Edward Dutton's research while affiliated with Medical University of Łódź and other places

Publications (102)

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Malevolent creativity refers to employing creative processes for one's own selfish gain, often combined with detrimental effects on others. Sex differences in malevolent or negative creativity are to be expected due to the established finding that males are higher in the Dark Triad traits. However, the only previous study of this issue, using a sam...
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A recent study by Dutton et al. (J Relig Health 59:1567–1579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00926-3, 2020) found that the religiousness-IQ nexus is not on g when comparing different groups with various degrees of religiosity and the non-religious. It suggested, accordingly, that the nexus related to the relationship between specialized analyti...
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There is solid evidence that human populations have been selecting against intelligence-related genetic variants since the mid to late 1800s. The selection is generally weak, but varies by ethnic group and sex. Since religious teachings usually include strong pro-natalist components, we investigated whether this might also affect the selection for...
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A number of lines of evidence, such as studies of religious converts and members of conspicuous subcultures, have found a relationship between holding and expressing a strong counter-cultural identity and mental instability. Here we test whether dying your hair an unnatural colour - something which conspicuously expresses non-conformity - is relate...
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Many studies have shown a small negative correlation between intelligence and fertility in developed countries. Several studies have provided evidence of a similar relationship in developing countries, notably in several Arab nations. The present study contributes to this body of research by testing whether this small negative relationship also exi...
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Many studies have shown a small negative correlation between intelligence and fertility in developed countries. Several studies have provided evidence of a similar relationship in developing countries, notably in several Arab nations. The present study contributes to this body of research by testing whether this small negative relationship also...
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Species and subspecies differ substantially in the size of their testicles. A study has found differences in average testis size when comparing Europeans and Northeast Asians. Other studies have found differences in testosterone levels between Blacks, Whites and Northeast Asians. We sought to replicate and extend these findings in a dataset of 4,46...
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Schizophrenia is correlated with religious delusions but, heretofore, the relationship between schizophrenia prevalence and religiosity has not been explored at the national level. Examining this relationship, we find that national level schizophrenia prevalence is correlated with national level religiosity and strongly negatively correlated with n...
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IntroductionGender dysphoria (GD) is associated with several psychiatric conditions, but the causal links are not known. We note that some of these conditions are associated with physiological masculinisation.Methods Here, we explore this association through a series of systematic reviews, using Google Scholar, on original studies that test the rel...
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Cultural Intelligence (CI) refers to the motivation and ability to understand and deal with cultural differences. As such, it is assumed to play a role in the effectiveness of social contact and communication between people from different cultures. Given its relevance to international relations, it is imperative to test which individual and group f...
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According to Lynn’s developmental theory of sex differences, male and female children have approximately the same IQ. Females, entering puberty earlier, pull ahead for a period in early adolescence before males ultimately reach a permanent IQ advantage, commencing in the late teens. This has also been found in some Arab countries, though there are...
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Many studies have found a small negative correlation between religiousness and intelligence measured by IQ tests, and many others have found that females are more religious than males. Still other studies have demonstrated that the IQ profile of females is different from that of males, with females tending to be higher than males in some abilities...
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A number of very eminent and highly creative individuals are often claimed to have been born prematurely, and the idea that widely recognised scientific geniuses such as Newton, Kepler, and Darwin were preterm has become a cultural meme through the popular press, and through popular and academic science books. This potentially raises very important...
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Meta-analyses have found a negative relationship between religiousness and IQ of around r = −0.2, including in samples of elderly Westerners. However, there have been few attempts to directly test the existence of the religion-IQ nexus in non-Western societies. We administered a cognitive test to a representative sample of elderly South Koreans who...
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Corporal punishment of children is common across human history, and the specific practice of striking the buttocks, known as spanking, seems to have developed independently across a number of separate cultures. This pattern suggests adaptive value, posing a paradox in view of the many reviews stating that spanking has purely negative outcomes on fu...
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Numerous studies have found a negative relationship between religiousness and IQ. It is in the region of − 0.2, according to meta-analyses. The reasons for this relationship are, however, unknown. It has been suggested that higher intelligence leads to greater attraction to science, or that it helps to override evolved cognitive dispositions such a...
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Following the Developmental Theory of Sex Differences, males and females have roughly the same IQ during childhood. However, because females enter puberty earlier their general IQ exceeds that of males during early adolescence, after which males enter puberty. By their late teens, males have a small IQ advantage. To test this model, we administered...
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Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a psychological trait with a long history in research and a large amount of accepted associations with other traits and with life outcomes. But it is rarely studied outside of the Western world, raising questions as to whether it can be generalized beyond this. In this study the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-...
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Synonyms Crying diversity; Crying versatility Definition Qualitatively different forms of weeping and/or shedding tears. The range of expressions of emotion associated with shedding of tears from the eyes.
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We administered the SPM to a sample of 1614 pupils aged between 9 and 18 in 2018 in the Dhofar region of Oman. Our results were compared to a previous administration of the SPM to 5139 pupils aged 9 to 18 in the capital region of Muscat which took place in 2001. We found that the IQ of Muscat in 2001 is substantially higher than the IQ of Dhofar is...
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There are an increasing number of studies on smartphone addiction (SA) among students, and also a number of cross-cultural ones. We add to this body of research by presenting, for the first time, a cross-cultural study comparing students in four Middle Eastern countries: Sudan, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. In this context, we also attempt to re...
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Previous research has attempted to understand why countries with relatively favorable conditions and high estimated average IQs (such as Finland and Japan) have a relatively low per capita number of scientific Nobel prizes. In the present study, we examine whether there is a relationship between national schizophrenia and left‐handedness prevalence...
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This study examines sex differences in reasoning ability assessed with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 2,206 (1001 male and 1205 female) school students aged between 15 and 18 from urban and rural secondary schools in the Minya region of southern Egypt. There are no statistically significant differences in intelligence between males and...
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Kevin MacDonald (1998) has argued that a series of twentieth century ideologies which have challenged European traditions should be understood as part of a Jewish evolutionary strategy to promote Jewish interests in the West, as evidenced by Jewish leadership of and disproportionate involvement in these movements. Cofnas Human Nature 29, 134–156 (C...
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Many groups differ in their mean intelligence score. Spearman’s hypothesis states that the differences are a function of cognitive complexity. There tend to be large differences on subtests of high cognitive complexity and small differences on subtests of low cognitive complexity. Spearman’s hypothesis has been supported by a large number of studie...
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Many groups differ in their mean intelligence score. Spearman’s hypothesis states that the differences are a function of cognitive complexity. There tend to be large differences on subtests of high cognitive complexity and small differences on subtests of low cognitive complexity. Spearman’s hypothesis has been supported by a large number of studie...
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An analysis of Kuwaiti children's IQs, published by the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education, is translated, corrected, and presented in English for the first time. It is shown that among large representative samples of Kuwaiti children aged between 6 and 14, there was a Flynn Effect on a similarities-type test between 1985 and 1998 of 5.3 points per deca...
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Industrialisation leads to relaxed selection and thus the accumulation of fitness-damaging genetic mutations. We argue that religion is a selected trait that would be highly sensitive to mutational load. We further argue that a specific form of religiousness was selected for in complex societies up until industrialisation based around the collectiv...
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Patterns of adoption behaviour are starkly asymmetric across populations. To better understand this phenomenon we conducted a systematic review of transracial adoption and adoption in general. We found six quantitative studies from the USA (with representative samples comprising a total of 117,000 participants) which had examined sex, race, and SES...
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It has been argued that Raven's tests are problematic in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. No discussion of Raven's in South Sudan, one of the least developed countries in Africa, has been presented. We present all known administrations of Raven's to South Sudanese samples. We find that Raven's in South Sudan is problematic. The scores are so low...
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The relationship between the general factor of intelligence (g) and handedness is investigated using a combined sample of 23511 respondents from three large databases: the NLSY'79 (US), NLSY'97 (US) and NCDS (UK). Dextrals - those who use their right hands were found to be 1.22 IQ points higher than sinistrals (left handers) after controlling for s...
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Two administrations of the Coloured Progressive Matrices in Egypt were compared. The first was administered to a large, representative national sample between 2011 and 2013. The second was administered to primary school pupils in villages in Menoufia in northern Egypt in 2017. Adjusting for the Flynn Effect, the IQ of the rural northern Egyptians w...
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There are national differences in scientific activity that are not well accounted for by economic and intellectual factors alone. We examine the novel hypothesis that androgen levels may also play a role. Androgens are often referred to as male hormones, but are present in both men and women, and have been linked to performance in other domains, su...
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The results of two administrations of the SPM to two samples of Damascus school children aged 13 to 18 are compared. It is shown that average SPM scores did not change statistically significantly between 2004 and 2013/14. In light of Flynn Effects in other developing countries, it is suggested that the brain drain caused by the ongoing civil war in...
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Frost and Harpending, Evolutionary Psychology, 13 (2015), have argued that the increasing use of capital punishment across the Middle Ages in Europe altered the genotype, helping to create a less violent and generally more law-abiding population. Developing this insight, we hypothesise that the same system of violent punishments would also have hel...
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Previous research indicates that the typical increase in IQ during childhood is greater in European countries than in Arab countries. A systematic literature review of age-dependent IQ in Arab countries is conducted, yielding relevant studies for 12 countries that fulfil the inclusion criteria. In almost all of these studies, Arab children exhibit...
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Previous research indicates that the typical increase in IQ during childhood is greater in European countries than in Arab countries. A systematic literature review of age-dependent IQ in Arab countries is conducted, yielding relevant studies for 12 countries that fulfil the inclusion criteria. In almost all of these studies, Arab children exhibit...
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We present three models which attempt to explain the robust negative association between religion and intelligence: the Irrationality of Religion Model, the Cultural Mediation Hypothesis, and the Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis. We highlight problems with each of them and propose that the negative religion-IQ nexus can be understood through subst...
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For over a century, social scientists have predicted declines in religious beliefs and their replacement with more scientific/naturalistic outlooks, a prediction known as the secularization hypothesis. However, skepticism surrounding this hypothesis has been expressed by some researchers in recent decades. After reviewing the pertinent evidence and...
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The results of two previously published Arabic language administrations of the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) are compared. The first is an administration of the SPM in 2006 to a probability sample of 6529 Kuwaitis aged between 8 and 15 from all regions of Kuwait. The second is an administration to a comparable sample of 6431 Kuwaitis in 2015....
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We compare the results of the Standard Progressive Matrices on two samples from Khartoum, one from 1999 (N 6877) and the other from 2010 (N 5659), both aged between 9 and 25. We show that in 7 out of 12 age groups there has been a significant Negative Flynn Effect over this period. Among those aged 9 to 18 - directly comparable as they are populati...
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Male and female Finns who contracted cross-national marriages had spouses from very different countries. We tested the possibility that this might reflect sexual selection, with nationality being a proxy for certain kinds of social status. It is predicted from evolutionary theory that females tend to sexually select for status to a greater extent t...
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Why is social bias and its depressing effects on low-status or low-performing groups exaggerated? We show that the higher intelligence of academics has at best a very weak effect on reducing their bias, facilitates superficially justifying their biases, and may make them better at understanding the benefits of social conformity in general and compe...
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We conducted a review of factors associated with individual and group level differences in positive ethnocentrism (PE) and negative ethnocentrism (NE). We inter-correlated datasets on national differences in these factors with data from the World Values Survey with regard to national differences in measures of PE and NE. The two different survey it...
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It was hypothesized that religiosity is positively associated with religious in-group favoritism. This hypothesis was tested using the second wave of data from the Midlife in the United States representative survey of middle adulthood. The sample included White participants from four religious groups (Baptists, Catholics, Methodists, and Jews). Con...
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There is evidence that Finland's Swedish-speaking minority (Finland-Swedes) may have a distinct intelligence-personality profile from the Finnish-speaking Finns (Finns). We test this through an examination of the two groups' PISA (Programme of International Student Assessment) scores (which assesses representative samples of 15 year olds from OECD...
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Differential-K theory proposes that levels of androgen, i.e. male hormone, differ across three large racial groups with Sub-Saharan Africans having the highest levels, East Asians the lowest, and Caucasians (Europeans, North Africans and South Asians) being intermediate. In this study, we found that most of the national-level indicators of androgen...
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Life history speed has been argued to differ across the three main races, with Sub-Saharan Africans adopting the fastest (most r) strategy, Northeast Asians adopting the slowest (most K) strategy and Caucasians being intermediate, but closer to Northeast Asians (Rushton, 1995). Differential-K theory would predict that puberty begins earlier in the...
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The gods of monotheistic religions, which began amongst pastoralists and defeated exiles, are closer to Big Gods than those associated with ancient city-based polities. The development of Big Gods is contingent upon a need to reduce uncertainty and negative feelings in combination with a relatively high level of prosociality, rather than a need to...
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Data is presented about the ethnic composition of high level darts players. It is noted that the male players are overwhelmingly European and British and that British ethnic minorities are absent among top male darts players. It is shown that this is predicted by the dominant European body type. High level female darts players are slightly more eth...
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The results of the French WAIS III (1999) and the French WAIS IV (2008–9) are compared based on a sample of 79 subjects aged between 30 years and 63 years who took both tests in 2008–2009. It is shown that between 1999 and 2008–9 the French Full Scale IQ declined by 3.8 points.
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Charlton's (2009) Clever Sillies model argues that high IQ people lack common sense and advocate foolish ideas due to the personality disposition that is associated with high IQ. We argue that the “Clever Silly” model proposed by Charlton has several shortcomings and needs to be nuanced. We suggest that it is useful to distinguish between scholars...
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Evidence is presented that success in cricket is associated with ethnicity, such that South Asians, Europeans, and Coloreds are over-represented, and Northeast Asians, Pacific Islanders and sub-Saharan Africans (with the exception of those from the West Indies), are under-represented. It is argued that these racial differences in cricket success ar...
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It is our argument that as Northeast Asian countries are lower on the q index than European countries, yet higher in intelligence, this would assist in explaining the surprisingly poor representation of Northeast Asian countries in terms of original scientific achievement. However, there are a number of alternative explanations that need to be disc...
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It is demonstrated that the dominant philosophical perspective in Britain was clearly different from that in France and Germany during the twentieth century. British philosophy was less ideological than Continental philosophy. It is demonstrated that the history of Britain in this period induced lower levels of uncertainty when compared to France a...
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The discipline of Religious Studies is shown to be, to a great extent, a form of extreme liberal theology. It is argued that the entire discipline would benefit from adopting scientific vocabulary, assumptions, and standards - Wilson's 'consilience' model. This is illustrated by exploring a prominent Religious Studies 'theory' in depth. Accordingly...
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Finland has been noted to perform consistently very well in the international PISA assessments for many years, but it also has a relatively low per capita number of Nobel Prize winners. We draw upon a large body of proxy data and direct evidence, including the first ever use of RTs to calculate the Finnish IQ and the first ever use of the WAIS IV a...
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The Scandinavian (Sweden, Norway, Denmark) standardization of the WAIS IV on the matrices subtest is presented. The score of Scandinavia on the WAIS IV matrices is higher than Finland (weighted means 105.1 and 103.1, relative to a US norm of 100). However, the difference is not statistically significant. Finland scores higher than Scandinavia on...
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It is argued that gender-contingent differences in the racial profile of Olympic track and field medalists between 1992 and 2012 is best explained by race-based differences in sexual dimorphism. Alternative hypotheses for the data are examined but found wanting. Future research into these hypotheses is recommended.
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Regional differences in IQ are reported for Finland showing that average IQs are highest in the south, containing the capital city of Helsinki. It is proposed that the selective migration of those with higher IQs to Helsinki has been the major factor responsible for the higher average IQ in the south. Regional IQs are positively correlated with the...