Donald L. Klass's research while affiliated with Illinois Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (10)

Article
Methane production by anaerobic digestion of kelp is a relatively new approach to augmenting the national gas supply. Digestion of the giant marine kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, investigated in a series of bench-scale experiments at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is reported. Conducted with both untreated and chemically pretreated plants, the...
Article
Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of the high-yield warm-season grasses that has been suggested as a promising raw material for conversion to methane. Experimental work performed with laboratory digesters to study the anaerobic digestion of Coastal Bermuda grass harvested in Louisiana and having a C/N ratio of 24 is described. Methane yields...
Article
A series of exploratory anaerobic digestion experiments was performed with a mixed biomass-waste feed to search for digestion configurations that provide improved performance over that of conventional high-rate digestion. The techniques studied were pretreatment of the feed with caustic soda, product gas recycling to the digester, recycling of aero...
Chapter
The search for new sources of energy is intensifying as the demand for energy increases and supplies of fossil fuels are becoming depleted. One possible long-term solution to this dilemma is the conversion of renewable sources of organic matter, such as wastes and biomass, to products that are suitable for use as fuels. Although organic wastes repr...
Article
A method to develop a bioconversion system for the production of intermediate or high calorific value gas, from Minnesota reed sedge peat, is examined. The experimental work consisted of four parts: feed characterization, exploratory batch, digestion experiments, semicontinuous digestion of peat alone, and investigations of conditions for improved...
Conference Paper
The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) recognized the need and utility of a comprehensive waste-management system several years ago, and undertook the development of such a process in cooperation with the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, the Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, Indiana, and private agencies working in the areas of resource rec...
Article
Electroviscosity is defined in this introductory paper as an essentially instantaneous reversible change in apparent viscosity when a fluid is subjected to an externally applied electric field. The electroviscous properties of silica and calcium titanate dispersions are typical of most electroviscous systems and were found to be a function of many...
Article
The induced interfacial polarization mechanism invoked to explain electroviscosity requires a direct relationship between the rheological and electrical properties of an electroviscous system. Static and dynamic measurements of the electric and dielectric properties of electroviscous silica dispersions were made to study these relationships. An ele...
Article
The concept of using raw materials from or around the home to generate its fuel needs in the form of fuel gas from small-scale units is presented. A preliminary assessment of the conversion of common lawn grass to fuel gas has been performed. Lawn grass, consisting predominantly of Kentucky Bluegrass grown in Northern Illinois, was converted in lab...
Article
The papers presented at IGT's conference in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, January 29--February 2, 1990, on energy from biomass and waste are reproduced in this book. This conference was the fifteenth in the series which began in January 1976. The objectives were: to renew and correlate information on new undertakings and achievements in the field; to...

Citations

... Accordingly, oxygen limitation was not observed for RPW compost due to its homogenous size distribution. These results are in agreement with a study on the effect of particle size on the decomposition of grass (Klass et al., 1976). ...
... C:N ratio can be vitally important to the performance of an anaerobic digester. A low ratio (high nitrogen) can result in the inhibition of methanogens by high ammonia concentrations [42][43][44], and the optimum ratio for seaweed species varies between 14:1 and 30:1 [42,[45][46][47]. ...
... The conversion degree of alkali pretreatment was more obvious, as was the change in content of each component. The chemical analyses point to two possible impediments to vigorous anaerobic digestion of herbaceous peat: the presence of large concentrations of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other complex substances of low biodegradability and the insufficiency of such essential elements as nitrogen and phosphorus [14]. Therefore, it is highly possible that increasing the biodegradability of herbaceous peat could enhance the efficiency of fermentation, which leads to robust biological gasification. ...
... The processing involved the segregation of the organic from the inorganic fractions in a manner that would require a mini mal investmen t of energy, and if expanded to a full-scale operation would entail the least possible monetary expenditure. The size distribution of the light rejects when the feed rates were 1.7 and 2.5 tons/hr (1.5 and 2.3 t/h) to the dry separation system is shown in Fig. 3. Particle size is important because, as other researchers have demonstrated, gas production rate and gas yield increase with decrease in particle size of the digester feed [12] . ...
... The major variables influencing biogas production include the pretreatment, salt concentration, external nutrients, inoculum source, solid loading, residence time, temperature, and the operational configuration (Ghosh et al. 1981;Fasahati et al. 2017). Seaweed is very much a seasonal feedstock, so in order to provide a constant supply of seaweeds for biogas production one option is ensiling of seaweed, which will lower salt concentrations reducing energy losses in the process. ...
... Another possible mechanism is based on overlapping double electric layers [28,29]. It is assumed that in the suspension around each particle, a double electric layer is formed and these layers overlap for neighboring particles under the influence of an electric field, which leads to increased electrostatic repulsion between the particles that must be overcome to the particles flow past each other. ...
... Another possible mechanism is based on overlapping double electric layers [28,29]. It is assumed that in the suspension around each particle, a double electric layer is formed and these layers overlap for neighboring particles under the influence of an electric field, which leads to increased electrostatic repulsion between the particles that must be overcome to the particles flow past each other. ...