eight thousand seven hundred and eighty-four college students (73% female; mean age of 19.8 years) completed self-report measures. Hie...
Article
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Research indicates making identity commitments on the part of emerging adults is associated with a wide range of psychosocial benefits. Data from a large research collaborative were used to evaluate hypotheses drawn from eudaimonic identity theory that the benefits of commitment are attributable to the quality of the commitments held. Findings from...
Article
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Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis...
Article
Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for families with children aged 5 to 15 years who have been affected by verbal and physical aggression in the family. AF-CBT was designed to address risks for exposure to emotional and physical aggression as well as common clinical consequences of expo...
Article
Sexual assault sequelae include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and substance use. Seminal treatment models have been developed based on emotional (Foa & Kozak, 1986) and cognitive (Resick & Schnicke, 1992) theories, and determined to be efficacious. Studies also have documented the utility of Pennebaker and Beall's (1986) narrati...
Article
The goal of this investigation was to examine psychiatric symptoms as predictors of the frequency and severity of sexually aggressive behaviors that had been perpetrated by college-aged men in the past year. Over 400 undergraduate males completed an assessment of sexual aggression, athletic involvement, fraternity affiliation, alcohol and drug use,...
Chapter
Across the world, as many as 80% of children experience traumatic events including physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, community violence, and war/conflict/terrorism (United Nations, 2006). Although prevalence rates vary across studies, more than 30% of children experience one or more traumatic events by late adolescence (Copeland, Kee...
Article
Research has documented increases in child maltreatment at times when caregivers are deployed and rates have increased among military families since 2002, despite remaining stable among civilian families. Military youth also are susceptible to traumatic events that are nonmilitary related. Despite the prevalence of various forms of trauma exposure...
Article
The objective of the present study is to determine if a brief measure of coping strategies administered to children and adolescents after a mass traumatic event - Youth Coping In Traumatic Times (YCITT) - has a factor structure similar to that of a lengthier, widely used scale, the How I Coped Under Pressure Scale (HICUPS). The YCITT was developed...
Article
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The present studies examined the extent to which (a) communalism, familism, and filial piety would pattern onto a single family/relationship primacy construct; (b) this construct would be closely related to indices of collectivism; and (c) this construct would be related to positive psychosocial functioning and psychological distress. In Study 1, 1...
Article
This review summarizes efficacious treatments for preschoolers, children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, with a focus on the advances made within the last 5 years. There is considerable support for the use of trauma-specific cognitive-behavioral interventions, in both individual and group formats. The research on psychopharmaco...
Article
September 11, 2001 was a tragedy unparalleled in the United States, resulting in the largest number of parentally bereaved children from a single terrorist incident. The event necessitated swift and sensitive development of programs to meet the needs of bereaved children and their families, and it offered a rare opportunity to investigate the sympt...
Article
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This study evaluated the construct of childhood traumatic grief (CTG) and its correlates through a multi-site assessment of 132 bereaved children and adolescents. Youth completed a new measure of the characteristics, attributions, and reactions to exposure to death (CARED), as well as measures of CTG, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressio...
Article
We examined the affective correlates of aggression in children referred to a partial hospitalization program for the treatment of behavior disorders who did not have a mood or anxiety disorder. Parent and teacher ratings of the children’s impulsivity, internalizing symptoms, affective reactivity, and aggression were examined for their interrelation...
Article
Widespread dissemination of evidence-based programs for underserved populations may require non-traditional means of service provision. Collaboration with paraprofessionals from communities that are targeted for intervention holds promise as a delivery strategy that may make programs more accessible and acceptable, especially to parents living in l...
Article
Children in the United States are exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Psychosocial sequelae to these events vary in their nature and severity. PTSD is a common, debilitating response to traumatic events that may alter the normal developmental course for children. Risk and protective factors in the development of PTSD include child, caregiver,...
Article
This study is an exploration of the measurement and correlates of childhood traumatic grief (CTG). Eighty-three children of uniformed service personnel who died during the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001, were assessed using measures of demographic characteristics, trauma exposure (physical proximity, emotional proximity, and second...
Article
Children in the United States are exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Psychosocial sequelae to these events vary in their nature and severity. PTSD is a common, debilitating response to traumatic events that may alter the normal developmental course for children. Risk and protective factors in the development of PTSD include child, caregiver,...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a school-based trauma-specific mental health program in New York City following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. This program aimed to serve children most at risk for developing mental health problems as a result of physical proximity (e.g., evacuation from schools surroundi...
Article
Following the events of September 11, 2001, mental health professionals throughout New York City were mobilized to create and implement programs for families suffering from trauma- and bereavement-related psychiatric problems. It was estimated that over 10,000 children lost their parents or other loved ones as a result of that day's terrorist attac...
Article
There has been increasing interest in the newly identified condition of childhood traumatic grief (CTG) since the 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. The case presented here is one of an adolescent girl who was diagnosed with CTG following the death of her father, a firefighter killed in the line of duty on September 11, 2001. Literature on CTG,...
Article
The term childhood traumatic grief (CTG) is being increasingly used to refer to the particular reaction in children that may follow the death of a loved one during a traumatic event. The goal of this case study is to describe the theoretical argument and framework for, as well as a clinical example of, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for CTG. We...
Article
The emerging research on child physical abuse (CPA) is reviewed herewith. Incidence of CPA may be as high as 11% for adolescents in the US. Child physical abuse survivors vary in their symptom picture of severity and type. Children who have been physically abused may experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, depressi...
Article
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Conducted a pilot study to test the feasibility of a prevention program for promoting parenting in families of preschoolers at high risk for behavior problems. Risk status was based on a family history of antisocial behavior and residence in a low-income, urban community. Thirty preschoolers (ages 21/2 to 5) and their parents were randomly assigned...
Article
The use of medical, legal, and mental health services was examined among 37 Medicaid-eligible, physically abused children and their caregivers. Fewer than half of the children received a medical examination related to the physical abuse, but the majority had received basic wellness care, including immunizations. Roughly half of the cases were heard...
Article
Contemporary clinical formulations and recent research highlight the importance of cognitive-attributional symptoms in explaining the outcomes of child abuse. This study is directed toward the preliminary identification and measurement of these attributions. From a larger sample, 47 child abuse victims (ages 6 to 18) were administered a 16-item int...
Article
We examined the effect of disclosing to others an attempted or completed rape. Eighty-five undergraduate women who acknowledged attempted or completed rape wrote about their experience and read their narratives. In a 2 x 2 design, we examined the value of writing only factual information versus factual plus emotional information, and reading to one...
Article
The goal of the present study was to examine a conceptual attributional model for the development of psychopathology after child physical abuse. Physically abused or maltreated children referred for treatment completed a series of measures to assess parent-to-child violence, abuse-specific attributions and general attributional style, other potenti...
Article
This study examines the treatment histories, and the service needs, concerns, and involvement of cases referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) following an allegation of child physical or sexual abuse in an effort to document their services experiences. Standardized clinical assessments were conducted with child victims and their caregivers at...
Article
Perfectionism has been defined as a dispositional tendency to set excessively high performance standards and to then evaluate one's performance in an overly critical manner (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale developed by these authors, the current investigation examined the relationship of tw...
Article
The actions of juveniles who sexually abuse other children and youth (JSAs) result in significant social and economic costs. Nevertheless, a brief empirical review of studies designed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment for JSAs reveals limited knowledge about this population. Similar conclusions are drawn from a review of effectiveness studies o...
Article
Forty-five patients with social phobia and 15 individuals with no mental disorder were compared on number and type of life events experienced. Social phobia patients were further examined to evaluate the effect of negative life events and of the interaction between personality style and life events on severity of impairment and reactions to cogniti...
Article
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Subjects high and low in perfectionistic concern over mistakes (CM; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990) monitored their mistakes daily to test several hypotheses about the nature of mistakes among perfectionists. High-CM subjects did not report a greater number of mistakes, nor were the mistakes reported by high- and low-CM subjects differen...
Article
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The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients...
Article
The person's perception of his or her quality of life has been neglected in studies of mental health in general and anxiety disorders in particular. However, the judgement of the impact of a mental disorder based on symptomatic distress while ignoring one's overall quality of life is incomplete. In the present study, we examined social phobic patie...
Chapter
Die Sozialphobie wurde zunächst von Marks & Gelder (1966) als Angst beschrieben, die in Situationen auftritt, in denen eine Person im Mittelpunkt steht, wenn sie bestimmte Tätigkeiten ausführt. Situationen dieser Art sind zum Beispiel öffentliches Sprechen, öffentliches Schreiben (etwa beim Ausstellen eines Schecks), Essen in der Öffentlichkeit ode...
Article
The relationship between subtypes of social phobia and avoidant personality disorder (APD) and their effects on severity of impairment and outcome of cognitive behavioral treatment were examined. Before treatment, most assessment measures differentiated only between generalized and nongeneralized subtypes of social phobia. Individuals with generali...

Citations

... The effects of childhood abuse and trauma can persist into multiple developmental spheres, including in poor academic performance, substance abuse, externalizing disorders, and internalizing disorders/suicide (Alpert et al., 2021;Lombera et al., 2021;Negriff et al., 2021). Research on TF-CBT (Brown et al., 2020;Cohen et al., 2006Cohen et al., , 2017 has indicated its effectiveness in helping with PTSD and trauma-related symptoms in such cases (Alpert et al., 2021;McGuire et al., 2021;Peters et al., 2021). ...
... Thus, victims with greater injuries may be more likely to be approached by others for the disclosure. Notably, disclosures elicited by others are related to greater negative reactions and fewer positive reactions , as well as greater PTSD symptoms (Carson et al., 2021). ...
... erefore, it is urgent to find an efficient nursing management mode [6]. e multidisciplinary collaboration chain management model is based on multidisciplinary cooperation and establishes an emergency treatment chain, which can not only optimize the emergency treatment process but also save the unnecessary time, ensure the continuity of the emergency treatment process, and optimize the treatment details [7,8]. erefore, in this study, the multidisciplinary collaboration chain management model was applied to the nursing pathway of acute trauma treatment and theeffect was observed. ...
... According to the research, psychotherapy for children has been shown to be effective (e.g., Landolt & Kenardy, 2015) in treating trauma-related disorders, alleviating symptoms, and increasing functionality and quality of life. In the case of traumatized children, trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) has specifically demonstrated efficacy in these regards (Brown et al., 2020;Cohen et al., 2017). However, the nature of the change mechanisms underlying the improvements generally in psychotherapy needs further specification (Kazdin, 2007), and the same applies for work with children. ...
... It incorporates grief-focused intervention to TF-CBT, including psychoeducation about grief and loss, appropriate grief expressions, addressing ambivalence and redefining relationship with deceased, preserving positive memories, committing to new relationships, and planning for reminders and loss triggers . RCT evidence supports TF-CBT for treating traumatic loss/ CTG and posttraumatic symptoms in parentallybereaved youth (e.g., Dorsey et al., 2020;Unterhitzenberger et al., 2020), suggesting it may be especially helpful for child-caregiver dyads with greater grief and trauma complications after violent loss (Brown et al., 2020). Given youth experiencing enduring trauma and grief pathology may benefit from an intervention that targets both, while also attending to the child-caregiver relationship, TF-CBT for CTG appears well-poised to tackle such complications, and can be feasibly adapted to meet the needs of children bereaved by intrafamilial homicide. ...
... During any clinical assessment it is useful to remember that trauma, as noted by Felitti and codified within the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for PTSD, is often experienced subjectively as shameful. For this reason clinicians should not assume clients will volunteer relevant information about antecedent traumas that may have played a role in the development of the presenting problem (Carson et al., 2020). Once sufficient rapport is established and the client has provided consent, clinicians can inquire whether a history of trauma underlies the presenting problem -learning about "the causes [of the client's hurt] as he perceives them." ...
... The developmental period of emerging adulthood is characterized by increased rates of stress and trauma (Gilhooly et al., 2018;Hood et al., 2013). These stressors may be exacerbated among Black emerging adults who additionally encounter racism and cultural conflict during this developmental period (Pager & Shepherd, 2008). ...
... Outcome Approach: This approach conceptualizes resilience as an outcome after an experience of a stressful event before the individual presents for treatment or any intervention. Meaning that the individual is able to adapt and function without developing any symptoms/dysfunction (Happer et al, 2017). According to Pelton et al., (2014), children who do not show any psychopathology despite being exposed to severe adversities or trauma are resilient. ...
... Clinicians can provide education to youth and caregivers at the onset of treatment on the association between childhood trauma exposure and executive function difficulties, framing these concerns as potential trauma sequelae that can be mitigated by TF-CBT. Engaging caregivers in this manner is especially important given that caregiver reports of child symptoms may be predictive of treatment completion in trauma-specific therapies (Tebbett, Brown, & Chaplin, 2018). It will be important for clinicians to consider the temporal relations among executive function, PTSD, and other trauma sequelae, given that if significant executive function difficulties preceded trauma onset, treatment may mitigate some but not all of these concerns. ...
... In summary, although information about social reactions to sexual assault disclosure is well documented (e.g. that informal support providers respond more positively than formal support providers; Dworkin, Brill, & Ullman, 2019;Filipas & Ullman, 2001), little is known about racial and ethnic differences in social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Nikulina, Bautista, and Brown (2019) recently studied negative responses to sexual assault in relation to PTSD and depression, as well as the protective role of ethnic identity. In a diverse sample of college women (10% Black/African American, 51% White, 39% Other, and 66% Hispanic), in which 37% experienced sexual assault and 165 disclosed it to someone. ...