Dolf Zillmann's research while affiliated with University of Alabama and other places

Publications (158)

Chapter
This chapter gives a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the effects that exposure to or enactment of violence in mainstream media has on aggressive behavior, emotions, and empathy. In line with contemporary technological developments, the authors also cover the more and more widespread consumption of violent video games, which put the player...
Article
This study used an experimental news report about confrontational robberies by adolescent groups in Mexican resorts that presented statistics with or without personalized cases of victimization. Study participants estimated the risk of harm to victims and the extent of their suffering. They also indicated their own risk and concern for their own sa...
Article
While it is important for journalists to put a human face on a story to highlight an issue, an experiment shows that newspaper readers get a more accurate quantitative picture when stories use explicit base-rate data rather than the use of human examples.
Article
Lectures were delivered in two versions: one containing rhetorical question-and-answer sequences and the other with identical content but without the questions. The presence of rhetorical questions significantly enhanced the learning and recall of the facts presented in the lectures when artificially high levels of attention were counteracted by di...
Article
After exposure to statistical information and/or samplings of exemplifying cases in a news report on health risks, quantitative impressions and associated affective dispositions were examined in persons differing in arithmetic competence. Whereas the variation of such competence was without appreciable effect on incidence estimates, it markedly inf...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Converging evidence from diverse cultures indicates that sexually explicit media-use (SEMU; i.e., pornography consumption) is associated with health-risky sexual behaviors (e.g., greater likelihood of having multiple sexual partners, having sex more frequently, engaging in anal sex, and less frequent condom use) among adolescents and em...
Article
A test of arithmetic aptitude was developed and validated. The consequences of individual differences in this aspect of quantitative literacy were then determined for attention to, and dependent recall of, numeric quantities embedded in printed news reports. It was found that persons of high arithmetic aptitude recalled frequencies and ratios more...
Article
Bored versus stressed subjects were provided with opportunities to watch television. Bored subjects more frequently selected exciting than relaxing programs, while stressed subjects selected similar quantities of each program type.
Article
Researchers tested various ways of presenting numerical information in news stories and how math aptitude affects recall, if at all. The study suggests that both the audience and journalists need to be better prepared to deal with numbers.
Chapter
Das Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Forschung zum jugendlichen Musikkonsum, zur Bedeutung der populären Musik im Jugendalter und zum Zusam-menhang von Emotionen, emotionaler Entwicklung und Musik. Die Stimmungs-regulationstheorie wird als forschungsleitendes Modell vorgestellt und in ihrer Anwendung auf Fragestellungen zur Medienwahl allgemei...
Article
In a three-factor design varying the aggressive-behavior subtraits of physical aggression (low, high) and hostility (low, high) with exposure to film content (innocuous, violent imagery), respondents were exposed to film segments and thereafter engaged in a teaching task that involved the administration of noxious feedback for unproductive efforts...
Article
After explicating essentials of exemplification theory, research demonstrations of the effects of exemplar presentations on the formation and modification of beliefs about safety and health, as well as on the consequences of these beliefs for self-protective behavior, are summarized. Affective reactivity connected with exemplifications, especially...
Article
Male and female students and nonstudents were exposed to videotapes featuring common, nonviolent pornography or innocuous content. Exposure was in hourly sessions in six consecutive weeks. In the seventh week, subjects participated in an ostensibly unrelated study on societal institutions and personal gratifications. On an especially constructed qu...
Article
Male and female undergraduates interacted with a same-sex experimenter and a same-sex assistant of the experimenter. Either the experimenter or the assistant smoked. Subjects were provoked or not provoked by the experimenter and then smoked. Subjects were provoked or not provided by the experimenter and then provided with an opportunity to treat hi...
Article
Male and female college undergraduates evaluated the character traits of men and women who were seen smoking cigars, smoking cigarettes, or not smoking. The evaluated adults were about 10 years older than the students. Irrespective of the evaluated persons' gender, ratings of appeal were specific to the gender of the evaluator. Men and women agreed...
Article
On 4 consecutive days, respondents were exposed to gratuitously violent or nonviolent intact feature films. They rated the entertainment value of these films. One day after exposure to the last film of the series, respondents participated in ostensibly unrelated research on emotion recognition. As they performed a test, they were neutrally or abusi...
Article
Subjects were placed into a negative, neutral, or positive affective state and then, ostensibly in a waiting period, provided with an opportunity to watch television. They were free to choose among situation comedy, game show, action drama, and not watching. Time of selective exposure was measured unobtrusively. Compared to other affect-conditions,...
Article
Full-text available
The three research articles on brain imaging that are published in this issue of Media Psychology represent a new approach to the study of media use and effects. In these projects, the research teams focused on identifying the patterns of brain activation in research participants who either viewed video stimuli while resting in a Magnetic Resonanc...
Article
Chinese, German, and U.S. American 4- to 6-year-old boys and girls were asked to select videos of children stories that they would most like to see. Choices were either between pairs of story videos presenting aggressive versus peaceful, nurturing content, with male or female sex of story protagonists held constant, or between pairs of videos featu...
Article
This study took popular music from the Top 30 charts and, in a pretest, evaluated its energy and joyfulness as musical qualities. The findings were used to create sets of musical selections that were either low or high in these qualities. In the experiment proper, respondents were placed in states of bad, neutral, or good moods and then, in an oste...
Article
. The investigation builds on and extends demonstrations in the U.S. that romantically disenchanted men and women are attracted to love-lamenting music. The current focus is on preferences of young German adults (n = 52). Ascertainment of respondents’ romantic situation was followed by a period in which they could listen to top-chart love songs, wi...
Article
Full-text available
With headlines and texts held constant, the subheads of articles embedded in an Internet newsmagazine were manipulated in an overview from which articles could be selected. In a control condition, the lead, indicating deplorable happenings,was framed in a factual manner.In the other conditions,the leads were framed either in terms of conflict betwe...
Article
The relationship between romantic satisfaction versus discontent and a preference for music celebrating versus lamenting love is explored. The satisfaction/discontent was ascertained in 60 college undergraduate women and men who later freely listened to music from a sampling of selections. The duration of their self-determined exposure to love-cele...
Article
Full-text available
After the assessment of various traits pertaining to adolescent rebelliousness, respondents were placed in a private situation that allowed them to listen to selections of an assortment of upbeat songs with either socially defiant or non-defiant messages. The songs were presented via computer. The computer's software unobtrusively recorded the dura...
Article
Full-text available
An Internet newsmagazine was created to ascertain effects of three dimensions of news salience—magnitude, likelihood, and immediacy of events—on selective news exposure. In an overview, leads of half the articles were manipulated along the salience dimensions (low vs. high). Remaining leads and all articles were held constant. While readers sampled...
Article
Full-text available
An Internet newsmagazine was created, involving all features of online interactivity. The text of all available reports was held constant. The imagery of a subset of articles was manipulated, however. The manipulated articles were presented either without images, with text-related innocuous images, or with text-related threatening images in both th...
Article
The influence of attributing corrective information to different spokespersons in the wake of company-negative accusations was investigated experimentally. In particular, the research pitted a company's own public relations sources against sources working for a firm hired by the maligned organization and sources employed by agencies investigating n...
Article
A medical news report was manipulated to project either Alabama or Texas as the target region for the outbreak of a new (fictitious) disease. Residents of Alabama and Texas responded to these reports, making the report of the threat to their respe ctive territories relevant to them, while rendering the report of the threat to other regions of the c...
Article
Respondents examined an experimental news magazine composed of manipulated and unmanipulated articles about relevant social issues. The manipulated articles either featured no photograph, an innocuous photograph, or a photograph depicting others' impending or manifest victimization. Respondents were free to read whatever they deemed of interest. Ti...
Article
This exposé examines how people react to nonfiction narratives about the fortunes of individuals and groups that manifest the public cast of characters in the daily news. In contrast to prevalent presumptions of response uniformity, a diversity of emotional reactions to themes commonly categorized as bad or good news is projected. It is proposed an...
Article
Because consensually accepted programs of sexual education are lacking, erotica have come to serve as the primary agent of sexual socialization. The new media technology gives prepubertal children and postpubertal adolescents ready access to erotica in all their manifestations. However, next to nothing is known about the consequences of the steadil...
Article
A news report on an Appalachian tick disease was differently illustrated. It either contained no images, an image of ticks, or this tick image plus three child victims. The victims were ethnically balanced (two White, one Black) or not (either all White or all Black). The text did not make any reference to the victims' ethnicity. Respondents assess...
Article
Zusammenfassung: Lebensstilorientierungen und asthetische Praferenzen gelten als soziale Indikatoren in einer modernen, differenzierten Gesellschaft. Auch fur die konkrete Eindrucksbildung mittels Stereotypen konnten solche Informationen relevant sein und die Attraktivitat einer Person fur eine soziale Beziehung beeinflussen. Diese Untersuchung bef...
Article
In this chapter, the hedonistic premise of mood-management theory is examined and expanded to account for seemingly nonhedonistic choices of media content. Counterhedonistic message selection is considered in the context of selective-exposure theory. Informational utility is invoked as a choice-driving force that complements content selection. The...
Chapter
Thema dieses Beitrags sind die Reaktionen von Rezipienten auf Nachrichtenmeldungen. Dabei interessiert vor allem die Vielfalt emotionaler Reaktionen auf zwei Kategorien von Meldungen: gute und schlechte Nachrichten. Diese Vielfalt wird erklärt durch die Abhängigkeit der Reaktionen von affektiven Dispositionen gegenüber Individuen und Gruppen. Die z...
Article
Respondents were exposed to a series of talk‐show programs (all from the Oprah Winfrey Show) on crime and alternative issues and later, in a purportedly unrelated study, asked to make punitive recommendations for offenders convicted of various nonviolent and violent crimes. The programs differed in that (a) two featured criminal cases in which the...
Article
The influence of photographs in news-magazine reports was investigated in two related studies. One report addressed the economics of farming and focused on the growing gap between poor and rich farmers. The other report examined safety at amusement parks. The reports featured either no photograph, a photograph exemplifying one side of the issue (po...
Article
Exemplification is a ubiquitous phenomenon in communication. It permeates informative, educational and persuasive endeavors in both interpersonal exchanges and media presentations. Despite this, it has received little attention in communication research. Although its empirical exploration has begun and shown considerable promise, especially in the...
Article
Affective dispositions toward public persons and groups were ascertained and related to enjoyment reactions to news reports featuring these parties as recipients of bad or good fortune. Consistent with predictions derived from drama theory, favorable dispositions heightened enjoyment reactions to good‐fortune reports, and they suppressed such react...
Article
Two sides of an issue were presented and exemplified with testimonials in a magazine-style news report. Testimony featured the interviewees' positions in citation or paraphrase. All combinations of citation-paraphrase were created and analyzed in factorial designs; i.e., position A (cited, paraphrased) was crossvaried with position B (cited, paraph...
Article
Does spectator gender exert an appreciable influence on the enjoyment of sports? Are men generally more intrigued with athletic competition, or might there be a gender gap in enjoyment that is specific to particular sports? The findings of the present investigation show that male and female spectators enjoy distinctly different types of sports. Mal...
Article
Within a prolonged-exposure, delayed-measurement paradigm, respondents consumed films that featured no violence, old-style violence, gratuitous violence, or horror. Both male and female respondents had been classified as low vs high in psychoticism weeks prior to consumption. Delayed measures were: (1) the acceptance of violence as a means of confl...
Article
Students watched live broadcasts of eight games of the 1995 NCAA men's basketball tournament. They reported their enjoyment of second-half play, which was either extremely, substantially, moderately, or minimally suspenseful (as defined by point separations of 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15 or more, respectively, during the second half of games). Men's en...
Article
Respondents were exposed to humorous episodes devoid of disgust, involving some degree of disgust, or involving highly disgusting events. Highly disgust-sensitive respondents were less amused by the humorous material, taken together, than were their less squeamish counterparts. In contrast, highly rebellious respondents tended to be more amused by...
Article
Two broadcast news stories were manipulated to show victimization (food poisoning, handgun violence) in one of three versions: without victim exemplification, with exemplification by unemotional victims, and with exemplification by highly emotional victims. Male and female respondents, whose empathic sensitivity had been predetermined, recorded the...
Article
This study was conducted to examine the pain-ameliorating and pain-sensitizing effects of exposure to emotionally engaging drama. Specifically, the consequences for pain sensitivity of exposure to dramatic expositions differing in both excitatory and hedonic qualities were determined. Hedonically negative, neutral, and positive affective states wer...
Article
A news report on the plight of a minority of American family farmers was manipulated to create versions differing in the degree of precision of general information (precise, imprecise) and in the use of exemplifying case histories (selective, blended, representative). Selective exemplification featured only histories of failing farms, representativ...
Article
Full-text available
Scores on five personality characteristics, extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism as well as reactive and proactive rebelliousness, and the appreciation of soft/nonrebellious and hard/rebellious rock-music videotapes were explored. After completing the personality tests, female and male undergraduates were exposed to rock-music videotapes and...
Article
An experiment was conducted to assess news viewer reactions to broadcast news coverage of the Hebron massacre. In four experimental conditions, a factual description of the event was followed by interviews with Jews who either (1) condoned, even glorified, the carnage, (2) deplored and condemned it, or (3) both condoned and condemned it. Interview...
Article
This study explored how people perceive the intelligence of a source in relationship to the style of English used. Male and female research participants read a newspaper article that cited a private or public, male or female source on a political issue. Citations were (a) in correct English, (b) in regional dialect, or (c) in incorrect, flawed Engl...
Article
African-American and White high-school students were exposed to a series of music videos featuring (a) popular rock, (b) nonpolitical rap, or (c) radical political rap. They recorded their enjoyment after exposure. In a purportedly unrelated subsequent study, the students, after assessment of their self-esteem, took part in a mock student-governmen...
Article
The present investigation explores the enjoyment of cinematic tragedy. In particular, it examines the seemingly paradoxical relationship between the intensity of empathic distress during exposure, on the one hand, and the magnitude of enjoyment following exposure to the entire drama, on the other. In a quasi-experimental design, trait empathy (low,...
Article
The popular notion of identification with characters in drama is examined, and its usefulness in explaining emotional reactivity to drama is questioned. The concept of empathy is developed as an alternative, and its usefulness is demonstrated. Empathy theory is reviewed, and selected supportive findings are presented. Reflexive, acquired, and delib...
Article
Female respondents were given the opportunity to choose feature films for viewing. Choices were made on the basis of synopses and promotional videos. These materials projected (i) a focus on erotic, sexual events, (ii) romantic themes, (iii) action-packed violent drama, and (iv) hilarious comedy. Additionally, respondents evaluated the appeal of th...
Article
Respondents were placed into a bad or good mood and then provided with reading choices. They chose magazine articles that featured either bad or good news. In agreement with theoretical expectations, women in a bad mood were drawn to good news, sampling significantly more of it than women in a good mood. Men did not show this preference, however. G...
Article
Full-text available
Following exposure to comedy, tragedy, or control stimuli, respondents took the cold pressor test. Men, but not women (ns = 36), tolerated icy water for longer periods of time after comedy and tragedy than after control stimuli.
Article
A sports reporter's perceived competence and actual persuasiveness were examined as a function of reporter's gender, audience member's gender, athletes' gender, and communication medium. Two different sports commentaries were created, concerning men's basketball and women's gymnastics. One of the two commentaries was presented to each respondent, e...
Chapter
There has been sufficient discussion of the new communication technology’s capacity to transmit information with ever-increasing fidelity. Transmission concerns language in both spoken and written form as well as, and more significantly, image and sound sequences that represent the audio-visual world as it is and as it can be imagined. I shall not...
Article
This study examines the effects of upbeat news items on the assessment of the severity of the issues presented in hard‐news reports. The experimental newscast ended either without an additional item, with a human‐interest story, or with a humorous story. Respondents rated the severity of the issues addressed and the extent to which the issues might...
Article
Respondents presented with news reports containing one-sided direct personal testimony challenging the safety of amusement parks perceived the overall safety of such parks to be less adequate than respondents given the same information in indirect testimony or those presented with no testimony at all. This effect emerged only for print reports, not...
Article
Investigated whether variations in perspective, determined by camera distance from represented persons, are capable of affecting the perception and evaluation of the persons portrayed. 153 undergraduates viewed camera portraits of men and women that were manipulated in terms of perspective and camera angle. During the presentations, Ss assigned per...
Article
The mediation of superior coping with physical discomfort after humorous stimulation was explored through respondents' exposure to materials varying markedly in their capacity to evoke amusement and joviality. Both male and female respondents were exposed to (a) stand-up comedy, (b) situation comedy, (c) serious drama, (d) instructional material, o...
Article
This study examined the memorial impact of describing a motion picture as based upon actual historical events or as purely fictional. Two weeks after viewing a film, respondents who had been told a film was based upon history remembered more than did those who had been told it was fictional.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies examined the effect of game outcome on sports fans' estimates of the team's as well as their own future performance. Consistent with social identity theory, it was expected that Ss for whom fanship was an important identity would respond to team success and failure as personal success and failure. Ss watched a live basketball game; then...
Article
Affective reactions to a football game were expected and found to influence the perception of a threatening event outside of sports. The outlook of fans distressed about their team's defeat proved to be more pessimistic than that of fans exuberant about their team's victory. In December 1990, distraught fans deemed a feared war with Iraq significan...
Article
Trait rebelliousness and enjoyment of defiant or nondefiant rock music videos were assessed in male and female high school students. Data were analyzed in a 2 X 2 X 2 mixed-measures design, with subject rebelliousness (low, high) and gender as independent-measures factors and defiance expressed in rock music (absent, present) as a repeated-measures...
Article
The hedonic quality of preceding news stories (negative, neutral, positive) was factorially varied with the hedonic quality of subsequent news stories (negative, neutral, positive). In a first experiment, affective reactions to the two contiguously placed stories were ascertained after exposure to the subsequent story. In a second experiment withou...
Article
Responses to graphic horror films have been shown to be modified by a number of personality variables, and in particular, by gender-specific rules for social conduct. In earlier horror research it has been assumed that gender-specific responses are largely determined by biological gender. More recent research has focused on psychological patterns o...
Article
Male and female college undergraduates estimated numerous behavioral traits and evaluated the desirability of a potential heterosexual date. Following videodating conventions, the date provided information about her-or himself in a videotaped presentation. This presentation was manipulated. With other revelations about self held constant, the date...
Article
Rationales for using humor in classroom teaching and normative patterns of teachers' humor usage are presented. Several questions are addressed using pertinent research findings as evidence: Does teaching with humor enhance students' attention? Does using humor improve the classroom environment and make learning more enjoyable? Does using humor in...
Article
Teaching via television is contrasted with classroom teaching, and the unique objectives to be served by educational television programs for children are elaborated. Pertinent research findings are reviewed concerning (a) the attraction of audiences in a competitive media environment, (b) post-choice attention to educational programs, (c) acquisiti...
Article
Male and female students and nonstudents were exposed to videotapes featuring common, nonviolent pornography or innocuous content. Exposure was in hourly sessions in six consecutive weeks. In the seventh week, subjects participated in an ostensibly unrelated study on societal institutions and personal gratifications. Marriage, cohabitational relati...
Article
Fourth- and eighth-grade male and female students were exposed to an educational television program that contained (a) distortion-free humor, (b) exaggeration (compatible distortion), (c) irony (incompatible distortion), or (d) ironic humor followed by a correction of the humorous distortion (incompatible, corrected). Information acquisition and fu...
Article
Male and female undergraduates judged a randomized sequence of humorous jokes and cartoons representing three humor types: sexual, hostile, and nonsense. Within sexual and hostile humor, the disparagement of males and females was balanced. Male subjects rated sexual humor funnier than did females; there was a parallel tendency for hostile humor. No...
Article
Explores interdependencies between cognitive and excitatory processes that concur during experiences of acute anger and the performance of aggressive actions and develops the implications of these interdependencies for anger and aggression. The influence of cognitive processes on the time course of excitatory activity, on anger, and on aggressive b...
Article
This paper explores interdependences between cognitive and excitatory processes that concur during experiences of acute anger and the performance of aggressive actions, and it develops the implications of these interdependencies for anger and aggression. Specifically, the influence of cognitive processes on the time course of excitatory activity (m...
Article
Sexual and/or violent images or both were added to the visual portion of a rock-music video whose original visuals were both nonsexual and nonviolent. The music was used in a control condition. Enjoyment of the rock music was markedly influenced by particular visual embellishments. The involvement of sexual stimuli intensified music appreciation in...
Article
Male and female students and nonstudents were exposed to one hour of common, nonviolent pornography or to sexually and aggressively innocuous materials in each of six consecutive weeks. Two weeks after this treatment, they were provided with an opportunity to watch videotapes in a private situation. G-rated, R-rated, and X-rated programs were avail...
Article
We exposed male and female undergraduates to a horror movie in the presence of a same-age, opposite-gender companion of low or high initial appeal who expressed mastery, affective indifference, or distress. Measures were obtained for the subjects' affective reactions to the movie, the companion's physical appeal, the companion's personality traits,...
Article
Compares the affective reactions of nonretarded second- and third-grade children to those of mildly retarded children to a videotape in which a protagonist's initial behavior (good, bad) was factorially varied with the emotion he experienced in the concluding incident (happy, sad). (HOD)
Article
Male subjects were placed into one of three intoxication conditions (no ethanol, low dose, high dose) and were exposed to humorous segments from television programs. During manifest intoxication or the corresponding period in the no-intoxication control condition, they were exposed, in a balanced order, to a segment containing blunt (i.e., unsophis...
Chapter
The findings of research on the effects of massive exposure to sexually explicit films are discussed in this chapter. First, a two-component model of erotica effects on motivated aggressive behavior is presented and applied to available research data. Second, the model is expanded to incorporate changes in the response to erotica that result from r...
Article
Kindergarten/first-grade and fourth-grade male and female students were exposed to an educational television program that entailed (a) distortion-free humor, (b) humor that compatibly distorted educational information (exaggeration), (c) humor that incompatibly distorted it (irony), and (d) humor that distorted it incompatibly followed by the corre...
Article
Male undergraduates were exposed to (a) nature scenes or (b) beautiful versus (c) unattractive females in sexually enticing situations. Thereafter, they assessed their girl friends’ sexual appeal and evaluated their satisfaction with their mates. On pictorial measures of bodily appeal profiles of flat through hypervoluptuous breast and buttock, pre...

Citations

... The term lunatic comes from the word lunar meaning moon. Culturally there have been references that depict relationship between phases of moon on human beings with reference to aggression and sexuality [6]. Several references have been associated moon with romanticism or sexuality. ...
... Drawing on several theoretical perspectives from the field of psychology (La Fave, Haddad, & Maesen, 1996;Zillmann &Cantor, 1996), Wanzer, Frymier, andIrwim (2010) developed a theory adapted to the educational context (instructional humor processing theory) that attempts to explain the complex processes that are involved in the relationship between teacher humor and student learning. This theory allows us to examine and better interpret how teacher humor is processed and perceived by the students. ...
... Precious little is known about desires for and interests in base-rate information given its oft-considered "pallid" appeal (Aust & Zillmann, 1996;Callison, Gibson, & Zillmann, 2012;Zillmann, Gibson, Sundar, & Perkins, 1996), yet this study introduces a counterintuitive finding in that presentation of base-rate information is increasing, serving as the foundation for future research investigating the phenomenon. Thus, while prior research suggests that sport fans, FSUs, and gamblers may be more interested in relevant statistics, research is lacking to empirically identify individual differences in consumption habits of such base-rate information by these audience groups. ...
... Mass media is responsible for the degree to which societies are currently exposed to conflict-related information capable of eliciting negative emotions (Elbaz & Bar-Tal, 2016). The delivery of violent content has been a topic of special relevance, considering the debates regarding its political role (e.g., influencing public opinion -Elbaz & Bar-Tal, 2016), and the effects of overexposing the population to this type of information (e.g., increasing hostility in the audience- Anderson & Bushman, 2002;Arriaga, Zillmann, & Esteves, 2016;Fernández, Revilla, & Dominguez, 2011;Huesmann, 2007;López-López & Sabucedo, 2007;Phillips, 1983;Zillman & Weaver, 1999; increasing aggressive behavior-Bushman, 1995; increasing moral sensibility and rejection of violent perpetrators- Grizzard et al., 2017; and decreasing inhibition of violent responses and producing habituation to violence- Huesmann, 2007;Wood, Wong, & Chachere, 1991). ...
... The researchers then asked the students to participate in a mock student government "election" with Black and white liberal or neutral "candidates." Those who watched the political rap music videos offered higher than expected support for the Black liberal "candidate," with the researchers arguing that some of these high school students may feel some "guilt from decades of White domination" (Zillman et al., 1995, p. 23) and recognize a need for racial harmony, while rejecting the violent and retaliatory acts suggested by some rap groups, such as Public Enemy (Zillman et al., 1995). ...
... Mass communication scholars likewise started factoring technological aspects into their study of content uses and effects (e.g., Salvaggio & Bryant, 1989). Some media effects scholars, like Zillmann (1994), wondered whether advancements in communication technology MEDIA EFFECTS 2.0 ...
... Perhaps of greater importance is the pattern of findings demonstrated through the model tested here, as selective exposure to base-rate information alone did not account for the subsequent memory effects. First, these findings demonstrate the benefit of directly assessing message consumption to reveal the increased scrutiny of base-rate information as a function of individual characteristics that was assumed or suggested in past exemplification research (e.g., Callison et al., 2009;Zillmann et al., 2009). Second, mere scrutiny of the information via selective exposure did not explain the improved recall demonstrated here. ...
... Başka bir çalışmada, Taruffi ve Koelsch (2013) duygusal sıkıntı, rahatlama ihtiyacı, sosyal etkenler ve hatıralar gibi nedenlerin özellikle hüzünlü müzik dinleme ediminde en belirleyici etkenler olduğunu saptamıştır. Dolayısıyla yansıtma eğilimi yüksek olan kişilerin hüzünlü müzikler dinleyerek duygu durumda genel bir iyileşme sağladıklarını gösteren belirli çalışmalar, hüzünlü anlarda tercih edilen hüzünlü müziklerin aynı zamanda pozitif etkiler yarattığını ima etmektedir (Erdal, 2015;Gibson, Aust ve Zillmann, 2000;Kawakami, Furukawa, Katahira ve Okanoya, 2013;Lamont, 2011;Trapnell ve Campbell, 1999;Vuoskoski ve ark., 2012). Diğer yandan Garrido ve Schubert (2015) ruminasyon (bazen olumlu, genellikle olumsuz ve kötümser düşünceler üzerinde istemsiz odaklanma) seviyesi yüksek bireylerle, depresyon ve anksiyete seviyesi düşük bireylerin hüzünlü bir müziği dinledikten sonra duygu durumlarının değişip değişmediğini incelemiştir. ...
... he base-rate information (Gibson & Zillmann, 1998). Other early exemplification study showed that emotionally intense contained in one exemplar had proven caused a lasting impact on one's beliefs and cognitive memory than less intense emotional or non-emotional contained exemplars, and that of its impact could grow with time (Aust & Zillmann, 1996;D. , Zillmann & Gan, 1996). ...
... Among the factors that shape dispositions toward characters in drama-from physical attractiveness (Tuzunkan, 2007) to perceived character similarity (Tsay & Krakowiak, 2011)-moral judgment of the character is one of the most important determinants (Wilson, Cantor, Gordon, & Zillmann, 1986;Zillmann, 2000;. The disposition-theory framework stipulates that viewers evaluate the morality of a character's actions and adjust their opinion of the character accordingly (for review, see Zillmann, 2000; see also Raney, 2004). ...