Douglas M. Carmean's research while affiliated with Microsoft and other places

Publications (21)

Article
Synthetic DNA is an attractive medium for long-term data storage because of its density, ease of copying, sustainability, and longevity. Recent advances have focused on the development of new encoding algorithms, automation, preservation, and sequencing technologies. Despite progress in these areas, the most challenging hurdle in deployment of DNA...
Preprint
Quantum computation promises significant computational advantages over classical computation for some problems. However, quantum hardware suffers from much higher error rates than in classical hardware. As a result, extensive quantum error correction is required to execute a useful quantum algorithm. The decoder is a key component of the error corr...
Conference Paper
As scaling of CMOS slows down, there is growing interest in alternative technologies that can improve performance and energy-efficiency. Superconducting circuits based on Josephson Junctions (JJ) is an emerging technology that provides devices which can be switched with pico-second latencies and consumes two orders of magnitude lower switching ener...
Preprint
As the scaling of conventional CMOS-based technologies slows down, there is growing interest in alternative technologies that can improve performance or energy-efficiency. Superconducting circuits based on Josephson Junction (JJ) is an emerging technology that can provide devices which can be switched with pico-second latencies and consuming two or...
Article
Moore's law may be slowing, but our ability to manipulate molecules is improving faster than ever. DNA could provide alternative substrates for computing and storage as existing ones approach physical limits. In this paper, we explore the implications of this trend in computer architecture. We present a computer systems prospective on molecular pro...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic DNA is durable and can encode digital data with high density, making it an attractive medium for data storage. However, recovering stored data on a large-scale currently requires all the DNA in a pool to be sequenced, even if only a subset of the information needs to be extracted. Here, we encode and store 35 distinct files (over 200 MB o...
Conference Paper
A quantum computer consists of quantum bits (qubits) and a control processor that acts as an interface between the programmer and the qubits. As qubits are very sensitive to noise, they rely on continuous error correction to maintain the correct state. Current proposals rely on software-managed error correction and require large instruction bandwid...
Conference Paper
A quantum computer can solve fundamentally difficult problems by utilizing properties of quantum bits (qubits). It consists of a quantum substrate, connected to a conventional computer, termed as control processor. A control processor can manipulate and measure the state of the qubits and act as an interface between qubits and the programmer. Unfor...
Article
Demand for data storage is growing exponentially, but thecapacity of existing storage media is not keeping up. UsingDNA to archive data is an attractive possibility becauseit is extremely dense, with a raw limit of 1 exabyte/mm<sup>3</sup>(109 GB/mm<sup>3</sup>), and long-lasting, with observed half-life ofover 500 years.This paper presents an arch...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a system, WeLight, that we developed to facilitate communication. It allows individuals to configure the lights in one another's homes as well as their own. We describe this system and its motivation from exploratory interviews with households using existing connected lighting products. To ease inter-household communication, we...
Preprint
Current storage technologies can no longer keep pace with exponentially growing amounts of data. ¹ Synthetic DNA offers an attractive alternative due to its potential information density of ~ 10 ¹⁸ B/mm ³ , 10 ⁷ times denser than magnetic tape, and potential durability of thousands of years. ² Recent advances in DNA data storage have highlighted te...
Article
Storing data in DNA molecules offers extreme density and durability advantages that can mitigate exponential growth in data storage needs. This article presents a DNA-based archival storage system, performs wet lab experiments to show its feasibility, and identifies technology trends that point to increasing practicality.
Conference Paper
Demand for data storage is growing exponentially, but the capacity of existing storage media is not keeping up. Using DNA to archive data is an attractive possibility because it is extremely dense, with a raw limit of 1 exabyte/mm³ (109 GB/mm³), and long-lasting, with observed half-life of over 500 years. This paper presents an architecture for a D...
Article
Demand for data storage is growing exponentially, but the capacity of existing storage media is not keeping up. Using DNA to archive data is an attractive possibility because it is extremely dense, with a raw limit of 1 exabyte/mm³ (109 GB/mm³), and long-lasting, with observed half-life of over 500 years. This paper presents an architecture for a D...
Article
Demand for data storage is growing exponentially, but the capacity of existing storage media is not keeping up. Using DNA to archive data is an attractive possibility because it is extremely dense, with a raw limit of 1 exabyte/mm³ (109 GB/mm³), and long-lasting, with observed half-life of over 500 years. This paper presents an architecture for a D...
Article
Demand for data storage is growing exponentially, but the capacity of existing storage media is not keeping up. Using DNA to archive data is an attractive possibility because it is extremely dense, with a raw limit of 1 exabyte/mm³ (109 GB/mm³), and long-lasting, with observed half-life of over 500 years. This paper presents an architecture for a D...
Article
This design research explored ways to support emotional expression in interactive games played in a public, social setting. Affective gaming has incorporated emotional assessment to tailor feedback during gameplay, but as a result, distills complex emotional states into simple inputs. Our research focused not on measuring affect but on designing ga...
Conference Paper
An interactive system, PIXEE, was developed to promote greater emotional expression in image-based social media. An interdisciplinary team developed this system and has deployed it as a cultural probe around the world to explore ways that technology can foster emotional connectedness. In this system, images that participants share on social media a...
Conference Paper
An interactive system, PIXEE, was developed to promote greater emotional expression in image-based social media. Images shared on social media were projected onto a large interactive display at public events. A multimodal interface displayed the sentiment analysis of images and invited viewers to express their emotional responses. Viewers could adj...

Citations

... These software-based decoders guarantee a polynomial-time solution; however, they are slow and not hardware-efficient due to their high computational cost and do not meet the requirements of latency and power. Several fast and low-cost decoding algorithms and their hardware-efficient implementations [12,[14][15][16][17][18] have been proposed to reduce the computational burden. In particular, the previous works based on a greedy matching algorithm and high-speed and low-power superconducting digital circuits [15,16,18] operate in a cryogenic environment to alleviate wires between superconducting qubits and satisfy the latency and power requirements. ...
... However, it is difficult to predict when the prices of synthesizing DNA will drop. While advancements have been made in literature reports on lower-cost synthesis techniques 31,34,91 , to date commercial DNA synthesis costs have not drastically changed 26 . Cheaper and faster ways to synthesize and sequence DNA will facilitate progress in applications not only limited to DNA data storage, but also including DNA barcoding, DNA of things, or random number generation. ...
... Bioinformatics as a whole has made staggering advances in the field of genetics [65]. Challenges that remain unsolved, hindering the benefit of national or global genomics databases, include DNA data storage and random access retrieval [66], data privacy management [67], and predictive genomics analysis methods. Variant filtration in rare disease is based on reference allele frequency, yet the result is not clinically actionable in many cases. ...
... Josephson Junction. Superconductor SFQ logic [26,49] is one of the most promising emerging technologies for ultra-fast and low-power computing at cryogenic temperatures. A basic element of SFQ technology, i.e., a superconductor ring [26], is shown in Figure 1(a). ...
... Recently, the biotechnology industry has developed the basic tools to manipulate DNA, the carrier of genetic information and arguably nature's largest biopolymer to be leveraged and improved for the macromolecular carrier of information and digital data storage (Martens et al., 2018). Encoding data at the (macro)molecular level could overcome the drawbacks of physical maintenance as they are negligible, storage densities can be dramatically increased and the element (C, H, N, O) constituents of the information-containing macromolecules are highly abundant (Martens et al., 2018;Carmean et al., 2018). Moreover, immense storage densities can be achieved (Martens et al., 2018;Colquhoun and Lutz, 2014). ...
... The write (synthesis) and read (sequencing) processes are error-prone. For each base pair (one nucleotide), it may involve around 1% error rate [8]. To handle these errors, researchers use error-correction code (ECC) to recover errors resulting in a much high overhead. ...
... Subsequently, using error correction, the DNA sequences can be decoded back into the strings of bits, which make up the digital file 4,5,22-26 . To date, files of sizes up to 200 MB have been stored in DNA [24][25][26] , and calculations show that in theory, all information produced globally in one year could be stored in 4 g of DNA 8,13,17,27 . ...
... This point hinders scaling up QCs. Although the QEC processing unit right next to the qubit chip alleviates this problem [10], it is usually unrealistic under the restricted power budget in the lower temperature stages of a cryostat (e.g., tens of µW or around 1 W in the millikelvin stage or the 4-K stage, respectively). Therefore, an extraordinary low-power decoder is necessary. ...
... Cryogenic computing, such as SFQ or Cryo-CMOS, has been actively studied to design peripherals of QC controllers [10,15,36]. Holmes et al. [15] proposed an algorithm named Approximate quantum error correction (AQEC) where they devised a power-efficient and highspeed SFQ-based decoder for SC. ...
... Compared to encoding data within the nucleotide sequence itself, data storage based on DNA nanotechnology has one major drawback: data storage density. While data written directly into the DNA sequence theoretically allows 1 exabyte (or 1 billion gigabytes) to be stored in every cubic millimeter of DNA, 96 the data density that has been attained so far using DNA secondary structure is much lower, requiring ~ 100 base pairs per bit. 24 That being said, this density is still approximately three orders of magnitude higher than current hard drive technologies, with further improvements conceivable through the optimization of the 3D DNA structure. ...