Eddie Brummelman's research while affiliated with National Institute of Public Co-operation and Child Development and other places

Publications (52)

Article
A common belief is that narcissism is a manifestation of high self-esteem. Here, we argue that self-esteem and narcissism are fundamentally distinct and have unique early physiological indicators. We hypothesized that children predisposed to narcissism would show elevated, whereas children predisposed to high self-esteem would show lowered, physiol...
Article
Caregivers are often encouraged to praise children to reduce externalizing behavior. Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that praise works (e.g., praise reinforces positive behavior), others suggest it may not (e.g., children dismiss praise or experience it as controlling). This longitudinal-observational study examined whether (a) ca...
Article
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When children practice a new skill and fail, it is critical for them to explore new strategies to succeed. How can parents encourage children’s exploration? Bridging insights from developmental psychology and the neuroscience of motor control, we examined the effects of parental praise on children’s motor exploration. We theorize that modest praise...
Preprint
Caregivers are often encouraged to praise children to reduce externalizing behavior. Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that praise works (e.g., praise reinforces positive behavior), others suggest it may not (e.g., children dismiss praise or experience it as controlling). This longitudinal-observational study examined whether (1) ca...
Article
Several theories propose that narcissism is rooted in affective contingencies. Given narcissists' focus on power, these contingencies should be strong in the power domain but not in the affiliation domain. We systematically investigated narcissists' contingencies and explored whether these contingencies might link narcissism to social behavior. In...
Article
Since the 1960s, self-esteem has become a cornerstone of Western child-rearing. After reviewing a large body of rigorous longitudinal research, Orth and Robins (2022) conclude that self-esteem brings modest but significant benefits across all ages. However, the authors did not intend to suggest strategies for raising children's self-esteem. The aim...
Article
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Some leaders display high levels of narcissism. Does the link between narcissism levels and leadership exist in childhood? We conducted, to our knowledge, the first study of the relationship between narcissism levels and various aspects of leadership in children (N = 332, ages 7-14 years). We assessed narcissism levels using the Childhood Narcissis...
Article
Adolescents often compare themselves favorably to others. Although such downward social comparisons make adolescents feel proud, they entail the risk of focusing adolescents on outperforming others rather than on improving themselves. This daily diary study (N = 389 adolescents, ages 11–15) tested the hypothesis that downward temporal comparisons—c...
Article
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Children's narcissism may be rooted in sensitivity to social status (i.e., prominence, respect, and influence in a social group), and this sensitivity might be shared with parents. Testing this idea, a randomized experiment examined how children with high narcissism levels and their parents respond to gains and losses of social status. On a simulat...
Article
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-problem-with-telling-children-theyre-better-than-others/
Article
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With the rise of individualism since the 1960s, Western parents have become increasingly concerned with raising children’s self-esteem. This is understandable, given the benefits of self-esteem for children’s psychological health. However, parents’ well-intentioned attempts to raise self-esteem, such as inflated praise, may inadvertently breed narc...
Article
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We propose a self-regulation model of grandiose narcissism. This model illustrates an interconnected set of processes through which narcissists (i.e., individuals with relatively high levels of grandiose narcissism) pursue social status in their moment-by-moment transactions with their environments. The model shows that narcissists select situation...
Article
Western societies offer children many opportunities for downward social comparisons (i.e., comparing oneself favorably to others). Such comparisons make children feel proud of themselves, but could inadvertently trigger a desire to be superior to others. How can children be made to feel proud without triggering a desire for superiority? We hypothes...
Article
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Children with negative competence beliefs often achieve below their potential in school. This randomized field experiment tested whether engaging in positive self‐talk may benefit these children’s mathematics performance. Participants (N = 212, Grades 4–6, Mage = 10.6) worked on the first half of a standardized mathematics test, engaged in effort s...
Preprint
We propose a self-regulation model of grandiose narcissism. This model illustrates an interconnected set of processes through which narcissists (i.e., individuals with relatively high levels of grandiose narcissism) pursue social status in their moment-by-moment transactions with their environments. According to the model, narcissists select situat...
Article
Full-text available
Why are some children more socially anxious than others? One theory holds that socially anxious children are poor mindreaders, which hampers their social interactions; another that socially anxious children are advanced min-dreaders leading to heightened self-consciousness in social situations. To test these theories simultaneously, this study (N =...
Chapter
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Research on childhood narcissism has gained momentum over the past years. Narcissism emerges and develops from childhood onward. One main focus of research has centered around the question of how childhood socialization experiences contribute to the development of narcissism. Evidence accumulates that by overvaluing their children-seeing and treati...
Article
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Physiological responses can reveal emotional states that individuals are unwilling to admit to others. Here, we studied what blushing reveals about the emotional states of narcissistic children. Narcissistic children (i.e., those high on the personality trait of narcissism) have a pervasive sense of grandiosity. We theorized that narcissistic child...
Article
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The sense of touch develops in utero and enables parent-child communication from the earliest moments of life. Research shows that parental touch (e.g., licking and grooming in rats, skin-to-skin care in humans) has organizing effects on the offspring's stress system. Little is known, however, about the psychological effects of parental touch. Buil...
Article
Blushing is an involuntary reddening of the face that typically occurs when people are concerned about making negative impressions on others. Although people typically blush for their mishaps or misdeeds, Darwin observed that some people, and especially children, also blush when they are lavished with praise. We theorize that socially anxious child...
Article
What separates narcissism from self-esteem, and what sparks their development? This article proposes that narcissism and self-esteem are underpinned by distinct core beliefs – beliefs about the nature of the self, of others, and of the relationship between the self and others. These beliefs (1) arise early in development, (2) are cultivated by dist...
Article
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p>Consistent failure over the past few decades to reduce the high prevalence of stress-related disorders has motivated a search for alternative research strategies. Resilience refers to the phenomenon of many people maintaining mental health despite exposure to psychological or physical adversity. Instead of aiming to understand the pathophysiology...
Article
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The young field of research on dark personality traits (i.e., socially aversive traits such as psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) is gaining momentum. This Special Section examines the nature, origins, development, and sequelae of dark traits, underscoring their largely unappreciated relevance to abnormal psychology. The articles in thi...
Article
As they grow up, children construct views of themselves and their place in the world, known as their self-concept. This topic has often been addressed by social psychologists (studying how the self-concept is influenced by social contexts) and developmental psychologists (studying how the self-concept changes over time). Yet, relatively little is k...
Article
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This research aimed to examine whether and why children hold favorable self-conceptions (total N = 882 Dutch children, ages 8-12). Surveys (Studies 1-2) showed that children report strongly favorable self-conceptions. For example, when describing themselves on an open-ended measure, children mainly provided positive self-conceptions-about four time...
Article
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothe...
Chapter
Psychologists claim that narcissists have inflated, exaggerated, or excessive self-esteem. Media reports state that narcissists suffer from self-esteem on steroids. The conclusion seems obvious: Narcissists have too much self-esteem. A growing body of research shows, however, that narcissism and self-esteem are only weakly related. What, then, sepa...
Article
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Cultivating empathy is a presumed benefit of mindfulness, but this possibility has rarely been investigated experimentally. We examined whether a five-minute mindfulness exercise would cultivate empathy relative to two equally brief control exercises: relaxation and mind-wandering. We further examined whether mindfulness would be especially benefic...
Article
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In contemporary Western society, many adults use praise to boost children's self-esteem. Accordingly, they might praise those who seem to need it the most: children with low self-esteem. In this article, we review research showing that certain types of praise can backfire, especially in children with low self-esteem. Adults are inclined to give chi...
Chapter
Full-text available
The young field of research on youth narcissism has begun to bloom. Narcissism is a personality type marked by a sense of grandiosity and a strong need to get attention and admiration from others. Youth narcissism typically emerges at some point in late childhood or adolescence as a derailment of normal self-development and may yield considerable i...
Article
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled narcissism as “an exaggerated form of high self-est...
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Background There is increasing evidence that variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 (i.e., the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) moderates the impact of environmental stressors on child psychopathology. Emotional reactivity −the intensity of an individual’s response to other’s emotions− has been put forward as a possible mec...
Article
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When children experience habitual peer difficulties, adults often remind them that many people care about them. How do such reminders of support impact children's emotional responses to acute experiences of peer disapproval? Intuitively, support reminders would exert compensatory effects attenuating the emotional impact of acute disapproval. Theory...
Article
We emphasize the importance of a neuroevolutionary perspective in moving beyond the cognition-emotion dichotomy. Cognitive behavior depends on cortical structures firmly rooted in the emotional brain from which they have evolved. As such, there cannot be cognition without emotion. Endocrine regulation of amygdala connectivity, a neural "switch" bet...
Article
We argue that social psychology has unique potential for advancing understanding of resilience. An exciting development that illustrates this is the emergence of social-psychological interventions – brief, stealthy, and psychologically precise interventions – that can yield broad and lasting benefits by targeting key resilience mechanisms. Such int...
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We thank Kealy et al. (1) for noting that our article on the origins of narcissism (2) “is a notable contribution to the empirical literature” and “has important implications for helping parents foster appropriate and realistic self-views in their children.” However, they raise questions regarding the interpretation of our findings.
Article
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Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social le...
Article
Background: Unconditional regard refers to the feeling that one is accepted and valued by others without conditions. Psychological theory suggests that experiences of unconditional regard lead children to feel that they are valuable despite setbacks. We hypothesized that reflecting on experiences of unconditional regard would buffer children's neg...
Article
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Although it is natural for parents to value their children, some parents "overvalue" them, believing that their own children are more special and more entitled than other children are. This research introduces this concept of parental overvaluation. We developed a concise self-report scale to measure individual differences in parental overvaluation...
Article
Praise, like penicillin, must not be administered haphazardly. There are rules and cautions that govern the handling of potent medicines – rules about timing and dosage, cautions about possible allergic reactions. There are similar regulations about the administration of emotional medicine.
Article
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In current Western society, children are often lavished with inflated praise (e.g., "You made an incredibly beautiful drawing!"). Inflated praise is often given in an attempt to raise children's self-esteem. An experiment (Study 1) and naturalistic study (Study 2) found that adults are especially inclined to give inflated praise to children with lo...
Data
Additional information on the validity of the transferred ambitions measure. (DOC)
Article
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From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual. When parents see their child as part of themselves, their child'...
Article
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Not all positive self-views are alike. Developmental researchers increasingly recognize that it is important to distinguish between accurate, well-balanced positive self-views and inflated, narcissistic positive self-views. Narcissism refers to a sense of grandiosity and a strong need to be seen and admired by others. This article reviews current e...
Article
Full-text available
Child-rearing experts have long believed that praise is an effective means to help children with low self-esteem feel better about themselves. But should one praise these children for who they are, or for how they behave? Study 1 (N = 357) showed that adults are inclined to give children with low self-esteem more person praise (i.e., praise for per...
Article
De basis van de narcistische persoonlijkheid wordt gelegd in de kindertijd. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van empirisch onderzoek naar de opvoedingsfactoren die van invloed kunnen zijn op de ontwikkeling van narcisme – in het bijzonder van de grandioze en kwetsbare subtypes van narcisme. Onderzoek suggereert dat de ontwikkeling van beide subtypes...
Article
Empirisch onderzoek heeft herhaaldelijk uitgewezen dat de narcistische persoonlijkheid uiteenvalt in een grandioos en kwetsbaar type. In de DSM-V, die momenteel in voorbereiding is, zal deze tweedeling vermoedelijk worden overgenomen. Het kwetsbare narcistische type wordt, in tegenstelling tot het grandioze type, gekenmerkt door hechtingsangst. In...

Citations

... This trait shares substantial overlap with the dominance-related personality profile found to facilitate T's influence. For starters, narcissism is characterized by independent self-construal (Konrath et al., 2009), high approach motivation (Foster and Trimm, 2008), low impulse control (Vazire and Funder, 2006), and high implicit (and explicit) power motivation (Carroll, 1987;Grapsas et al., 2022). Further, it is associated with forceful and persistent status-striving, dominance, competitiveness, and sensitivity to cues of competition for status (Grapsas et al., 2020;Horton and Sedikides, 2009;Wallace et al., 2009). ...
... Since those with higher narcissistic traits are drawn to others with the same traits [67,68], and are less likely to find the signals of grandiosity and diminished empathy as repulsive [69], the implications along the health continuum of person, place, and planet are worth considering. For example, the allure of the narcissistic leader in politics and business may give the illusion of competence [70]; however, one of the primary features of grandiose narcissism is the over-estimation of intelligence and abilities, and once in leadership roles, dominant behavior and disregard for others can compromise the goals and vitality of the collective [71][72][73]. Since narcissism is associated with higher levels of conspicuous consumption (i.e., materialism directed at status symbols) [74], it is an important consideration in global marketing and consumerism that provides scaffolding to Anthropocene Syndrome [10,75,76] (Figure 3). ...
... One study, however, did not find such an effect using RSA (Zhang et al., 2015). Of note, grandiose narcissism amplifies negative affective responses in face of ego threat even in children (Grapsas et al., 2020). While this research points to increased stress responses for individuals higher in narcissism in situations that are supposed to be threatening for most of us, further research shows that even stimuli that are not intrinsically threatening induce similar responses: Jauk, Benedek, and colleagues (2017) had extreme groups of individuals either high or low in grandiose narcissism perform a visual self-viewing paradigm during fMRI. ...
... The role of individual differences in effects of positive feedback Recent research suggests that children with low or insecure self-esteem may be at higher risk for the undermining effects of person-oriented positive feedback. According to the transactional model proposed by Brummelman and colleagues (Brummelman, Crocker, and Bushman 2016;Brummelman and Dweck 2020), person-oriented positive feedback would reinforce insecurity in children with low self-esteem as they are particularly likely to feel ashamed after failure and to attribute failure to stable aspects of the self. Brummelman et al. (2014) provided evidence for this reasoning by showing that children with low self-esteem are particularly sensitive to effects of inflated praise often involving person-oriented praise, which was evident in a decrease in challenge seeking. ...
... By developing further our vocabulary of praise, we stand to acquire a richer understanding not only of responsibility, interpersonal morality, and agency, but also, more practically, of the normative communities we may hope to inhabit and the kinds of agents we might aspire to be. Brummelman and Grapsas (2020). Praise might also be demeaning in expressing the praiser's holding the praisee to an incongruous standard, perhaps especially so when this is explained by stereotype or prejudice (Sie, 2022, 679). ...
Reference: Praise
... Hal tersebut sejalan dengan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Mossman dan Cronin [38] dan Brummelman dan Sedikides [39] yang mengatakan bahwa pujian dari orang tua dianggap sebagai perilaku suportif dan dapat memberikan dampak yang positif, salah satunya dapat meningkatkan rasa percaya diri pada anak. Hal tersebut juga sejalan dengan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Anderson et al. [40] yang mengatakan bahwa pujian dapat membantu individu untuk memelihara hubungan sosial dengan orang lain. ...
... Specific motivation-related constructs support academic achievement, including academic self-concept and self-perception (Bandura, 1993;Preckel & Brunner, 2015;Schnitzler et al., 2020), goal valuation (Eccles & Wigfield, 2020;Siegle et al., 2017), goal orientation (Albert & Dahling, 2016), self-regulation (Ridgley et al., 2020;Zimmerman, 2002), resilience (Reis et al., 2004;Yeager & Dweck, 2012), and positive self-talk (Thomaes et al., 2020). Many gifted students may currently be achieving academically, but they are not required to use these motivation-related skills to be successful in their schools. ...
... Lastly, future research could examine the effect of other types of comparisons on gratitude. For example, a recent study by Gürel et al. (2020) suggests that downward past temporal comparisons and social comparisons are equally effective in increasing children's and adolescents' pride, but whereas social comparison promotes the adoption of superiority goals, this is not the case for temporal comparisons. If temporal comparisons could elicit gratitude in adolescents, potential interventions might favor it over social comparison, in order to reduce any possible negative effects. ...
... Narcissists are highly motivated by social status (Grapsas et al., 2020;Mahadevan et al., 2019) and are more likely than low narcissists to use non-comparative (i.e., conciliatory) self-enhancement strategies when another individual's social status is high (Horton & Sedikides, 2009). Admirative and rivalrous consumers' authentic and hubristic pride and resulting WOM may also depend on the social status of the "winning" customer in a promotional game or of the WOM recipient. ...
... However, some children with anxiety may display advanced mental state recognition and understanding. For example, individuals with anxiety may be highly selfconscious, very sensitive to others' opinions of them and have greater evaluative concerns [36]. These tendencies are associated with an excessive alertness to social signals and, in turn, advanced ToM and cognitive empathy [37,38]. ...