Didier Ruedin's research while affiliated with University of the Witwatersrand and other places

Publications (63)

Article
Persistent hiring discrimination as demonstrated by correspondence experiments incites immigrant job candidates and their descendants to modify their résumé to hide their immigrant status, that is, résumé whitening. To date, we have little to no empirical evidence on how common this is in practice. We test the extent of résumé whitening with a repr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Understand the COVID-19-related health literacy of socioeconomically vulnerable migrant groups. Methods: We conducted a survey available in 8 languages among 2,354 members of the target population in Switzerland in 2020. We measured health literacy in four dimensions (finding, understanding, evaluating and applying health information) an...
Article
With the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, the situation of Black people in many Western countries has come under closer scrutiny and ethnic discrimination has been brought to the forefront. Little is known about hiring discrimination against Blacks in many European countries. In a correspondence test in the Swiss labour market, we s...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the politicisation of immigration in Switzerland during two major socioeconomic crises: the oil crisis of the 1970s and the financial crisis of the late 2000s. Based on 2,853 newspaper claims from 1970 to 1976 and 1995 to 2018, we measure and compare differences in salience, polarisation, actor diversity and frame use betw...
Article
Full-text available
This thematic issue examines questions of decision-making under limited (and contradictory) information, focusing on migration decisions. Migrants are far from a homogenous population, but they commonly use narratives as heuristics. We observe much agency among migrants to pursue migration plans, with migration decisions best understood as chains o...
Article
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This research note introduces a new global dataset, the Citizenship, Migration and Mobility in a Pandemic (CMMP). The dataset features systematic information on border closures and domestic lockdowns in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in 211 countries and territories worldwide from 1 March to 1 June 2020. It documents the evolution of the types a...
Article
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This article looks at the immigration profile of the Austrian centre right. It examines whether the Austrian People’s Party (ÖVP) can be considered an anti-immigrant party by systematically analysing the party’s electoral manifestos from 1994 to 2019. From previously more ambiguous positions, the article identifies an amplification of restrictive p...
Preprint
Over the past two decades populist radical right parties have become established political actors in many European countries. We examine to what extent the share of immigrants in a neighbourhood is associated with popular support for the Dutch Freedom Party (PVV). We examine individual-level changes in sympathy for the PVV using panel data, complem...
Article
This article provides estimates of different kinds of contemporary migration trajectories, highlighting multiple or repeated migrations. Using sequence analysis on linked longitudinal register data, we identify different migration trajectories for three cohorts (1998, 2003, and 2008) of 315,000 immigrants in Switzerland. Multinomial regression anal...
Article
Full-text available
Across Europe some individuals observe immigration with unease and feel threatened by immigrants. Most relevant surveys ask about ‘immigrants’ in the generic sense, but some differentiate between specific immigrant groups. This article uses 24 questions on potential neighbours to systematically vary the characteristics of immigrants in a representa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Die vorliegende Studie identifiziert wissenschaftliche Literatur zu Migration, Integration und Rückkehr und fasst diese so zusammen, dass Forschungsresultate zu den verschiedenen Themenbereichen konzentriert dar-gestellt werden können. Es wurde auch sogenannte «graue Literatur» berücksichtigt: Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten, die zwar nicht in Fachzeits...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Le rapport montre que les migrants quittent leur pays d’origine pour les raisons les plus diverses. L’offre de mesures d’intégration telles que les cours de langue ou les mesures de qualification n’ont, selon les travaux consultés, aucune influence mesurable sur la décision d’émigrer dans un pays donné, ce constat étant valable tant pour la migrati...
Article
To what extent do political parties in South Africa politicise immigration? We systematically analyse the party manifestos of all major parties in post-apartheid South Africa, using two separate approaches of content analysis: coding all sentences about immigration individually, and coding the electoral manifesto overall using a ‘checklist’. Althou...
Article
We examine the relationship between attitudes to foreigners and the share of foreigners at the occupational level. Using a question on equal opportunities for foreigners from the Swiss Household Panel, ordered probit regression models show a negative association between the share of foreigners in one’s occupation and positive attitudes to foreigner...
Chapter
In this chapter, we seek to shed light on the mechanisms of perceived discrimination: Who, among recent immigrants, is more likely to feel discriminated against and report it when asked in a survey? Social scientists typically define discrimination as an observable and unjust difference in the treatment of distinct groups. To personally feel discri...
Article
Full-text available
Immigration is often perceived as a political topic that overlaps traditional ideological cleavages. Much research has focused on the positions of the extreme right, and little research has examined mainstream parties and their public stances on immigration. This shortcoming hampers broader understanding of political competition on this issue. Draw...
Preprint
Objective: Trace and characterize anti-deportation protests in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland between 1993 and 2013. Methods: Systematic analysis of media reports of anti-deportation protests. We manually coded 6419 article about 986 protest events. Results: The frequency of anti-deportation protest has increased in Austria and Germany, but not...
Chapter
Full-text available
To identify long-term patterns of anti-deportation mobilization this chapter uses a social movement-inspired, systematic analysis of news reports of anti-deportation protest events in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland (1993–2013). Articles were manually coded, and changes over time and differences across countries were examined using descriptive st...
Article
We assess who among migrants is likely to choose unauthorized migration. While the literature has addressed reasons for unauthorized migration, we are the first to model individual choice of actual unauthorized migration. By using data from Albanian return migrants, we can ascertain that we capture actual migration – behaviour – rather than intenti...
Article
Why do immigrants vote less in local elections when they have the right to vote? I present a new representative survey on participation in the 2015 municipal elections in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, and predict electoral participation with logistic regression models. Most immigrant groups vote less than the majority population. Four explanat...
Article
While many countries across the world face increasing numbers of immigrants, the literature on attitudes to foreigners and immigrants focuses on Western countries. This article tests broad insights from Western countries in a specific non-Western context – South Africa, a country marked by sporadic violence against some immigrant groups. This provi...
Article
We examine how proportional changes in residential context are associated with changes in attitudes towards immigrants. We specifically examine ethnic diversity dynamics and immigrant visibility at the level of the neighbourhood. Following the ‘defended neighbourhood’ hypothesis, we focus on proportional change, not absolute numbers. Data from the...
Article
We provide a systematic assessment of various methods to position political parties on immigration, a policy domain that does not necessarily overlap with left–right and is characterized by varying salience and issue complexity. Manual and automated coding methods drawing on 283 party manifestos are compared – manual sentence-by-sentence coding usi...
Article
Previous research has examined the various ways individuals and organizations react to immigration. This article explores how immigrants and their integration are debated across citizenship regimes, with a focus on ‘voiceless’ groups without formal franchise and a precarious residence status: asylum seekers, refugees, and irregular immigrants. A ye...
Article
Under which circumstances do politicians differentiate among immigrants? When they do, why do they in some countries focus on Muslim immigrants rather than national or other groups? We use claims-making analysis to capture how immigrant groups are differentiated in seven Western European countries. As explanations for variation in claims-making abo...
Article
For almost 50 years field experiments have been used to study ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring decisions, consistently reporting high rates of discrimination against minority applicants – including immigrants – irrespective of time, location, or minority groups tested. While Peter A. Riach and Judith Rich [2002. “Field Experiments of Disc...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster Presentation at the Conference on Discrimination and Labour Market Research, 25-26 August 2015, Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, Kalmar (Sweden)
Technical Report
This paper examines the relationship between Swiss attitudes toward equal opportunities for foreigners and the ethnic concentration at the occupational level. Using data from the Swiss Household Panel, ordered probit regressions with standard controls provide the following results: (a) there is a negative association between the share of foreigners...
Article
Immigration has become systematically politicized and opposed by many individuals. We examine individual attitudes toward equal opportunities for foreigners and Swiss citizens, using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Household Panel. Individuals with low levels of education tend to oppose foreigners, while the opposition by individuals with high...
Article
Objective Researchers often reuse existing data and indices even in cases where theory demands different measures. Here, I argue that with little additional effort, it is possible to increase the validity of research by recombining individual indicators of existing indices.Methods This approach is demonstrated by using data from the widely used Mig...
Article
Why are migration policies sometimes heavily contested and high on the political agenda? And why do they, at other moments and in other countries, hardly lead to much public debate? The entrance and settlement of migrants in Western Europe has prompted various political reactions. In some countries anti-immigration parties have gained substantial p...
Article
The existence of a gap between public preferences for more restrictive immigration policies and relatively expansive immigration policy in Western democracies has received considerable attention. Sometimes, this gap has been explained by the nature of immigration policies: dominated by elites while the public remained uninterested. In many countrie...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction: Many aspects of health differ significantly between men and women, including mental health where there are pronounced differences. Women are more likely than men to seek treatment for psychological problems and depression. Main Body: In the literature, two broad explanations are offered for these gender differences. On the one hand,...
Article
The regulation of immigration and how immigrants are treated once they settle in a country are fundamental aspects of national policy. Existing descriptions of the developments of immigration and integration policy have either provided a limited snapshot, or relied on the author's subjective assessment of how policies developed over time. In this r...
Article
Automatic approaches to coding party manifestos and other political texts have become more widespread. This research note addresses the question to what extent the source language of a text affects the results. To do so, Swiss manifestos in German and French are coded automatically, comparing a keyword-based dictionary approach and Wordscores. Beca...
Article
The position of political parties on policy issues is crucial for many questions of political science, including studies of political representation. This research note examines different methods for obtaining party positions on immigration in retrospective. Party positions are obtained using pooled expert surveys, manual coding of party manifestos...
Book
Full-text available
The field of mobility studies examines social phenomena through the lens of movement. In this perspective, societies are regarded as being constantly reconfigured as they are shaped by a series of mobile entities (capital, people, information). This book engages critically with many of the claims and challenges of mobility studies by providing emp...
Article
Over the past three decades, immigration has become systematically politicized by parties on the right, and opposed by many individuals in society. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in the opposition to immigration among the population. Economic arguments highlight the competition between native workers and immigrants ove...
Article
Wordscores is a method to predict (for example) party positions from text. Most commonly, this is done in Stata, but it can be done using free software (R, Austin, JFreq). This paper provides a step by step guide for running Wordscores in R. For the interpretation of the results and methodological aspects of Wordscores, the reader is referred to ot...
Article
Of the various immigrant and minority groups in Western Europe, Muslims are frequently singled out for their alleged cultural distance and lack of interest to participate in social and political life. Mutual distrust between Islamic organizations and political actors seems to be rising. This paper is interested in patterns of discursive interaction...
Article
This paper presents a new conceptualization and measure of political representation to complement conventional approaches. Individual representation scores place the individual rather than the legislature at the centre, providing a fresh perspective on the relationship between inequality and representation. They are calculated by comparing first th...
Article
This working paper describes the legal and policy situation of immigrants in Switzerland 1995 to 2010. It makes use of the MIPEX indicators, and expands these backward in time to explore developments over time. The following policy areas are covered: labour market mobility, family reunion, education, political participation, long-term residence, ac...
Article
Women’s representation in national parliaments is examined using a large cross-national sample. Initially, the article seems to confirm previous findings that the electoral formula and quotas are good predictors for the proportion of women in parliament. In line with some recent contributions, this article finds that the proportion of women in parl...
Article
This working paper describes the immigrant population in Switzerland 1990 to 2009. It contains information about the numbers of immigrants entering and settling and the backgrounds of immigrants, such as countries of origin, religious backgrounds, gender and education.
Article
This working paper describes how we capture political opportunity structures (POS) in the project SOM. The table of indicators was used for data collection.
Article
Recent decades saw increasing levels of immigration to European countries. This has lead to a more diverse population in Europe, and often this increased diversity is seen as a challenge to social cohesion. At the beginning of the 21st century, the political rhetoric has become harsher, with immigration, Islam, and security increasingly mentioned i...
Article
This paper examines the reliability of the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) as a scale. The MIPEX indicators are organized into several dimensions which are combined into six strands. The results of the reliability analysis suggest that overall, MIPEX is a reliable scale. Moreover, the individual strands are also reliable, although in most...
Article
This article examines the relationship between levels of gender representation and levels of ethnic group representation in national parliaments. Taagepera (1994) and Lijphart (1999) predicted that because of shared mechanisms and covariates levels of representation in the two forms should be positively correlated. Whilst this paper can identify a...
Article
This paper compares the levels of ethnic group representation in parliament in 95 democracies. The analyses are comparative in nature, breaking with the literature where single country studies are the norm. Considering both electoral and cultural variables, the results cast doubt on whether the role of the electoral system in shaping political repr...
Article
Despite its age, Milbrath's 1965 framework of political participation is still widely cited. A computer simulation is used to empirically test the framework for the first time. The parameter estimates from the simulation provide valid results, suggesting that the framework may be viable. The simulation is then used to explore the nature of politica...

Citations

... Periods of crisis and uncertainty provide highly attractive opportunity struc tures to foster the creation of master frames. Whenever a crisis arises, it usually entails the disintegration of norms and beliefs that have long been taken for granted in society (Rosenthal, t'Hart, & Charles, 1989; see also Bitschnau, Ader, Ruedin, & D'Amato, 2021), which encourages many people to raise their voices and engage in collective action. While this action is often rooted in the ramifications of the crisis on their lives, one must not forget that crises are always subject to social construction and interpretation. ...
... Socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with using fewer information sources overall, but a relatively higher share of respondents relied on social media and migrant media-although social media was not well trusted. With that, we found that socioeconomically vulnerable migrants were more exposed to "fake news" [see also [29,30]], which can be problematic in a context of information overload, especially as the pandemic developed and information from different countries may not have been reinforcing as countries developed different measures [31][32][33]. Our factual items identified a small but substantial minority of respondents holding erroneous views on COVID-19-related health questions, the share of which was higher among the subgroup of socioeconomically vulnerable migrants. ...
... Even during the general election campaign, new party leader Sebastian Kurz boosted his popularity mainly by undermining the FPÖ's ownership of immigration and migrant integration issues. Eventually, the ÖVP took a decisive shift to the right, fostering a convergence with the FPÖ on ideological and policy positions in the areas of asylum, immigration and migrant integration (Bodlos and Plescia 2018;Liebhart 2019;Heinisch, Werner, and Habersack 2020;Hadj Abdou and Ruedin 2021). Wodak (2018) notes a "normalization" of populist rhetoric that had entered the Christian-democratic mainstream. ...
... Meanwhile, it has been shown that mental images of immigrants vary across individuals, and people usually do not generalize their answers across different subcategories-for example, representing different origins-but rather tend to concentrate on specific subcategories (Blinder 2015). Even when a survey asks about various subcategories of immigrants, attitudes toward immigrant targets have often been analyzed jointly in academic research (Ford 2011;Ruedin 2020). The implicit assumption underlying such an approach is that the same theoretical mechanisms work in the cases of all immigrant groups. ...
... onward migration -> return migration ->onward migration 1.98 6 onward migration -> onward migration ->onward migration 1.20 7 onward migration -> return migration ->onward migration -> return migration migration. Visualising states instead of events facilitates the interpretation of results by more clearly distinguishing individuals based on the timing and order of successive migrations (Kraus, 2019;Zufferey et al., 2020). This representation also has the advantage of displaying the age at migration, which can be read on the x-axis. ...
... In answering this question, this article takes into account that the drivers of politicisation and the political outputs stemming from politicisation are strongly contingent on context (Carvalho and Ruedin 2018). As little is known about the immigration partisan space in which the parties of Quebec operate and their polarisation when it comes to immigration, this article studies provincial party manifestos since 1991, using a sentence-by-sentence codebook (Ruedin and Morales 2017;Ruedin 2019) and a multidimensional grid to map party positions on two axes (see Appendix C). First is an immigration policy axis, determined by a liberal-restrictive continuum, which considers immigration volume, origins, and types. ...
... With previous receipt of welfare benefits as a signal, we can observe more negative responses. At the same time, cultural distance is also associated with negative responses, in line with Turper et al. (2014) who noted that economic characteristics are important alongside non-economic or cultural ones (see also Pecoraro and Ruedin 2019;Polavieja 2016). Ford and Mellon (2019) report that the preference for highly skilled immigrants trumps cultural difference, but they do not go as far as some other recent contributions that seem to suggest that economic factors were largely irrelevant (e.g. ...
... As highlighted by Hans-Rudolph Wicker (2003), (sociological) research by Hoffman-Nowotny and other scholars before the 1980s was in concordance with and did not contradict the political problematic vision on "overforeignisation" (Überfremdung). The idea that immigrants are culturally "too different" to assimilate and that there are "too many" of them re-emerged in political discourse in the 1970s (Cattacin and Oris 2013;D'Amato and Ruedin 2018). In the following two decades sociologists started to clearly distance themselves from the political agenda that continued to draw on these ideas. ...
... Some authors pointed to the immigration dilemma by socialist and social democratic parties (Carvalho and Ruedin 2018;Odmalm and Super 2014a). On the one hand, left-wing parties traditionally advocate cosmopolitanism, solidarity and liberal sociocultural values, which triggers positive sentiment toward immigration. ...
... Whereas previous studies have shown that naturalisation boosts the political incorporation of immigrants (Hainmueller et al., 2015), the evidence regarding NCV rights remains scarcewhich we aim to address in this study. Despite increasing interest in the topic in recent years (Stutzer and Slotwinski, 2020;Kayran and Erdilmen, 2021), the precise political and electoral consequences of NCV rights have not been well-understood, with few notable exceptions (Ruedin, 2018;Engdahl et al., 2020;Ferwerda et al., 2020). Here, we expand the study of the impact of NCV rights on voter turnout beyond its effects on non-naturalised immigrants and concentrate on citizens. ...