Edward Zigler's research while affiliated with Yale University and other places

Publications (337)

Book
An engaging discussion about the new roles schools are taking and how they are expanding their traditional mission.. n this timely book, Matia Finn-Stevenson and Edward Zigler argue that the federal government alone cannot address the need for child care and family support services that, like education, should be addressed locally. The authors use...
Article
Although schools have begun to employ multiple programs to reach educational goals, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of combining separate programs. The present study investigates the combination of a school reform model, the School of the 21st Century (21C), and the Arkansas Better Chance (ABC) program, where preschools apply for sta...
Article
In this chapter, we summarize the contributions to this volume and to the evolving field of developmental research on intellectual disability (ID). The developmental theory and methodology reviewed in this volume reflect a level of precision and sophistication that could not have been imagined in our previous volumes from 1990 and 1998. These advan...
Book
Though the tremendous amount of recently-emerged developmentally-oriented research has produced much progress in understanding the personality, social, and emotional characteristics of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), there is still much we do not know, and the vast task of precisely charting functioning in all these areas, while also i...
Article
The adage "the more you know, the less you know" may best describe the contributions of the developmental approach to the study of persons with intellectual disability. Based on this premise, we trace the development of the approach from its origins in the 19th century, and highlight both the advances and difficulties of an increasingly precise sci...
Article
The child care issue in the U.S. has reached crisis proportions. This article begins by describing the extent and nature of the problem. The 1990 Child Care and Development Act is a step, albeit an imperfect one, toward solving the problem. Several guidelines for developing an effective child care system are articulated. One approach, the School of...
Article
Currently enrolling approximately 900,000 poor children each year, Head Start has served 25 million children and their families since it was established 43 years ago. Presidents and policymakers have embraced and scorned it. At times, scientists have misguided it and the media has misunderstood it. Despite its longevity and renown, much of Head Sta...
Article
Discusses the underlying rationale of the School of the 21st Century (21C), focusing on its impact on the emotional well-being of children and families. The 21C, also known in some states as Family Resource Centers, was conceptualized by E. F. Zigler (1987) as a school-based child-care and family-support program that transforms the school into a co...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews research evidence concerning two main propositions suggested by the broader literature on participation in organized activities and children’s development (e.g., Lauer, Akiba, Wilkerson, et al., 2006; Mahoney et al., 2005; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2002; Vandell, Pierce, & Dadisman, 2005). First, part...
Data
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Resource appendix for: Mahoney, J. L., Parente, M. E., & Zigler, E. F. (2010). After-school program participation and children’s development. In J. Meece & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Handbook of research on schools, schooling, and human development (pp. 379-397). New York, NY: Routledge.
Article
Reply by the current authors to the comments made by Beverly Birns & Libby Zimmerman (see record 2013-42838-022) on the original article (see record 2013-42836-003). The author's impression was that, although they reach them by somewhat different paths, the final conclusions are not unlike those of the critics. The author's are more in agreement th...
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The historical and recent growth of afterschool program (ASPs) in the U.S. is discussed in this article. Particular attention is given to the recent history of social and political influences that have led to growth and current popularity of ASPs. The article begins by reviewing changes in schooling and the labor force that created a supervision ga...
Article
Background Teacher reports of disobedient behaviours in children with intellectual disability noted in previous investigations represent a mismatch with the typical personality profile associated with intellectual disability. We hypothesise that this contradiction arises from the frustration experienced by children with intellectual disability when...
Article
In this updated version of their chapter from "Children's Play: The Roots of Reading" (published by ZERO TO THREE in 2004), the authors describe the recent attack on play, in both early childhood and elementary education. They provide a historical overview of the contentious relationship between play and cognitive development. The authors stress th...
Article
After more than 6 decades of advancing science as a means to expand our understanding of human development, the Society for Research in Child Development has welcomed into its major journal research that uses this knowledge on children's behalf. The acceptance of applied and social policy work within the field of psychology has been gradual, urged...
Article
This study is a replication and extension of an earlier study, using a larger sample, a better measure of poverty status, and new longitudinal data. The study used path analysis to test hypothesized models of how the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program affects children's school readiness and subsequent third-grade achievement. Participants were 5,721...
Chapter
Historical Overview of Head StartRequirements for Program SuccessToward a System of Preventive InterventionSome Limits of InterventionConclusion
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In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector (for-profit/nonprofi...
Article
Current education reform policies focus on raising academic achievement and ensuring that all students have access to high-quality education. Because the achievement gap is apparent even before children enter school, the authors believe that education reform must encompass the early childhood years. The current dialogue about universal preschool pr...
Article
This article provides a brief history of interpretations of Head Start's objectives over the last 4 decades. We begin with the founding goal of helping children prepare for school and the later misguided adaptation of increases in IQ scores as an indicator of children's readiness. We then discuss Head Start's more contemporary objectives, social co...
Chapter
The effect of play on children has become the subject of intense debates in America. Many preschools and elementary schools have reduced or even eliminated play from their schedules. Play is being replaced by lessons focused on cognitive development, particularly literacy and reading, to match the content of standardized testing. The focus on cogni...
Article
Passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 ushered in a new era of accountability for educational institutions and social programs in the United States. Federal funding became tied to demonstrated results on the basis of scientifically based research. In this paper we recount the science-to-policy translation process for one of the firs...
Article
Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased emphasis on health promotion, including prevention activities related to vision and oral health, for the general population, but not for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This review explores what is known about the prevalence of vision problems and oral health conditions among indivi...
Article
Mediational processes have been postulated to underlie the ability to make logical discriminations by classification. When children with mental retardation can discriminate through an outerdirected approach, their performance on discrimination tasks is comparable to that of children of without mental retardation who are the same mental age. In the...
Article
The EZ-Yale Personality Motivation Questionnaire (EZPQ) was used to measure motivation as a facet of school readiness in a sample of 133 children during the spring of their final year of Head Start. Three motivational constructs assessed by the EZPQ, academic mastery motivation, negative reaction tendency, and outerdirectedness, were associated wit...
Article
The original vision of Head Start called for a program that would "get kids ready so they would have a chance in school ... a chance in life" (Sargent Shriver; quoted in Zigler and Valentine, 1997, p. 59). President George W. Bush's recent emphasis on literacy and school achievement in Head Start highlights the academic aspect of the Head Start mis...
Chapter
The developmental approaches to psychopathology and self-image reviewed in this article as well as Zigler’s broad body of research on mental retardation owe a primary theoretical debt to organismic developmental theory (e.g., Werner, 1948; 1957; Werner & Kaplan, 1963). The research and the formulations of the developmental approach to adult psychop...
Article
The objectives of this literature review were to assess current challenges to estimating the prevalence of mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation (MR) and to develop recommendations to improve such estimates for this population. The authors identified 200 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, government documents, or rep...
Article
This study examined individual, marital, and social–contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (<12 weeks)...
Article
This chapter emphasizes the potential of schools to contribute positively to the academic and psychological development of at-risk children. To achieve this potential, the authors propose changes in multiple domains of schooling, including teacher attitudes and relationships with students, instructional approaches, classroom behavioral environments...
Article
Extensive empirical research has documented the value of play for both cognitive and social development. In Children's Play, leading experts in play research, child development, and early childhood education examine recent policy decisions and demonstrate the importance of play in helping children learn basic literacy skills, social awareness, and...
Article
With the ability and the funds to implement programs on a national level, federal policy is a potentially potent tool in primary prevention. Despite the U.S. government's history of ambivalence toward intervening in child rearing and limited national support for primary prevention, several initiatives have been implemented for children and families...
Article
This study used path analysis to test a hypothesized model of how the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program affects children's school readiness. The subjects were 2,375 kindergarten children chosen to be representative of all children beginning public school in the state of Missouri in the fall of 1998. Teachers rated the children's school readiness, a...
Article
Psychometric properties for a new instrument, the EZ-Personality Questionnaire designed to assess the functioning of students with cultural-familial mental retardation, are presented. The analysis of data from 661 participants yielded a 37-item, seven-scale instrument that confirmed the five hypothesized factors of Positive Reaction Tendency, Negat...
Article
The scientific study of behavioral aspects of mental retardation has lost vitality, overshadowed by exciting advances in medical, biochemical, and genetic fields. At the same time, the care and education of persons with mental retardation, once provided in sheltered environments, now takes place in "inclusive" classrooms and mainstream society. The...
Article
This chapter documents the influential impact on America's social policy of one developmental psychologist's knowledge, presence, and advocacy. It is a story of spirit, tenacity, and hope throughout the struggle to improve the quality of life for America's children and families.
Article
This paper critiques the links between recent reports on the impact of early experience on the developing brain and proposed policies and interventions for young children. Using the “Mozart effect” as a contemporary example, as well as several examples from history, the case is made that brain research is being misappropriated to the service of mis...
Article
Children raised in poverty can do well in school and later in life, but they face many more obstacles than children reared in wealthier homes.1 The more obstacles the individual child faces, the greater the likelihood he or she will not achieve success in elementary school. Today 4 million, or more than 1 in 5, US children younger than 6 years live...
Article
Outerdirected behavior in a discrimination learning task was examined in 55 individuals with mental retardation at three CA levels: children, adolescents, and adults. These groups were compared to each other and to 55 mental age (MA)-matched individuals without mental retardation. Adults with mental retardation required more trials to reach criteri...
Article
Professionals in the fields of mental retardation and giftedness have much to teach each other as well as the field of human development in general. Examining the commonalities and differences between the fields in social issues, definitions, developmental differences from the norm, values and policy issues, and educational and long-term implicatio...
Article
The Comprehensive Child Development Program (CCDP) was a demonstration project designed to test a specific model of service delivery for young children and families in poverty. Following the evaluation’s failure to show strong impacts, early intervention has come under fire from opponents in the popular literature and in Congress. We conclude that...
Article
Professionals in the fields of mental retardation and giftedness have much to teach each other as well as the field of human development in general. Examining the commonalities and differences between the fields in social issues, definitions, developmental differences from the norm, values and policy issues, and educational and long-term implicatio...
Article
The number of state-funded preschool programs for low-income children has increased dramatically over the past few decades, and recent research has indicated that these programs vary considerably along a variety of dimensions. By 1998 only 13 of the current 33 state preschool programs (which serve children 3 to 5, provide some form of classroom-bas...
Article
This article has two aims: to explore the historical reasons why mental health has been a contested issue in Head Start, and to describe areas of challenge and innovation which might further the program's goal of improving the well-being of parents and children in poverty. The historical sources of silence in the program concerning mental health is...
Article
Unlike the planners of the federal Head Start program, those who design interventions today have a wealth of knowledge available about meeting the needs of young at-risk children. Experience has shown that goals must be clear and realistic, the program must be comprehensive and involve each child's family, and services must be of high quality and l...
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Many researchers and policymakers recognize the importance of preschool education, particularly for low-income children, and the role of state governments has become increasingly prominent in providing services. At the same time, some policy analysts have urged that Head Start should be shifted from federal to state control. Others, however, believ...
Article
Comments on S. Scarr's (see record 1997-38813-002) defense of cheap, minimally regulated child care. The author responds to Scarr's comments on Head Start. Scarr dismisses Head Start without acknowledging the comprehensive nature of its intervention in the lives of poor children and their families. Head Start does more than child care aspires to d...
Article
Effectance motivation was examined in 26 inner-city children attending Head Start, 26 inner-city children with no preschool experience, and 26 middle-class children attending private preschool. Head Start children scored higher on measures of effectance motivation than did their non-Head Start counterparts; their levels were lower, however, than th...
Article
The authors, with research supporting the relationship between experience and the developing brain, envision a new and innovative model of child care in which principles of child development and mental health play an integral role. The School of the Twenty-first Century, although housed in existing school buildings, will be far more than a traditio...
Article
From its inception, Head Start has maintained children's social and emotional adjustment as a primary goal of intervention, but researchers have yet to settle on a consensus definition of social competence that can be used in developmental research and program evaluation. To address this gap in our knowledge base, we offer a comprehensive review of...
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Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every co...
Article
This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to...
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The present study explored the fantasy self, a previously neglected construct, and complemented work documenting maladaptive mental health correlates of actual-ought discrepancy by tying the ought self to prosocial and achievement-oriented behaviors. To distinguish and identify defining aspects of the fantasy, ideal, and ought selves, content analy...
Article
Of 74 high school students rated on a repression-sensitization continuum, the 17 identified as "repressors" were found to have greater frustration tolerance, better social skills, higher educational performance, and less shy and withdrawn behavior when compared to the 40 identified as intermediates; they also had a greater sense of global self-wort...
Article
The importance of integrating developmental research and social policy is becoming increasingly evident as researchers focus on ways to address the needs of children and families. This article discusses these developments, focusing not only on the possibilities but also on the challenges inherent in bridging the disparate worlds of research and soc...
Article
Children under age five are increasingly the target of formal interventions aimed at deterring subsequent drug abuse. These prevention efforts are characterized, however, by a lack of empirical research on the variables involved in inoculating very young children against later drug use, and the lack of assessment research demonstrating their effect...
Chapter
“Project Head Start, which began as an experiment, is now battle tested and it has been proven worthy.” So spoke President Lyndon Johnson in August 1965, when he announced that Head Start would become a year-round program after its inaugural summer session.1; “Compensatory education has been tried and it apparently has failed,” wrote educational ps...
Article
A long theoretical tradition has linked guilt with internalizing disorders. We find no evidence, however, that a greater personality proclivity for guilt is related to depression or eating disturbances as reported by 85 female undergraduates. Females also described guilt-producing incidents involving school versus eating and exercise. We examined r...
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In a sample of 112 psychiatric inpatients with mild mental retardation, lower premorbid social competence was significantly related to symptom expression in action compared to thought. Both of these variables were correlated with length of current hospitalization. Premorbid social competence and thought-action orientation have been major variables...
Article
The relation between racial identity and personal psychological functioning was examined within the framework of the "racelessness" construct proposed by Fordham and Ogbu (S. Fordham, 1988; S. Fordham & J. U. Ogbu, 1986). These researchers have proposed that academically successful African American students achieve their success by adopting behavio...
Article
While most studies on the determinants of learning deal with either cognition or motivation, there is a growing awareness that both should be considered. Our purpose was to examine the relative roles of cognitive and motivational factors for the scholastic achievement and behaviour of disadvantaged children. Cognition was conceptualised in terms of...
Article
Investigated whether social competence ratings and measures of fasting plasma free homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were independent predictors of neuroleptic response with 84 psychiatric patients. Ss were treated with haloperidol or perphenazine, and completed the Clinical Global Impressions Scale. Results indicate that...
Article
Effects of MA and CA on everyday leisure-time behaviors of children with mild and moderate mental retardation were examined by comparing 40 children with mental retardation to groups of 40 MA- and 40 CA-matched children without mental retardation on an adult-reported scale. Child's overall score, highest single behavior performed by the child, and...
Article
Discusses the conditions in which America's children of poverty live, and the importance of being aware of their needs in the areas of physical and mental health, education, and family life. If a child is to have the best possible chance to grow to full potential, we must pay attention to the early childhood environment. The first of the national e...

Citations

... From these esteemed colleagues I learned, and have since aimed to uphold, Zigler's guiding canon, that of the crucial importance of integrating science, practice, and policy development to support vulnerable children and families, reduce poverty, and improve US wellbeing, writ large (e.g., Zigler & Hall, 2000). This canon undergirded Zigler's far-reaching scholarship that in turn critically shaped developmental science and US policy in areas including but not limited to child poverty, the Head Start and Early Head Start programs, parental leave, child care, prekindergarten education, child maltreatment, child protective services, services for children with disabilities, and home visiting (e.g., Aber & Zigler, 1981;Kaufman & Zigler, 1989;Ripple & Zigler, 2003, 1994Zigler & Styfco, 2002;Zigler, Finn-Stevenson, & Hall, 2004;Zigler, Gilliam, & Jones, 2006;Zigler, Marsland & Lord, 2009). ...
... And what are the policy mechanisms needed to support it? While many might argue that the answers to these questions are known and the main issues revolve around political will (Brauner et al., 2004), it is actually a more complex idea than might be thought -a common-sense one built with equal parts scientism (Soto, L.D. & Swadener, B.B., 2002), a limited number of quality rating instruments created for one purpose yet being used for another (Lambert, 2003), and cultural assumptions (Tobin, 2005) that leave little room for questions of whose definition of quality counts (Adams, 2006). ...
... Although a developmental approach focused on young children and families was the common theme, Ed was a maverick and expanded the boundaries of developmental psychology to social action, which benefited greatly the next generation of scholars, analysts, and practitioners as well as society at large. He worked extensively in child care and family policy (Kagan, Powell, Weissbourd, & Zigler, 1987;Zigler & Lang, 1991), education and school reform (Finn-Stevenson & Zigler, 1999;Kagan & Zigler, 1987;Zigler, Gilliam, & Barnett, 2011), developmental psychopathology (Zigler & Glick, 1986), child maltreatment prevention (Kaufman & Zigler, 1987;Zigler & Hall, 1989), and mental retardation (Zigler & Hodapp, 1986;Zigler & Turnure, 1964). He endorsed cost-benefit analysis as a method of evaluating programs earlier than anyone in psychology, and prior to most economists (Zigler & Berman, 1983). ...
... Background Zigler's (1961Zigler's ( , 1966Zigler's ( , 1999Zigler's ( , 2001Zigler's ( , 2002 theory of personality development in persons with intellectual disability (ID) states that persons with ID are a group that is at risk of experiencing negative situations that lead to the development of specific personality traits which have a hindering effect on their functioning. The causes of specific personality development involve 1) a history of failure in problem-solving tasks and 2) negative social experiences. ...