Dominique Gravel's research while affiliated with Centre D'Études Nordiques and other places

Publications (296)

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1. Intraspecific trait variability (ITV) provides the material for species’ adaptation to environmental changes. To advance our understanding of how ITV can contribute to species’ adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions, we studied five widespread understorey forest species exposed to both continental‐scale climate gradients, and loc...
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Having made substantial progress understanding molecules, cells, genes and pathways, aging biology research is now moving toward integration of these parts, attempting to understand how their joint dynamics may contribute to aging. Such a shift of perspective requires the adoption of a formal complex systems framework, a transition being facilitate...
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Critical transition theory suggests that complex systems should experience increased temporal variability just before abrupt state changes. We tested this hypothesis in 763 patients on long-term hemodialysis, using 11 biomarkers collected every two weeks and all-cause mortality as a proxy for critical transitions. We find that variability – measure...
Preprint
Animals couple habitats by three types of movement: dispersal, migration, and foraging, which dynamically link populations, communities, and ecosystems. Spatial distances of movement tend to correlate with each other, reflecting shared allometric scaling with body size, but may diverge due to biomechanical, phylogenetic, and ecological constraints....
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Climate change is prompting plants to migrate and establish novel interactions in new habitats. Because of the pivotal roles microbes have on plant health and function, it is important to understand the ecological consequences of these shifts in host–microbe interactions with range expansion. Here we examine how the diversity of plant associated mi...
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Although there is compelling evidence that tree diversity has an overall positive effect on forest productivity, there are important divergences among studies on the nature and strength of these diversity effects and their timing during forest stand development. To clarify conflicting results related to stand developmental stage, we explored how di...
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Prey handling processes are considered a dominant mechanism leading to short‐term positive indirect effects between prey that share a predator. However, a growing body of research indicates that predators are not necessarily limited by such processes in the wild. Density‐dependent changes in predator foraging behavior can also generate positive ind...
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Mixing tree species can lead to more productive forests, but how belowground productivity is affected by mixtures of trees of diverse phylogenetic and eco‐evolutionary histories is unclear. Here, we examine how species origin and phylogeny affect belowground productivity in tree communities of varied richness and functional diversity. We measured s...
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Food webs represent the energy fluxes and the nutrient cycling between interacting species that underpin several ecosystem functions. Whether and how interactions vary across environmental gradients is still largely unknown. We reviewed the literature searching for systematic relationships between structural food-web properties and environmental gr...
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Weather and land use can significantly impact mosquito abundance and presence, and by consequence, mosquito-borne disease (MBD) dynamics. Knowledge of vector ecology and mosquito species response to these drivers will help us better predict risk from MBD. In this study, we evaluated and compared the independent and combined effects of weather and l...
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Larger geographical areas contain more species—an observation raised to a law in ecology. Less explored is whether biodiversity changes are accompanied by a modification of interaction networks. We use data from 32 spatial interaction networks from different ecosystems to analyse how network structure changes with area. We find that basic community...
Preprint
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Natural forest is declining globally as the area of planted forest increases. Planted forests are often monocultures, despite results suggesting that higher species richness improves ecosystem functioning and stability. To test if this is generally the case, we performed a meta-analysis of available results. We assessed aboveground carbon stocks in...
Preprint
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Weather and land use can significantly impact mosquito abundance and presence, and by consequence, mosquito-borne disease (MBD) dynamics. Knowledge of vector ecology and mosquito species response to these drivers will help us better predict risk from MBD. In this study, we evaluated and compared the independent and combined effects of weather and l...
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Species are shifting their distributions in response to climate change. This geographic reshuffling may result in novel co-occurrences among species, which could lead to unseen biotic interactions, including the exchange of parasites between previously isolated hosts. Identifying potential new host–parasite interactions would improve forecasting of...
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Networks of species interactions underpin numerous ecosystem processes, but comprehensively sampling these interactions is difficult. Interactions intrinsically vary across space and time, and given the number of species that compose ecological communities, it can be tough to distinguish between a true negative (where two species never interact) fr...
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Direct and indirect effects of habitat modification and changes in biotic interactions should be taken into consideration to understand the ecological consequences of forest anthropogenic disturbance on forest ecosystems. Few empirical studies assess indirect effects and consider multiple trophic levels, but recent statistical and theoretical advan...
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Collecting well-resolved empirical trophic networks requires significant time, money and expertise, yet we are still lacking knowledge on how sampling effort and bias impact the estimation of network structure. Filling this gap is a critical first step towards creating accurate representations of ecological networks and for teasing apart the impact...
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Time is running out to limit further devastating losses of biodiversity and nature's contributions to humans. Addressing this crisis requires accurate predictions about which species and ecosystems are most at risk to ensure efficient use of limited conservation and management resources. We review existing biodiversity projection models and discove...
Preprint
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1. A bstract Prey handling processes are considered a key driver of short-term positive indirect effects between prey sharing the same predator. However, a growing body of research indicates that predators are rarely limited by such processes in the wild. Density-dependent changes in predator foraging be-havior can also generate positive indirect...
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Current analyses of metacommunity data largely focus on global attributes across the entire metacommunity, such as mean alpha, beta, and gamma diversity, as well as the partitioning of compositional variation into single estimates of contributions of space and environmental effects and, more recently, possible contributions of species interactions....
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Evaluating the effects of multiple stressors on ecosystems is becoming increasingly vital with global changes. The role of species interactions in propagating the effects of stressors, although widely acknowledged, has yet to be formally explored. Here, we conceptualise how stressors propagate through food webs and explore how they affect simulated...
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Habitat fragmentation and eutrophication have strong impacts on biodiversity. Metacommunity research demonstrated that reduction in landscape connectivity may cause biodiversity loss in fragmented landscapes. Food-web research addressed how eutrophication can cause local biodiversity declines. However, there is very limited understanding of their c...
Preprint
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The integration of meta-ecosystem processes over large spatial extent is critical to predicting whether and how global changes might impact biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Yet, there remains an important gap in meta-ecosystem models to predict multiple ecosystem functions (e.g., carbon sequestration, elemental cycling, trophic efficiency) acr...
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The Biodiversity – Ecosystem Functioning (BEF) literature proposes that ecosystem functioning increases with biodiversity because of complementarity in resource use among species, associated with functional diversity. In this study, we challenge the trait‐based ecology framework by comparing congeneric exotic (European) and native (North American)...
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As of 2020, the world has an estimated 290 million ha of planted forests and this number is continuously increasing. Of these, 131 million ha are monospecific planted forests under intensive management. Although monospecific planted forests are important in providing timber, they harbor less biodiversity and are potentially more susceptible to dist...
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Indirect effects resulting from species sharing the same enemy can shape spatio-temporal variations in species occurrence. The strength of such effects remains poorly known in natural communities composed of species from different trophic levels interacting in heterogeneous landscapes. Benefiting from a well-known arctic vertebrate community and ma...
Preprint
Food webs represent energy fluxes and nutrient cycling between interacting species, underpinning ecosystem functioning. Whether and how interactions vary over environmental gradients is still largely unknown. We reviewed the literature searching for systematic relationships between structural food-web properties and environmental gradients. Tempera...
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Biological insurance theory predicts that, in a variable environment, aggregate ecosystem properties will vary less in more diverse communities because declines in the performance or abundance of some species or phenotypes will be offset, at least partly, by smoother declines or increases in others. During the past two decades, ecology has accumula...
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Our ability to predict the outcome of invasion declines rapidly as non-native species progress through intertwined ecological barriers to establish and spread in recipient ecosystems. This is largely due to the lack of systemic knowledge on key processes at play as species establish self-sustaining populations within the invaded range. To address t...
Preprint
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Critical transition theory suggests that complex systems should experience increased temporal variability just before abrupt change, such as increases in clinical biomarker variability before mortality. We tested this in the context of hemodialysis using 11 clinical biomarkers measured every two weeks in 763 patients over 2496 patient-years. We sho...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological networks are increasingly studied at large spatial scales, expanding their focus from a conceptual tool for community ecology into one that also addresses questions in biogeography and macroecology. This effort is supported by increased access to standardized information on ecological networks, in the form of openly accessible databases....
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There is an increasingly widespread use of biomarkers in network physiology to evaluate an organism’s physiological state. A recent study showed that albumin variability increases before death in chronic hemodialysis patients. We hypothesized that a multivariate statistical approach would better allow us to capture signals of impending physiologica...
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Food webs capture the trophic relationships and energy fluxes between species, which has fundamental impacts on ecosystem functioning and stability. Within a food web, the energy flux distribution between a predator and its prey species is shaped by food quantity‐quality trade‐offs and the contiguity of foraging. But the distribution of energy flux...
Preprint
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Networks of species interactions can capture meaningful information on the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Yet the scarcity of existing data, and the difficulty associated with comprehensively sampling interactions between species, means that to describe the structure, variation, and change of ecological networks over time and space, we ne...
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The functional response is at the core of any predator-prey interactions as it establishes the link between trophic levels. The use of inaccurate functional response can profoundly affect the outcomes of population and community models. Yet most functional responses are evaluated using phenomenological models which often fail to discriminate among...
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The importance of climate, habitat structure, and higher trophic levels on microbial diversity is only beginning to be understood. Here, we examined the influence of climate variables, plant morphology, and the abundance of aquatic invertebrates on the microbial biodiversity of the northern pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. The plant's cup‐shaped...
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1. Associational resistance theory predicts that insect herbivory decreases with increasing tree diversity in forest ecosystems. However, the generality of this effect and its underlying mechanisms are still debated, particularly since evidence has accumulated that climate may influence the direction and strength of the relationship between diversi...
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Aim Dynamic range models are proposed to investigate species distributions and to project range shifts under climate change. They are based upon the Hutchinsonian niche theory, specifying that the occurrence of a species in an environmental space should be limited to positions where the intrinsic growth rate is positive. Evaluating population growt...
Preprint
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The functional response is central to our understanding of any predator–prey system as it establishes the link between trophic levels. Most functional responses are evaluated using phenomenological models linking predator acquisition rate and prey density. However, our ability to measure functional responses using such an approach is often limited...
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Aim Tree species may be vulnerable to migration lags because they are sessile, long‐lived, have a small intrinsic growth rate and relatively short dispersal. Our study assesses if those ecological mechanisms will mitigate the progression of the north‐eastern American temperate forest leading edge into the boreal forest. Location The North‐eastern...
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Temperature has numerous effects on the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. Yet, there is no general trend or consensus on the magnitude and directions of these effects. To fill this gap, we propose a mechanistic framework based on key biological rates that predicts how temperature influences biomass distribution and trophic control i...
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Niche breadth is a unifying concept spanning diverse aspects of ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Niche breadth usually refers to the diversity of resources used or environments tolerated by an individual, population, species, or clade.Herewe review key research in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology in light of niche breadth....
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Metacommunity ecology has become an important subdiscipline of ecology, but it is increasingly evident that its foundational theoretical and analytical frameworks do not adequately incorporate a realistic continuum of environmental and biotic process at play. We propose an approach that develops stronger links between theoretical and statistical fr...
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The complexity of an ecological community can be distilled into a network, where diverse interactions connect species in a web of dependencies. Species interact directly with each other and indirectly through environmental effects, however to our knowledge the role of these ecosystem engineers has not been considered in ecological network models. H...
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There is a rich amount of information in co‐occurrence (presence–absence) data that could be used to understand community assembly. This proposition first envisioned by Forbes (1907) and then Diamond (1975) prompted the development of numerous modelling approaches (e.g. null model analysis, co‐occurrence networks and, more recently, joint species d...
Preprint
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The impacts of habitat fragmentation and eutrophication on biodiversity have been studied in different scientific realms. Metacommunity research has shown that reduction in landscape connectivity may cause biodiversity loss in fragmentated landscapes. Food-web research addressed how eutrophication increases biomass accumulations at high trophic lev...
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The St. Lawrence is a vast and complex socio-ecological system providing a wealth of services that sustain numerous economic sectors. This ecosystem is subject to significant human pressures that overlap and potentially interact with climate-driven environmental changes. Our objective in this paper was to systematically characterize the distributio...
Chapter
Investigation of how spatial processes affect the maintenance of biodiversity and its geographic distribution has led to landmark contributions in community ecology. Theory has followed a logical complexification of the objects of study, with specific models at each step, from populations connected by dispersal to ecosystems connected by flows of e...
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Several temperate tree species are expected to migrate northward and colonise boreal forests in response to climate change. Tree migrations could lead to transitions in forest types, but these could be influenced by several non‐climatic factors, such as disturbances and soil conditions. We analysed over 10,000 forest inventory plots, sampled from 1...
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Models incorporating seasonality are necessary to fully assess the impact of global warming on Arctic communities. Seasonal migrations are a key component of Arctic food webs that still elude current theories predicting a single community equilibrium. We develop a multi-season model of predator–prey dynamics using a hybrid dynamical systems framewo...
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A rich body of knowledge links biodiversity to ecosystem functioning (BEF), but it is primarily focused on small scales. We review the current theory and identify six expectations for scale dependence in the BEF relationship: (1) a nonlinear change in the slope of the BEF relationship with spatial scale; (2) a scale‐dependent relationship between e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecological networks are increasingly studied at large spatial scales, expanding their focus from a conceptual tool for community ecology into one that also adresses questions in biogeography and macroecology. This effort is supported by increased access to standardized information on ecological networks, in the form of openly accessible databases....
Article
Full-text available
Classical biomonitoring techniques have focused primarily on measures linked to various biodiversity metrics and indicator species. Next-generation biomonitoring (NGB) describes a suite of tools and approaches that allow the examination of a broader spectrum of organizational levels—from genes to entire ecosystems. Here, we frame 10 key questions t...
Poster
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Global changes are creating intricate stress exposure regimes that induce unpredictable environmental effects permeating entire ecological communities by way of species interactions. The role of species and their interactions in mediating the effects of multiple disturbances on food webs remains understudied. Experimental and in situ approaches pro...
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The grand ambition of theorists studying ecology and evolution is to discover the logical and mathematical rules driving the world's biodiversity at every level from genetic diversity within species to differences between populations, communities, and ecosystems. This ambition has been difficult to realize in great part because of the complexity of...
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1.Temperate tree species are expected to expand their distribution into the boreal forest in response to climate change. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that many species will experience significant setbacks in capacity to migrate due to a series of unfavourable conditions impacting their recruitment success, and thus their ability to co...