Eduardo Salas's research while affiliated with University of Houston and other places

Publications (180)

Article
Background Errors and preventable harm to patients remain regrettably common and expensive in healthcare. Improvement requires transforming the culture of the healthcare industry to put a greater emphasis on safety. Safety culture involves holding collective attitudes, values, and behaviors that prioritize safety. The Safer Culture framework, previ...
Article
This article reviews three industry demands that will impact the future of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare settings. These demands include the growing population of older adults, the increasing use of telemedicine, and a focus on patient-centered care. Following, we discuss a path forward through improved medical teams, error management,...
Book
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In Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Extreme Application, operations experts from multiple space agencies, with support from spaceflight researchers, outline existing and proposed operations for selecting, training, and supporting space crews who currently live and work on the International Space Station, and who are preparing for...
Book
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In Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier, leading space researchers from multiple fields of expertise summarize the recent growth of knowledge, the resulting tools and techniques, and the research still needed to protect humans in space. Making use of cutting-edge research and development related to composing...
Article
Background: The medical community has been paying increasing attention to diversity. Nascent research suggests that the physician workforce may be experiencing value shifts in this area. Objective: This study aims to understand how residency applicant perspectives toward diversity may be evolving. Methods: The National Resident Matching Progra...
Article
Objective: Measuring teamwork is essential in critical care, but limited observational measurement systems exist for this environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a behavioral marker system for measuring teamwork in ICUs. Design: Instances of teamwork were observed by two raters for three tasks: mu...
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Long-duration exploration missions (LDEMs) in space rely on the coordinated efforts of a large, dynamic, and global multi-team system (MTS) that crosses organizational, geographic, cultural, and temporal boundaries. A key role in the spaceflight MTS is the leader who connects or spans the boundaries between distinct teams and supports the developme...
Article
Teams are increasingly engaged in networked interaction across both team and organizational boundaries in order to achieve complex, higher order goals. In contrast to theoretical work on goal pursuit within isolated teams, there is an absence of theoretical models focused on systems composed of such teams. In response, we propose a predictive model...
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The goal of this research was the development of a practical architecture for the computer-based tutoring of teams. This article examines the relationship of team behaviors as antecedents to successful team performance and learning during adaptive instruction guided by Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Adaptive instruction is a training or educa...
Book
This volume addresses the need to focus on temporal adaptations of teams. Modern organizations have been relying on teams more often to cope with the changing economic and technological climate. An increase in the use of teams has led to more team research throughout the fields of cognitive science, human factors, organizational psychology, assessm...
Chapter
The abundance of teams within organizations illustrates the importance of team performance measurement—tools that measure teamwork. Taking into account the inherently complex nature of teams, this chapter presents a few insights and a picture of the research and practice on teamwork measurement over time. We define what makes a team and identify th...
Chapter
It is imperative in today's rapidly changing workforce, that organizations arm their employees with the various competencies they will need to adapt to these advances. In light of the evidence supporting the fact that most learning, in the context of organizations, occurs through training, a synthesis of the theory and science informing training an...
Chapter
This introductory chapter highlights concepts covered in the subsequent chapters in this book. The first section of the book gives a bird's-eye view of the teamwork literature. It describes factors that influence team performance, in terms of overall effectiveness, contextual efficiency, and intrateam synchronicity. It gives a general summary of te...
Chapter
This chapter aims to define and describe teamwork as a set of actions and processes that contribute towards group and organizational goals. Teamwork consists of three psychological facets: attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions. The dimensions of teamwork may be further organized into specific categories. A study by Salas and colleagues (2015) consol...
Article
Building upon organizational design and boundary spanning and multilevel literatures, we propose a theoretical framework that extends previous work on the drivers of multiteam system (MTS) coordination and performance. Our proposal integrates aspects of functional process interdependence and different integration mechanisms used within MTSs to bett...
Article
Objective: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. Background: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment...
Article
In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and...
Article
To launch this Special Issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology celebrating the 1st century of the journal we conducted a review encompassing the background of the founding of the journal; a quantitative assessment of its evolution across the century; and an examination of trends examining article type, article length, authorship patterns, supple...
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Background: As a result of the recent proliferation of health care team training (HTT), there was a need to update previous systematic reviews examining the underlying structure driving team training initiatives. Methods: This investigation was guided by 10 research questions. A literature search identified 197 empirical samples detailing the ev...
Article
Ensuring safety and optimal performance in Long Distance and Duration Exploration Missions (LDDEM) is critical to enabling success in future missions. However, selecting appropriate metrics for assessing safety and performance remains a challenge. The current research endeavor aims to address this challenge through the development of a metric selec...
Article
Statement: This is a commentary on the reporting guidelines article and offers some food for thought on the need to include learning and instructional feature variables in the reporting process.
Conference Paper
Teams today often integrate the unique expertise of members in order to achieve performance and safety goals not possible by individuals alone, while facing challenges of operating in complex, diverse, and dynamic environments. However, simply relying on team member's expertise is not enough to produce effective teams. The science of team effective...
Article
The modern workplace has become increasingly complex as a function of numerous factors, including technological and economic growth. Teams are more frequently implemented within organizations to facilitate high performance within these complex, dynamic conditions. Game-based training has become a common method of delivering training to teams, paral...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the effect of critical precursors to realizing successful collaborative instructional environments in terms of their interaction within the learning effect model (Sottilare, 2012; Fletcher & Sottilare, 2013; Sottilare, 2013; Sottilare, Ragusa, Hoffman & Goldberg, 2013) and measurable relationships to team learning in the literat...
Article
Teamwork plays a pivotal role in ensuring the quality and safety of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU). The measurement of these skills, therefore, is paramount to quantifying performance, providing developmental feedback, and evaluating the impact of initiatives to improve performance. The purpose of this paper is to detail the develop...
Conference Paper
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An effort is currently underway to determine methods for measuring safety and performance of human- automation systems to improve their functioning for future long duration space flights. However, an important step in system evaluation is understanding the contexts in which they operate. The identification of contexts will help in targeting what va...
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Researchers from a variety of disciplines are currently working with NASA to prepare for human exploration of Mars in the next decades. Such exploration will take scientific discovery to new heights, providing unprecedented information about the geology, atmosphere, and potential for life on Mars, including previous life, current life, and perhaps...
Conference Paper
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Complex tasks in large and error-prone environments require unobtrusive, unbiased and real-time measurement of cognitive variables to promote safety and to achieve optimal performance. Despite the prevalence of physiological measurement of cognitive constructs and cognitive performance, such as workload, little has been done to justify the inferenc...
Conference Paper
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Automation is an important and widely utilized component in work environments across many domains; it is useful for completing tasks too dangerous or cumbersome for personnel to complete by themselves. Despite its benefits, potential issues can occur that may impact safety and efficiency in the overall human-automation system. To realize the benefi...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this article is twofold: to provide a critical cross-domain evaluation of team cognition measurement options and to provide novice researchers with practical guidance when selecting a measurement method. Background: A vast selection of measurement approaches exist for measuring team cognition constructs including team m...
Article
Interpersonal skills (IPS) are crucial in today's business environment. As collaboration is the foundation of business operations, executives consistently rank interpersonal skills as a critical competency for a successful workforce. Yet, relying on training and development efforts after hiring is not enough-especially when funding for "soft skills...
Article
Medication errors are prevalent in EMS settings, and can occur in as frequently as 21% of patient calls (Vilke et al.., 2006), significantly impacting patient care. However, even with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), a widely accepted human factors error taxonomy, there is currently no widely accepted systematic method...
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Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) will be increasingly utilized for military and domestic purposes in a variety of operations. Unfortunately, the potential these systems afford is marred by a remarkably high accident and incident rate. Pavlas and colleagues (2009) suggested training science is not necessarily integrated into actual UAS training. The p...
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Extensive research has examined the effects of workload on individual performance. Despite the increasing prevalence of teams addressing complex tasks with high workload, less attention has focused on workload distributions beyond the individual to the team level, likely due to the inherent complexity of defining and measuring team workload. By dra...
Article
This article outlines a few reflections on the need to embrace, support, and apply interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of team dynamics.
Article
As the nature of work changes due to technology, organizational restructuring, and globalization, complex tasks have emerged that necessitate the use of teams. Oftentimes, teams complete tasks that have more than one plausible solution or engage in performance episodes under uncertain circumstances. Therefore, teams are called upon to be highly ada...
Article
Medicine is practiced not only through encounters and other interactions between patients and providers, but also through documentation of event-centered information via the patient record, and through patient-centered communications between clinicians and between clinicians and patients (and their families). Human factors has been heavily involved...
Article
Teams, like individuals, experience stress. While a number of theoretical models and empirical studies have examined the role and effects of stress on team processes and performance, there is surprisingly no guidance for measuring and diagnosing team-level stress. This paper proposes that team stress is a unique construct and necessitates robust me...
Article
The future mission to Mars will present a number of challenges regarding habitability and performance for spaceflight crewmembers. One aspect that needs to be considered is the potential impact of extended periods of low workload relating to monotony and boredom. The following provides an overview of the challenges associated with long duration spa...
Conference Paper
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The research base for telemedicine is expanding with nearly the voracity that the implementation of tele-medicine systems has. Telerounding is one specific subset of telemedicine where a team of physicians will gather in a specific location and use a telepresence robot to perform their day to day rounding procedures. This type of telemedicine is fa...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to assess user reactions and perceptions of usability regarding the Combat Medic Card Game (CMCG). The CMCG was designed to serve as a supplementary study tool for individuals completing Combat Medic training in order to support and reinforce learning of emergency medical care procedures (e.g., hemorrhage man...
Article
There has been an abundance of research on flow state at the individual level and it is often applied to experiences that are typically intended to be enjoyable (e.g., video games and sports). Research has shown that flow state can also be experienced in traditional work environments and several antecedents to its achievement in such environments h...
Article
Low level cognitive measures were examined in the context of team performance and success. Specifically, eye tracking and vocal analysis were examined at the individual level to determine if this type of measurement could be used to predict team performance. The team consisted of 3 undergraduate participants who performed a simulated military plann...
Article
An empirical study was conducted to observe macro-cognition and interpersonal interactions between team members during a collaborative resource management task. Teams consisting of three members each were instructed to work together to complete scenario objectives in a simulated military task environment. The task scenarios were manipulated to vary...
Article
Human factors and team training is indisputably relevant for specialists working together in high risk environments such as aviation and healthcare. Due to structural similarities, Crew Resource Management (CRM) training has been adapted from aviation and implemented in medical training. However, proof of its effectiveness remains difficult to obta...
Article
Although organizations invest billions of dollars in training every year, many trained competencies reportedly fail to transfer to the workplace. Researchers have long examined the transfer problem, uncovering a wealth of information regarding the transfer of training. Inconsistencies remain, however, and organizations may find it difficult to pinp...
Article
This article assesses 25 years of empirical leadership research in 11 top journals with the goal of understanding current practice and future needs for drawing solid conclusions about leadership at different hierarchical levels of the organization, as well as leadership’s effects on individuals, teams, units and organizations. We summarize the hier...
Article
As exploration of new frontiers continues, the need for team training in extreme environments grows. Operating in isolated, confined, and extreme environments (ICE) demands novel approaches to team performance measurement, as well as new strategies and methods for ensuring teams members are (1) equipped with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes cri...
Article
The element of task difficulty is inherent in the design of simulations, games, and experimental testbeds. However, there is no organizing and quantifying framework for the construct of task complexity especially for team tasks. Thus, the purpose of this paper to present a framework of complexity to facilitate researchers who are investigating the...
Article
The merging of usability and aesthetics is one of the more promising contemporary trends in user interface research. This focus on total user experience rather than a subset of user interaction necessitates more holistic examinations of web interfaces and user response. To this end, a study examining user response to a variety of usability and aest...
Article
Long-duration space flight demands prolonged exposure to a myriad of stressors which manifest and interact over time. Despite a significant body of work dedicated to identifying, mitigating, and managing the effects of stress on performance, a clear theoretical foundation explicating the ways in which interactions among stressors occurs, as well as...
Article
In modem military and civilian organizations, teams are increasingly composed of members from very different cultural backgrounds. This heterogeneity in cultural composition poses a unique set of challenges on the process of building and maintaining effective teams. This paper describes the concept of friction points in multicultural team performan...
Article
How individuals and teams work together to plan, think, decide, and solve problems has been of increasing interest to researchers within the past decade. Specifically, collaborative aspects of macrocognition such as knowledge construction, collaborative team problem solving, team consensus, and outcome evaluation and revision are moving to the fore...
Article
Forward surgical teams must perform an extremely complex task (i.e., manage critically injured soldiers) under extreme time pressure, noise, and other stressors while managing some of the most high stakes for decision and action outcomes imaginable-human life. This paper explores the role of shared cognition in the performance of forward surgical t...
Article
Vigilance tasks represent an increasingly critical performance segment for civilians and military personnel alike. In order to combat the vigilance decrement and aid in making personnel more effective, it is necessary to find innovative ways to mitigate the vigilance decrement and aid the human visual system. One such technique lies in an interesti...
Article
Teamwork training has been targeted as a primary method for addressing safety and effectiveness issues in healthcare. This paper presents a systematic and event-based method for developing scenarios and accompanying performance measurement tools for simulation-based team training in healthcare. The approach described here, SMARTER-Team, is adapted...
Article
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This research investigated the effects of guided team self-correction using an empirically derived expert model of teamwork as the organizing framework. First, the authors describe the process used to define this model. Second, they report findings from two studies in which the expert model was used to structure the process of guided team self-corr...
Article
Research emerging from the sports sciences and related disciplines has developed a rich and robust body of knowledge related to human performance. Nonetheless, there is a surprising paucity of cross-disciplinary interaction between researchers in the sports sciences and the military. The purpose of this invited special issue is to redress this gap...
Article
Increasingly we see business functions and military operations engaging systems that are interconnected and interdependent with an even greater degree of cognitive work distributed among people and machines. From this we will see an increased need to understand how individuals and teams in these environments are able to work together to plan, think...
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Project Objectives: 1) To provide a deeper, richer and robust theoretical foundation to macrocognition. 2) To develop a synthetic task environment to study macrocognition. 3) To develop, test and improve macrocognitive metrics in ill-structured settings. 4) To increase our understanding of complex collaboration in problem solving setting. 5) To dev...
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This article describes the results of a meta-analytic integration of the relative contributions of three different components of team training to the efficacy of team training interventions. The three specific components of team training that have received empirical scrutiny in the past are cross-training, team coordination and adaptation training,...
Article
The ongoing technological revolution and democratization of capital markets around the globe continue to redefine what is possible for humankind to achieve. At the intersection of capability and opportunity, human ingenuity has produced unprecedented advances in areas such as robotics, fusion-based energy, space-flight propulsion, nanotechnology, g...
Article
Distributed performance arrangements are increasingly used by organizations to structure dyadic and team interactions. Unfortunately, distributed teams are no panacea. This chapter reviews some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with the geographical and temporal distribution of team members. An extended discussion of the implications o...
Article
This paper uses a framework developed from memetics - a theoretical perspective on cultural evolution-as the basis for investigating aspects of team problem solving. Specifically, the roles of shared mental models, team situational awareness, and team problem models in the problem identification and conceptualization stages of team problem solving...
Article
In Creating High-Tech Teams: Practical Guidance on Work Performance and Technology, leaders in science and industry explore the state-of-the art in technology and teamwork and translate this information into the best possible guidance for industrial-organizational practitioners. Contributors who work with specific types of technology, such as grou...
Article
Organizational changes have created a need for adaptable pre-trained workers and for employees to have more “protean” career paths and be involved in self-directed ongoing development [Hall & Mirvis, 1995. The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47(3), 269–289]. To help understand...
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The study of teamwork has been fragmented through the years, and the findings are generally unable to be used practically. This article argues that it is possible to boil down what researchers know about teamwork into five core components that the authors submit as the “Big Five” in teamwork. The core components of teamwork include team leadership,...
Article
The growth of global companies and partnerships in and across organizations and the growth of coalitions in military campaigns have brought about new needs in team research. Specifically, organizations and the military alike are beginning to utilize teams of teams or multiteam systems (MTS) to complete more complex tasks. A MTS has been defined as...