# E. F. van Dishoeck's research while affiliated with Leiden University and other places

## Publications (692)

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The total disk gas mass and elemental C, N, O composition of protoplanetary disks are crucial ingredients for our understanding of planet formation. Measuring the gas mass is complicated, since H$_2$ cannot be detected in the cold bulk of the disk and the elemental abundances with respect to hydrogen are degenerate with gas mass in all disk models....
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(Abridged) Physical processes such as accretion shocks are thought to be common in the protostellar phase, where the envelope component is still present, and they can release molecules from the dust to the gas phase, altering the original chemical composition of the disk. Consequently, the study of accretion shocks is essential for a better underst...
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High quality vibrational spectra of solid-phase molecules in ice mixtures and for temperatures of astrophysical relevance are needed to interpret infrared observations toward protostars and background stars. Over the last 25 years, the Laboratory for Astrophysics at Leiden Observatory has provided more than 1100 spectra of diverse ice samples. Time...
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No statistical study of COMs toward a large sample of high-mass protostars with ALMA has been carried out so far. We aim to study six N-bearing species: CH$_3$CN, HNCO, NH$_2$CHO, C$_2$H$_5$CN, C$_2$H$_3$CN and CH$_3$NH$_2$ in a large sample of high-mass protostars. From the ALMAGAL survey, 37 of the most line-rich hot molecular cores are selected....
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The deuteration of molecules forming in the ices such as methanol (CH$_3$OH) is sensitive to the physical conditions during their formation in dense cold clouds and can be probed through observations of deuterated methanol in hot cores. Observations with ALMA containing transitions of CH$_3$OH, CH$_2$DOH, CHD$_2$OH, $^{13}$CH$_3$OH, and CH$_3^{18}$...
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Long term precise radial velocity (RV) monitoring of HD206893, as well as anomalies in the system proper motion, have suggested the presence of an additional, inner companion in the system. In this work we describe the results of a search for the companion responsible for this RV drift and proper motion anomaly. Utilizing information from ongoing p...
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[Abridged] Far-infrared observations with Herschel revealed a surprisingly low abundance of cold-water reservoirs in protoplanetary discs. On the other hand, a handful of discs show emission of hot water transitions excited at temperatures above a few hundred Kelvin. In particular, the protoplanetary discs around the Herbig Ae stars HD 100546 and H...
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Elias 2-27 is a young star that hosts an extended, bright and inclined disk of dust and gas. The inclination and extreme flaring of the disk make Elias 2-27 an ideal target to study the vertical distribution of molecules, particularly CN. We directly trace the emission of CN in Elias 2-27 and compare it to previously published CO isotopologue data....
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Context. The protostellar stage is known to be the richest star formation phase in emission from gaseous complex organic molecules. However, some protostellar systems show little or no millimetre (mm) line emission of such species. This can be interpreted as a low abundance of complex organic molecules. Alternatively, complex species could be prese...
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Context. Most disks observed at high angular resolution show signs of substructures, such as rings, gaps, arcs, and cavities, in both the gas and the dust. To understand the physical mechanisms responsible for these structures, knowledge about the gas surface density is essential. This, in turn, requires information on the gas temperature. Aims. Th...
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[Abridged] Most disks observed at high angular resolution show substructures. Knowledge about the gas surface density and temperature is essential to understand these. The aim of this work is to constrain the gas temperature and surface density in two transition disks: LkCa15 and HD 169142. We use new ALMA observations of the $^{13}$CO $J=6-5$ tran...
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Some protostellar systems show little or no millimetre line emission of complex organics. This can be interpreted as a low abundance of these molecules, alternatively they could be present in the system but are not seen in the gas. The goal is to investigate the latter hypothesis for methanol. We will attempt to answer the question: Does the presen...
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Context. Surveys of protoplanetary disks in nearby star-forming regions (SFRs) have provided important information on their demographics. However, due to their sample sizes, these surveys cannot be used to study how disk properties vary with the environment. Aims. We conduct a survey of the unresolved millimeter continuum emission of 873 protoplane...
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Context. Complex organic molecules (COMs) are often observed toward embedded Class 0 and I protostars. However, not all Class 0 and I protostars exhibit COM emission. Aims. The aim is to study variations in methanol (CH 3 OH) emission and use this as an observational tracer of hot cores to test if the absence of CH 3 OH emission can be linked to so...
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(Abridged) Surveys of protoplanetary disks in nearby star-forming regions (SFRs) have provided important information on their demographics, but due to their sample sizes, they cannot be used to study how disk properties vary with the environment. We conduct a survey of the unresolved millimeter continuum emission of 873 protoplanetary disks identif...
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Complex organic molecules (COMs) are often observed toward embedded Class 0 and I protostars. However, not all Class 0 and I protostars exhibit COMs emission. In this work, variations in methanol (CH$_3$OH) emission are studied to test if absence of CH$_3$OH emission can be linked to source properties. Combining both new and archival observations w...
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Context. The composition of planets may be largely determined by the chemical processing and accretion of icy pebbles in protoplanetary disks. Recent observations of protoplanetary disks hint at wide-spread depletion of gaseous carbon. The missing volatile carbon is likely frozen in CO and/or CO 2 ice on grains and locked into the disk through pebb...
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The composition of planets may be largely determined by the chemical processing and accretion of icy pebbles in protoplanetary disks. Recent observations of protoplanetary disks hint at wide-spread depletion of gaseous carbon. The missing volatile carbon is likely frozen in CO and/or CO$_2$ ice on grains and locked into the disk through pebble trap...
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Context. Many population studies have been performed over the past decade with the Atacama Large millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to understand the bulk properties of protoplanetary disks around young stars. The studied populations have mostly consisted of late spectral type (i.e., G, K & M) stars, with relatively few more massive Herbig stars...
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(Abridged) Recent surveys of young star formation regions have shown that the average Class II object does not have enough dust mass to make the cores of giant planets. Younger Class 0/I objects have enough dust in their embedded disk, which begs the questions: can the first steps of planet formation occur in these younger systems? The first step i...
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Many population studies have been performed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to understand the bulk properties of protoplanetary disks around young stars. The studied populations mostly consisted of G, K & M stars, with relatively few more massive Herbig stars. With GAIA updated distances, now is a good time to use ALMA...
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Context. Transition disks are protoplanetary disks with dust-depleted cavities, possibly indicating substantial clearing of their dust content by a massive companion. For several known transition disks, dark regions interpreted as shadows have been observed in scattered light imaging and are hypothesized to originate from misalignments between dist...
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The final architecture of planetary systems depends on the extraction of angular momentum and mass-loss processes of the discs in which they form. Theoretical studies proposed that magnetized winds launched from the discs (MHD disc winds) could govern accretion and disc dispersal. In this work, we revisit the observed disc demographics in the frame...
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For several transition disks (TDs), dark regions interpreted as shadows have been observed in scattered light imaging and are hypothesized to originate from misalignments between distinct disk regions. We aim to investigate the presence of misalignments in TDs. We study the inner disk geometries of 20 well-known transition disks with VLTI/GRAVITY o...
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Context. Direct observations of young stellar objects are important to test established theories of planet formation. PDS 70 is one of the few cases where robust evidence favours the presence of two planetary mass companions inside the gap of the transition disk. Those planets are believed to be going through the last stages of accretion from the p...
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Direct observations of young stellar objects are important to test established theories of planet formation. PDS 70 is one of the few cases where robust evidence favours the presence of two planetary mass companions inside the gap of the transition disk. Those planets are believed to be going through the last stages of accretion from the protoplane...
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Context. Gas accretion flows transport material from the cloud core onto the protostar. In multiple protostellar systems, it is not clear if the delivery mechanism is preferential or more evenly distributed among the components. Aims. The distribution of gas accretion flows within the cloud core of the deeply embedded, chemically rich, low-mass mul...
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Aims. We aim to demonstrate that the presence and mass of an exoplanet can now be effectively derived from the astrometry of another exoplanet. Methods. We combined previous astrometry of β Pictoris b with a new set of observations from the GRAVITY interferometer. The orbital motion of β Pictoris b is fit using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations...
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We aim to demonstrate that the presence and mass of an exoplanet can now be effectively derived from the astrometry of another exoplanet. We combined previous astrometry of $\beta$ Pictoris b with a new set of observations from the GRAVITY interferometer. The orbital motion of $\beta$ Pictoris b is fit using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations in...
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Context. Near-infrared interferometry has become a powerful tool for studying the orbital and atmospheric parameters of substellar companions. Aims. We aim to reveal the nature of the reddest known substellar companion HD 206893 B by studying its near-infrared colors and spectral morphology and by investigating its orbital motion. Methods. We fit a...
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Context. As material from an infalling protostellar envelope hits the forming disk, an accretion shock may develop which could (partially) alter the envelope material entering the disk. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) indicate that emission originating from warm SO and SO 2 might be good tracers of such acc...
Preprint
As material from an infalling protostellar envelope hits the forming disk, an accretion shock may develop which could (partially) alter the envelope material entering the disk. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) indicate that emission originating from warm SO and SO$_2$ might be good tracers of such accretion...
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Full-text available
We aim to reveal the nature of the reddest known substellar companion HD 206893 B by studying its near-infrared colors and spectral morphology and by investigating its orbital motion. We fit atmospheric models for giant planets and brown dwarfs and perform spectral retrievals with petitRADTRANS and ATMO on the observed GRAVITY, SPHERE, and GPI spec...
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Context. The study of disc kinematics has recently opened up as a promising method to detect unseen planets. However, a systematic, statistically meaningful analysis of such an approach remains missing in the field. Aims. The aim of this work is to devise an automated, statistically robust technique to identify and quantify kinematical perturbation...
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Establishing the origin of the water D/H ratio in the Solar System is central to our understanding of the chemical trail of water during the star and planet formation process. Recent modeling suggests that comparisons of the D$_2$O/HDO and HDO/H$_2$O ratios are a powerful way to trace the chemical evolution of water and, in particular, determine wh...
Article
Context. Establishing the origin of the water D/H ratio in the Solar System is central to our understanding of the chemical trail of water during the star and planet formation process. Recent modeling suggests that comparisons of the D 2 O/HDO and HDO/H 2 O ratios are a powerful way to trace the chemical evolution of water and, in particular, deter...
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The chemistry of planet-forming disks sets the exoplanet atmosphere composition and the prebiotic molecular content. Dust traps are of particular importance as pebble growth and transport are crucial for setting the chemistry where giant planets are forming. The asymmetric Oph IRS 48 dust trap located at 60 au radius provides a unique laboratory fo...
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Gas-phase sulphur bearing volatiles appear to be severely depleted in protoplanetary disks. The detection of CS and non-detections of SO and SO2 in many disks have shown that the gas in the warm molecular layer, where giant planets accrete their atmospheres, has a high C/O ratio. In this letter, we report the detection of SO and SO2 in the Oph-IRS...
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Context. The chemical inventory of planets is determined by the physical and chemical processes that govern the early phases of star formation. Nitrogen-bearing species are of interest as many provide crucial precursors in the formation of life-related matter. Aims. The aim is to investigate nitrogen-bearing complex organic molecules towards two de...
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The chemical inventory of planets is determined by the physical and chemical processes that govern the early phases of star formation. The aim is to investigate N-bearing complex organic molecules towards two Class 0 protostars (B1-c and S68N) at millimetre wavelengths with ALMA. Next, the results of the detected N-bearing species are compared with...
Article
Context. Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of star and planet formation, but it is difficult to observe from Earth. The Herschel Space Observatory provided unprecedented sensitivity as well as spatial and spectral resolution to study water. The Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program was designed to observe...
Article
Context. Protoplanetary disks are thought to evolve viscously, where the disk mass – the reservoir available for planet formation – decreases over time as material is accreted onto the central star over a viscous timescale. Observations have shown a correlation between disk mass and the stellar mass accretion rate, as expected from viscous theory....
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We present K-band interferometric observations of the PDS 70 protoplanets along with their host star using VLTI/GRAVITY. We obtained K-band spectra and 100 μas precision astrometry of both PDS 70 b and c in two epochs, as well as spatially resolving the hot inner disk around the star. Rejecting unstable orbits, we found a nonzero eccentricity for P...
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Context. In recent years high-angular-resolution observations have revealed that circumstellar discs appear in a variety of shapes with diverse substructures being ubiquitous. This has given rise to the question of whether these substructures are triggered by planet–disc interactions. Besides direct imaging, one of the most promising methods to dis...
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(abridged) Data and results from the WISH key program are summarized, designed to provide a legacy data set to address its physics and chemistry. WISH targeted ~80 sources along the two axes of luminosity and evolutionary stage: from low- to high-mass protostars and from pre-stellar cores to protoplanetary disks. Lines of H2O, HDO, OH, CO and [O I]...
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The detection of the amino acid glycine and its amine precursor methylamine on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta mission provides strong evidence for a cosmic origin of amino acids on Earth. How and when such molecules form along the process of star formation remains debated. Here we report the laboratory detection of glycine forme...
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Combining adaptive optics and interferometric observations results in a considerable contrast gain compared to single-telescope, extreme AO systems. Taking advantage of this, the ExoGRAVITY project is a survey of known young giant exoplanets located in the range of 0.1'' to 2'' from their stars. The observations provide astrometric data of unpreced...
Article
Aims. Methyl isocyanate (CH 3 NCO) and glycolonitrile (HOCH 2 CN) are isomers and prebiotic molecules that are involved in the formation of peptide structures and the nucleobase adenine, respectively. These two species are investigated to study the interstellar chemistry of cyanides (CN) and isocyanates (NCO) and to gain insight into the reservoir...
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Full-text available
We present K-band interferometric observations of the PDS 70 protoplanets along with their host star using VLTI/GRAVITY. We obtained K-band spectra and 100 $\mu$as precision astrometry of both PDS 70 b and c in two epochs, as well as spatially resolving the hot inner disk around the star. Rejecting unstable orbits, we found a nonzero eccentricity f...
Article
Context. Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of star and planet formation, but it is difficult to observe from Earth. The Herschel Space Observatory provided unprecedented sensitivity as well as spatial and spectral resolution to study water. The Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program was designed to observe...
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Full-text available
Methyl isocyanate (CH$_{3}$NCO) and glycolonitrile (HOCH$_{2}$CN) are isomers and prebiotic molecules that are involved in the formation of peptide structures and the nucleobase adenine, respectively. ALMA observations of the intermediate-mass Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1-a and ALMA-PILS data of the low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS~16293B are used...
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Context. The formation of planets is expected to be enhanced around snowlines in protoplanetary disks, in particular around the water snowline. Moreover, freeze-out of abundant volatile species in disks alters the chemical composition of the planet-forming material. However, the close proximity of the water snowline to the host star combined with t...
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[Abridged] Planet formation is expected to be enhanced around snowlines in protoplanetary disks, in particular around the water snowline. However, the close proximity of the water snowline to the host star and water in the Earth's atmosphere makes a direct detection of the water snowline in protoplanetary disks challenging. Following earlier work o...
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Full-text available
The detection of the amino acid glycine and its amine precursor methylamine on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta mission provides strong evidence for a cosmic origin of prebiotics on Earth. How and when such complex organic molecules form along the process of star- and planet-formation remains debated. We report the first laborator...
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Full-text available
Methods used to detect giant exoplanets can be broadly divided into two categories: indirect and direct. Indirect methods are more sensitive to planets with a small orbital period, whereas direct detection is more sensitive to planets orbiting at a large distance from their host star. %, and thus on long orbital period. This dichotomy makes it diff...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Methods used to detect giant exoplanets can be broadly divided into two categories: indirect and direct. Indirect methods are more sensitive to planets with a small orbital period, whereas direct detection is more sensitive to planets orbiting at a large distance from their host star. This dichotomy makes it difficult to combine the two te...
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Full-text available
Methane is one of the simplest stable molecules that is both abundant and widely distributed across space. Observational surveys of CH4 ice towards low- and high-mass young stellar objects showed that much of the CH4 is expected to be formed by the hydrogenation of C on dust grains, and that CH4 ice is strongly correlated with solid H2O. However, t...
Article
Context. Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C 2 H 3 CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. Aims. This study aims to search for the presence of C 2 H 3 CHO and other three-carbo...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C 2 H 3 CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. Aims. This study aims to search for the presence of C 2 H 3 CHO and other three-carbo...
Preprint
Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C$_2$H$_3$CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. This study aims to search for the presence of C$_2$H$_3$CHO and other three-carbon species s...
Article
Context. Complex organic molecules (COMs) are thought to form on icy dust grains in the earliest phase of star formation. The evolution of these COMs from the youngest Class 0/I protostellar phases toward the more evolved Class II phase is still not fully understood. Since planet formation seems to start early, and mature disks are too cold for cha...