Douglas J. Futuyma's research while affiliated with Stony Brook University and other places

Publications (145)

Article
I survey the 50-year history of the Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, retitled Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics since 2003. An overview of reviews up through 2009 portrays much of the history of the series’ subject areas, revealing both lasting themes and great changes in emphasis, theory, evidence, and understanding. Mu...
Article
Evolutionary theory has been extended almost continually since the evolutionary synthesis (ES), but except for the much greater importance afforded genetic drift, the principal tenets of the ES have been strongly supported. Adaptations are attributable to the sorting of genetic variation by natural selection, which remains the only known cause of i...
Article
This chapter provides a cursory view of the basic principles of modern evolutionary theory. The major topics treated include the origin and nature of genetic variation, effects of genetic drift and various forms of natural selection on phenotypic traits and the genetic constitution of populations, fitness and its components, models of adaptation, l...
Chapter
Ever since the Evolutionary Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s, some biologists have expressed doubt that the Synthetic Theory, based principally on mutation, genetic variation, and natural selection, adequately accounts for macroevolution, or evolution above the species level. Some questions pertain to the history of biological diversity, but the gr...
Article
Appreciation of ecology as a setting or stage for evolution has a long history, but evolutionary ecology became an identifiable discipline in the 1960's, growing mostly out of efforts to understand the evolution of life history components and to formulate a theory of community ecology based on the evolution of species' niches. Since the 1960's, tec...
Article
Great natural history museums are among the world's premier institutions of scientific research, training, and education. The research produced by these museums, based on their collections of biological, geological, and anthropological specimens, has been of incalculable importance in formulating
Conference Paper
Transitions in host range (from generalist to specialist and vice versa) in herbivorous insects may reflect a process of ecological speciation that helps to explain their immense diversity. Host range evolution also has a considerable economic dimension in the capacity of insects to evolve specialization on crop plants. Yet despite decades of resea...
Article
Many herbivorous insects sequester defensive chemicals from their host plants. We tested sequestration fitness costs in the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We added pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations. Of all the larval and adult fitness components measured, only development t...
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##Assembly-Data-START## Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing ##Assembly-Data-END##
Article
Robert R. Sokal, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University, passed away on 9 April 2012 in Stony Brook, New York. He was 86 years old. He was renowned for his contributions to quantitative analysis in biology, especially in ecology, evolutionary biology, and systematics. As a cofounder of “numerical taxonom...
Data
Test of linkage disequilibrium for pairs of microsatellite loci tested across all populations of Utetheisa ornatrix. (DOCX)
Data
Microsatellite loci used in the Utetheisa ornatrix population structure study. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Local adaptation of parasites to their hosts due to coevolution is a central prediction of many theories in evolutionary biology. However, empirical studies looking for parasite local adaptation show great variation in outcomes, and the reasons for such variation are largely unknown. In a previous study, we showed adaptive differentiation in the ar...
Data
Genetic diversity for each Utetheisa ornatrix microsatellite locus on each population. (DOCX)
Article
Of what use is evolutionary science to society? Can evolutionary thinking provide us with the tools to better understand and even make positive changes to the world? Addressing key questions about the development of evolutionary thinking, this book explores the interaction between evolutionary theory and its practical applications. Featuring contri...
Article
A population of spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) selected for survival on a toxic host (a resistant cucumber variety) had higher resistance to several organophosphate pesticides than the control population from which it was derived. Pesticide-resistant strains, however, did not survive better on cucumber than paired pesticide-susceptible str...
Chapter
Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenoty...
Chapter
Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenoty...
Article
One of the most important shifts in evolutionary biology in the past 50 years is an increased recognition of sluggish evolution and failures to adapt, which seem paradoxical in view of abundant genetic variation and many instances of rapid local adaptation. I review hypotheses of evolutionary constraint (or restraint), and suggest that although con...
Article
What Darwin Got Wrong by Jerry Fodor and Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2010. 286 pp. $26. ISBN 9780374288792. Profile, London. 280 pp. £20. ISBN 9781846682193. Objecting on both philosophical and empirical grounds, Fodor and Piattelli-Palmarini reject natural selection as the mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Article
This chapter considers the place of experimental studies in evolutionary biology, first describing the advantages of experimental evolution and contrasting it with other approaches. The special strengths of experimental evolution lie in the essence of any experiment: replication and control. By replicating the number of populations exposed to the n...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial biodiversity is dominated by plants and the herbivores that consume them, and they are one of the major conduits of energy flow up to higher trophic levels. Here, we address the processes that have generated the spectacular diversity of flowering plants (>300,000 species) and insect herbivores (likely >1 million species). Long-standing...
Article
Full-text available
We celebrate this year the sesquicentennial anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species (1), one of the most important books ever written. The two great themes of The Origin are descent, with modification, of diverse species from common ancestors, and natural selection, which Darwin proposed as the chief agent of modification. He rem...
Article
In 1980, when I set out to write a defense of evolution against creationism [1], I dis- covered that there existed no book for general readers that described the evi- dence for, and nature of, evolution . The closest approximation was George Gay- lord Simpson's The Meaning of ...
Article
Local adaptation has central importance in the understanding of co-evolution, maintenance of sexual reproduction, and speciation. We investigated local adaptation in the alkaloid-bearing legume Crotalaria pallida and its seed predator, the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix, at different spatial scales. When we studied three populations from south-eas...
Article
Local adaptation has central importance in the understanding of co-evolution, maintenance of sexual reproduction, and speciation. We investigated local adaptation in the alkaloid-bearing legume Crotalaria pallida and its seed predator, the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix, at different spatial scales. When we studied three populations from south-eas...
Article
Host-specific herbivorous insects have inspired speculation about sympatric speciation at least since the 1860s, when the now-famous host races of the apple maggot were described for the first time. Even Ernst Mayr admitted that “host races [of phytophagous insects] are a challenging biological phenomenon, and constitute the only known case indicat...
Article
The genetic basis of host plant use by phytophagous insects can provide insight into the evolution of ecological niches, especially phenomena such as specialization and phylogenetic conservatism. We carried out a quantitative genetic analysis of multiple host use traits, estimated on five species of host plants, in the Colorado potato beetle, Lepti...
Article
Summary 1. The importance of behavioural vs physiological adaptations in the evolution of host associations by herbivorous insects is largely unknown. 2. We compared sister species of beetles, one of which, Ophraella slobodkini , feeds on the lineage's ancestral host, Ambrosia artemisiifolia , while O. notulata has shifted to a novel host, Iva frut...
Article
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Article
Full-text available
Plant chemical defenses and escape from natural enemies have been postulated to select for dietary specialization in herbivorous insects. In field and laboratory bioassays, we evaluated the effectiveness of intact and chemically modified larval shield defenses of the generalist Chelymorpha alternans and the specialists Acromis sparsa and Stolas pla...
Article
The cost of adaptations may depend on environmental conditions. We consider how the fitness cost of resistance to the herbicide triazine in Amaranthus hybridus interacts with folivory from the beetle Disonycha glabrata. Triazine-resistant (TR) genotypes suffer a fitness cost because of a pleiotropic reduction in the light reaction of photosynthesis...
Article
This work explores the possibility that constraints on genetic variation guide host shifts and are responsible for the evolutionary conservatism of host affiliation in phytophagous insects. To this end, we used full- and half-sib breeding designs to screen two species of the North American bettle genus Ophraella for genetic variation in larval and...
Article
The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. By Stephen Jay Gould. Belknap (Harvard University Press), Cambridge, MA, 2002. 1457 pp. $39.95, £27.50, €45.90. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. In this magnum opus, Gould offers a history of the core concepts of Darwinism, considers recent critiques of these ideas, and provides a detailed account of his own synthesis of e...
Chapter
This chapter discusses coevolution, which is the joint evolution of two or more species or genomes, owing to interactions between them. These interactions include interspecific competition, mutualism, and interactions between consumers and victims, as well as other interactions such as mimicry. Quantitative genetic models of the evolution of compet...
Article
‘Coevolution’ between plants and herbivorous arthropods has several meanings: cospeciation, reciprocal adaptation, and a history of ‘escape-and-radiation’. Few well documented examples of each are known. Most evolutionary research on insect-plant interactions concerns the adaptations of insects to plants or of plants to insects, but little of it ex...
Article
Speciation in phytophagous insects is commonly associated with shifts in host use. Using a phylogenetic framework to identify recently diverged taxa that have undergone a radical host shift, this study focuses on how reconstruction of the historical demography of a species, in conjunction with branching patterns between species, provides insight in...
Article
Speciation in phytophagous insects is commonly associated with shifts in host use. Using a phylogenetic framework to identify recently diverged taxa that have undergone a radical host shift, this study focuses on how reconstruction of the historical demography of a species, in conjunction with branching patterns between species, provides insight in...
Article
Although inbreeding, on average, decreases additive genetic variance, some inbred populations may show an increase in phenotypic variance for some characters. In those populations with increased phenotypic variance, character changes by peak shifts may occur because of the effects of the higher variance on the adaptive landscape. A population's inc...
Article
Full-text available
Although inbreeding, on average, decreases additive genetic variance, some inbred populations may show an increase in phenotypic variance for some characters. In those populations with increased phenotypic variance, character changes by peak shifts may occur because of the effects of the higher variance on the adaptive landscape. A population's inc...
Article
Because plant resistance to different herbivores seems generally not to be genetically highly correlated, selection by herbivores for plant resistance traits and for investment in such traits is likely to be strongly influenced by the species composition of a plant species' associated community of enemies. We summarize evidence that the host associ...
Article
We hypothesize that the evolution of an ecologically important character, the host associations of specialized phytophagous insects, has been influenced by limitations on genetic variation. Using as a historical framework a phylogenetic reconstruction of the history of host associations in the beetle genus Ophraella (Chrysomelidae), we have employe...
Article
We hypothesize that the evolution of an ecologically important character, the host associations of specialized phytophagous insects, has been influenced by limitations on genetic variation. Using as a historical framework a phylogenetic reconstruction of the history of host associations in the beetle genus Ophraella (Chrysomelidae), we have employe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the phylogenetic infrastructure for an integrated historical and experimental study of host use evolution in the chrysomelid leaf beetle genus Ophraella. We report the collection of sequence data from the 16S ribosomal RNA (446 bp) and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (420 bp) mitochondrial genes from 12 species of Ophraella and...
Chapter
The host plant associations of many taxa of phytophagous insects, including a great many Chrysomelidae, are marked by two striking features: the limited taxonomic host range of individual species (host specialization) and the close taxonomic relationship of the host plants of closely related species (phylogenetic conservatism). Drawing on many such...
Article
The natural host of Ophraella notulata is Iva frutescens (Asteraceae); its close relative feeds on a related plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. We reared beetles on both plants, obtained progeny from the four possible crosses (two sexes X two parental hosts), and reared the progeny on both plant species. Survival to the imaginal stage of progeny reare...
Article
Ophraella communa feeds chiefly, and in E North America exclusively, on Ambrosia (Asteraceae). The authors screened for genetic variation in feeding responses to and larval survival on its own host and on seven other plants that are hosts (or, in one case, closely related to the host) of other species of Ophraella. There was evidence for genetic va...
Article
We ask whether patterns of genetic variation in a phytophagous insect's responses to potential host plants shed light on the phylogenetic history of host association. Ophraella communa feeds chiefly, and in eastern North America exclusively, on Ambrosia (Asteraceae: Ambrosiinae). Using mostly half-sib breeding designs, we screened for genetic varia...
Chapter
Two salient features of phytophagous insects are the subjects of this paper: the host specificity (specialization) that all species display, often to an extraordinary degree; and the phylogenetic conservatism of host associations, manifested in the frequent association of related insects with related plants. Both features are frequently attributed...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic analyses (and related historical evidence) can be used to test hypotheses about the oppurtinity for coevolution among plants and insect herbivores, the role of plant chemistry in mediating host shifts, the reality of coevolutionary ‘arms races’, and the role of novel defensive or counterdefensive characteristics in enhancing rates of d...
Article
Species of Ophraella, a North American genus of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), feed variously on eight genera in four tribes of Asteraceae. A phylogenetic analysis, based on morphological features and allozymes, was undertaken to deduce the history of host affiliation within the genus. The two data sets are combined to arrive at a provisional phylog...
Article
Species of Ophraella, a North American genus of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), feed variously on eight genera in four tribes of Asteraceae. A phylogenetic analysis, based on morphological features and allozymes, was undertaken to deduce the history of host affiliation within the genus. The two data sets are combined to arrive at a provisional phylog...
Chapter
Ein sehr herausforderndes Thema in der Evolutionsbiologie betrifft die Evolution von Merkmalen, anhand deren Organismen verschiedenen höheren Taxa zugeordnet werden. Durch welche Mechanismen entstanden die Unterschiede zwischen Familien, Ordnungen, Klassen und Stämmen? Nur wenige Probleme der Evolution wurden derart endlos debattiert oder waren so...
Chapter
Die Biogeographie erforscht die geographische Verbreitung von Organismen. Sie versucht zu erklären, warum Arten und höhere Taxa ihre faktische Verbreitung haben und warum sich die taxonomische Zusammensetzung des Lebendigen von Region zu Region unterscheidet.
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Die Mechanismen der Koevolution, die Natur des Kopplungsungleichgewichts oder die Geschichte der Artenvielfalt mögen nur für relativ wenige Menschen von fesselndem Interesse sein, das Thema der menschlichen Evolution dagegen erweckt fast universelles Interesse. Für die Verfechter der Schöpfungsthese ist dieses Thema der Kernpunkt des Wetterns gegen...
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In den bisherigen Kapiteln wurden die genetischen Mechanismen der Evolution innerhalb von Populationen behandelt und zahlreiche Faktoren aufgeführt, die zur Divergenz von Populationen einer Art führen. Würde Evolution nur aus den zuvor beschriebenen Mechanismen bestehen, gäbe es wenig Vielfalt. Vielfalt entsteht durch kladogenese, der Divergenz von...
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Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der Evolution erklären Variation in der Morphologie, Physiologie, im biochemischen Stoffwechsel, im Verhalten und in den Lebenszyklen — also in den Merkmalsgruppen, denen Evolutionsbiologen hauptsächlich ihre Aufmerksamkeit widmen. Jede dieser Merkmalsgruppen muß mit besonderen Methoden untersucht werden und erfordert bes...
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Die Erforschung von Anpassungen — jener Merkmale von Organismen, die laut Darwin «mit Recht unsere Bewunderung erregen» — nimmt eine zentrale Stellung im Studium der Organismen ein. Beginnt ein Biochemiker, ein Physiologe oder ein Ethologe mit der Erforschung einer strukturellen oder funktionellen Eigenschaft, dann geht er von der Annahme aus, daß...
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Zu dieser Schlußfolgerung kam der Philosoph John Dewey in seinem Essay «The Influence of Darwin an Philosophy» (1910). Ein Jahrhundert nach der Veröffentlichung von Darwins Buch sehen Philosophen noch immer «keine lebendigen Wissenschaften, menschlichen Haltungen oder institutionellen Mächte, die unbeeinflußt sind von den durch Darwins Werk katalyt...
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Sehr früh in der Geschichte der Genetik wurde klar, daß es keine 1:1 Beziehung zwischen Genen und phänotypischen Merkmalen gibt. Es gibt zum Beispiel keine getrennten Gene für Femur und Tibia. Vielmehr wirkt jedes Gen pleiotrop auf mehrere oder viele Merkmale, und die Entwicklung jedes Merkmals wird von mehreren oder vielen Genen beeinflußt. Wir ha...
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Von Anfang an war die Erforschung der Evolution untrennbar mit der Erforschung der Vererbung verbunden. Die zitierte Passage aus The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (Volume II; S. 35–36) verdeutlicht uns, wie sich Darwin 1868 um die Entwicklung einer Theorie der Vererbung bemühte, wobei ihm nicht bewußt war, daß Mendel die Lösun...
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Die Evolutionsbiologie versucht, wie jede andere Wissenschaft auch, die Komplexität der Natur zu verstehen, indem sie Verallgemeinerungen formuliert: wir versuchen zu vereinfachen, um ein größeres Verständnis zu erreichen. Dadurch laufen wir Gefahr, viele schöne und spannende Momente der Biologie, die in der wundervollen Vielfalt lebender Kreaturen...
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Die im vorangegangenen Kapitel kaum interpretierte Darstellung der Evolutionsgeschichte wirft eine Reihe von Fragen auf. Wie hat sich die Diversität (Vielfalt) insgesamt während der Evolution verändert? Erreicht die Diversität ein Gleichgewicht, nimmt sie grenzenlos zu oder fluktuiert sie zufällig? Was verursacht den Wandel der Diversität? Gibt es...
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Natürliche Selektion war das zentrale Prinzip in Darwins Theorie des evolutionären Wandels und ist weiterhin der beherrschende Begriff in der Evolutionsbiologie. Die genetische Drift spielt natürlich eine wichtige Rolle in der Evolution, aber wir müssen uns der Selektion zuwenden, um eine Erklärung für viele der komplexen Eigenschaften von Organism...
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Viele Merkmale von Organismen sind Anpassungen an ihre Umwelt. Tatsächlich besteht ein Großteil der Biologie, sei es Biochemie, Anatomie, Physiologie oder Ökologie, in der Erforschung von Anpassungen: jenen Merkmalen, die sich über natürliche Selektion herausgebildet haben und die Organismen angesichts zahlloser möglicher Bedrohungen zum Überleben...
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Eine der größten Herausforderungen für die Evolutionsbiologie ist die Erklärung, wie Interaktionen zwischen Arten die Evolutionsraten und Muster der adaptiven Radiation beeinflußt haben und wie Evolution die interspezifischen Interaktionen und dadurch die Struktur der ökologischen Gemeinschaften beeinflußt. Dies ist vor allem deshalb eine große Auf...

Citations

... Selection in unstable environments may favor plastic phenotypes, while selection in predictable habitats may favor fixed phenotypes (27). Similarly, phenotypic plasticity is expected to underlie greater niche breadth in generalist organisms, while specialists might be less plastic (28). We hypothesized that prokaryotic r-strategists not only produce cheaper descendants with a low yield but also repeatedly colonize unstable environments through spatial mobility and are generalists with a high degree of proteome phenotypic plasticity. ...
... Timely and impactful responses to natural-resource challenges, including water management, demand effective relationships between science and governance (van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2015). While scientific advice to governments has never been in greater demand, there has also never been a time where it has been more contested and questioned (Colloff, Grafton, & Williams, 2021;Fenster et al., 2021;Gluckman & Wilsdon, 2016;Stewardson et al., 2021). ...
... Indeed, a variety of factors, such as hormones, biomechanical environment, pathological conditions, or disease, can influence the morphology of skeletal age indicators (Mays, 2015). However, evolutionary theory has long acknowledged that both genetic and environmental factors influence phenotypic variability (Futuyma, 2017;Laland et al., 2015;West-Eberhard, 2003). The population genetics approach to studying evolution also started incorporating an environmental component to account for phenotypic variability as a result of environmental influences (Falconer & Mackay, 1996;Lynch & Walsh, 1998). ...
... Hybridization is an important mechanism in species formation either leading to new species or preventing the differentiation and evolution of different species (Barton and Hewitt 1985;Futuyma and Shapiro 1995; see also Seehausen 2004 for a review). The fate of hybrids and the temporal and spatial dynamics of hybrid zones depend on hybrid fitness in comparison to non-hybrids (Barton and Hewitt 1989). ...
... The evolution of a rostrum, shifts in larval feeding habits and co-evolutionary relationships with flowering plants have been proposed as likely explanations for their great diversity (Marvaldi et al., 2002;McKenna et al., 2009;Oberprieler, Marvaldi & Anderson, 2007); however, the factors and processes involved are still little understood. Using every plant part and nearly every plant taxon (Anderson, 1995;McKenna et al., 2009), weevils often exhibit a close relationship with their host plants and, as is frequently observed in many other plant-feeding insect groups (Futuyma, Keese & Scheffer, 1993;Jaenike, 1990;Janz & Nylin, 1998), specialization on one or a few closely related host plant species is a recurrent phenomenon (Marvaldi et al., 2002). In some cases life history attributes such as endoparasitism, in which larvae not only feed but also develop inside a great variety of plant structures, contribute to a more intimate host association, which in turn may amplify the selection pressure imposed by the host, making weevils more susceptible to ecological divergence ( Hernández-Vera et al., 2010;Mopper, 1996). ...
... Phytophagous insects often specialize to their host plants, and they are thought to have diversified through ecological speciation as a result of that specialization (Weiblen, 2002;Kawakita et al., 2004). It is widely accepted that, throughout their evolutionary history, the switching of host plants by phytophagous insects has contributed to their diversification, and this idea is well-supported by molecular and phylogenetic evidence (Funk et al., 1995a;Peccoud et al., 2009;Yamamoto et al., 2020). Recent advances in genetic analyses have revealed that plants have genetically and ecologically different ecotypes that are ecologically adapted to various environments (e.g. ...
... Ambrosia produces a range of chemical compounds that contribute to herbivore resistance (van Boheemen, Bou-Assi, et al., 2019), including sesquiterpene lactones (Taglialatela-Scafati et al., 2012). An important herbivore antagonist of Ambrosia is Ophraella communa, an oligophagous leaf beetle native to North America that prefers Ambrosia as its host plant (Augustinus, Gentili, et al., 2020;Futuyma et al., 1995) ( Figure 1b). Following its accidental introductions, it is currently the most successful biocontrol agent against Ambrosia in China (Ma et al., 2008;Zhou et al., 2011) and also causes considerable damage to Ambrosia in Japan (Fukano & Doi, 2013 Zhou et al., 2014), which allows it to build up high local densities during the second half of the Ambrosia growing season, leading to complete defoliation and death of Ambrosia Zhou et al., 2014). ...
... These statistics, alongside their level of significance, were estimated with the software Arlequin, using 1000 coalescent simulations. Significantly negative outputs of D and Fs are reliable indicators of demographic expansion [39,40]. Positive values of Tajima's D and Fu's Fs, however, usually hint at the occurrence of population demographic contractions or genetic bottlenecks [41]. ...
... Natural case studies of this kind provide an opportunity to trace the divergence of ancestral species and hypothesize about the drivers of speciation and the mechanisms of emergence of reproductive isolation between nascent species. Notable examples of such model systems are speciation within associations between the host-plant and the phytophagous insect (Futuyma & McCafferty, 1990;Nyman et al., 2006;Peccoud et al., 2010;Percy, 2003, etc.), divergence via host switching in parasites (Cox-Singh, 2012;Duval & Ariey, 2012;Reed et al., 2007, etc.), and transition to endosymbiotic lifestyle in microorganisms (Moran & Wernegreen, 2000;Moya et al., 2008). In all these cases, a shift to an alternative niche accompanying species divergence allows the exploitation of different environmental resources even by young species coexisting within the same biocoenosis, that is, sympatric species in a broad sense. ...
... This hitchhiking aspect of species selection in the broad sense is likely to be widespread (Jablonski, 2017b;Polly et al., 2017), so that the apparent evolvability of a trait, or of a clade, should be analyzed in a framework that takes both direct organismic selection and this indirect, cross-level effect into account: among-clade differences in traversal of morphospace might be a function of higher-level traits that promote or damp speciation, rather than covariation structure of organismic traits and their genetic underpinnings. That is, speciation here is the cause of apparent differences in evolvability, rather than an effect, an idea dating back to the beginnings of the punctuated equilibrium discussion (Gould, 2002) and revisited by Futuyma (2015). Caution is needed, however: the relatively small number of species present at a given time for most genera and many families suggests that apparent differences in evolvability could arise by chance, an effect that has been termed species drift (Levinton et al., 1986:178;Gould, 2002:736;Stanley, 1979 [as "phylogenetic drift"]; Turner, 2015;Chevin, 2016;Jablonski, 2017b). ...