Diana Franklin's research while affiliated with University of Chicago and other places

Publications (114)

Article
Quantum computers are at the forefront of computing; however, few people understand how they work and their capabilities. We present two versions of an interactive activity designed for high school students (ages 13 to 18) that introduce a core quantum concept—entanglement. The first version illustrates a simple connection between two particles, an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As advances in computational technologies are changing the fabric of society, computational thinking (CT) is increasingly seen as a fundamental skill that all students should learn. While the bulk of research on CT has focused on its integration into science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) content, there is a growing body of scholarship t...
Article
Given the importance of broadening participation in computer science classes, this paper investigates the use of participatory design as a means to develop a culturally relevant computer science curriculum. The Scratch Encore curriculum is designed for 5th–8th grade (10–14 years old) learners and seeks to present computer science concepts in a rele...
Article
Background and Context: We explored how learning trajectories (LTs) might be used to design variables instruction. Objective: We aimed to develop an LT for variables and use it to guide curriculum development for fourth graders working in Scratch in an integrated mathematics+CS curriculum. Method: We synthesized learning goals (LGs) and levels of t...
Article
Background and Context Educators make consequential curricular decisions, often with little support, particularly as it relates to equity and how to support all students. Objective This paper investigates the use of a rubric to support educators evaluating computer science curricula, especially with regards to equity. Method Seventeen in-service...
Conference Paper
The design of most learning environments focuses on supporting students in making, constructing, and putting together projects on and off the screen, with much less attention paid to the many issues—problems, bugs, or traps—that students invariably encounter along the way. In this symposium, we present different theoretical and disciplinary perspec...
Presentation
Computational thinking (CT) assessment tasks were developed to assess students' CT knowledge, skills, and abilities. These tasks were developed from hypothesized learning trajectories for several CT topics (e.g., sequence, repetition). The tasks were administered to elementary students who were taught using an integrated math + CT curriculum. To ev...
Preprint
Compiling high-level quantum programs to machines that are size constrained (i.e. limited number of quantum bits) and time constrained (i.e. limited number of quantum operations) is challenging. In this paper, we present SQUARE (Strategic QUantum Ancilla REuse), a compilation infrastructure that tackles allocation and reclamation of scratch qubits...
Article
In response to the growing call to bring the powerful ideas of computer science to all learners, education decision makers, including teachers and administrators, are tasked with making consequential decisions on what curricula to use. Often, these decision makers have not been trained in computer science and are unfamiliar with the concepts taught...
Conference Paper
Participatory design is an essential design strategy for creating artifacts and experiences that reflect the voices of the population being designed for and with. The participatory design process can serve not only to research resulting artifacts but also as an empowering activity for those who participate. This paper explores how participatory des...
Conference Paper
Curriculum development is dependent on the following question: What are the learning goals for a specific topic, and what are reasonable ways to organize and order those goals? Learning trajectories (LTs) for computational thinking (CT) topics will help to guide emerging curriculum development efforts for computer science in elementary school. This...
Conference Paper
The underrepresentation of women and minorities in the field of computer science is well documented. Due to this lack of representation, efforts to broaden participation in computing abound. One manner with which to do this is through the development of culturally relevant curricula. Education literature encourages the use of culturally relevant te...
Conference Paper
Major metropolitan school districts around the United States are implementing computer science in elementary school classrooms as part of the CS for All (CS4All) initiative. Little is known, however, about the success of such a large-scale rollout, especially in terms of equity. In this study we analyze the performance of 4th grade classrooms compl...
Article
Quantum computers capable of solving classically intractable problems are under construction, and intermediate-scale devices are approaching completion. Current efforts to design large-scale devices require allocating immense resources to error correction, with the majority dedicated to the production of high-fidelity ancillary states known as magi...
Article
Full-text available
This article integrates an ecological approach and design-based research in computer science education research by following the simultaneous development of a computer programming environment and curriculum for elementary school age children over 2-1/2 years. We studied the alignment of the affordances provided by the programming environment and cu...
Preprint
Quantum computers have recently made great strides and are on a long-term path towards useful fault-tolerant computation. A dominant overhead in fault-tolerant quantum computation is the production of high-fidelity encoded qubits, called magic states, which enable reliable error-corrected computation. We present the first detailed designs of hardwa...
Conference Paper
As new initiatives in computational thinking and computer science (CS/CT) are being developed and deployed, it is important to identify and understand the key concepts that are essential for student learning. In this study, we present the phases of construction of a learning trajectory (LT) for Decomposition in the context of CS/CT in K-8 education...
Conference Paper
Visual block-based programming environments (VBBPEs) such as Scratch and Alice are increasingly being used in introductory computer science lessons across elementary school grades. These environments, and the curricula that accompany them, are designed to be developmentally-appropriate and engaging for younger learners but may introduce challenges...
Conference Paper
A new wave of collaborative robots designed to work alongside humans is bringing the automation historically seen in large-scale industrial settings to new, diverse contexts. However, the ability to program these machines often requires years of training, making them inaccessible or impractical for many. This paper rethinks what robot programming i...
Conference Paper
A new wave of collaborative robots designed to work alongside humans is bringing the automation historically seen in large-scale industrial settings to new, diverse contexts. However, the ability to program these machines often requires years of training, making them inaccessible or impractical for many. This project rethinks what robot programming...
Article
Quantum computing sits at an important inflection point. For years, high-level algorithms for quantum computers have shown considerable promise, and recent advances in quantum device fabrication offer hope of utility. A gap still exists, however, between the hardware size and reliability requirements of quantum computing algorithms and the physical...
Article
Full-text available
Quantum computing (QC) is at the cusp of a revolution. Machines with 100 quantum bits (qubits) are anticipated to be operational by 2020 [googlemachine,gambetta2015building], and several-hundred-qubit machines are around the corner. Machines of this scale have the capacity to demonstrate quantum supremacy, the tipping point where QC is faster than...
Conference Paper
Computing curricula are being developed for elementary school classrooms, yet research evidence is scant for learning trajectories that drive curricular decisions about what topics should be addressed at each grade level, at what depth, and in what order. This study presents learning trajectories based on an in-depth review of over 100 scholarly ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on the communication patterns of two students in two settings: the elementary school classroom and the computer lab. One child was diagnosed with autism and the other was neurotypical. These students participated in a computer science curriculum designed for upper elementary school children (grades 4-5; ages 9-10), featuring bloc...
Conference Paper
Research on appropriate topics and goals for computer science (CS) education in elementary and middle school has been ongoing for decades, but the recent movement toward CS for all requires the research community to gain a better understanding of what is most important to teach, to whom, and in what order. We conducted a literature review with spec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We developed the Draw-A-Computer-Scientist-Test (DACST) to better understand elementary school students' conceptions of computer scientists and the nature of their work. By understanding how young children perceive computer scientists, we can broaden their ideas about the activities and images of computer scientists. We administered the DACST to 87...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As more elementary schools commit to integrating computer science instruction into their curricula, they seek guidance on what concepts are appropriate for students at different grade levels. Currently, little is known about how best to sequence computer science learning across elementary grades. In this paper, we present an analysis of 123 student...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an analysis of 123 students' (aged 9-12) digital stories created in a visual block-based programming language across three grade levels (grades 4-6). These students were all involved in the same introductory computer science curriculum. Participating students attended the same school and received computer science instructi...
Article
Emerging resistive memory technologies, such as PCRAM and ReRAM, have been proposed as promising replacements for DRAM-based main memory, due to their better scalability, low standby power, and non-volatility. However, limited write endurance is a major drawback for such resistive memory technologies. Wear leveling (balancing the distribution of wr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growing movement to use visual block-based languages (VBBLs) in elementary and middle school classrooms, questions arise about the learning outcomes of such activities. While some schools are content to use VBBLs to spark interest and motivation for the future pursuit of computing, others are asking, Does this early exposure produce knowle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As computer science moves from an outreach activity to a normal classroom activity in the multi-subject, mainstream elementary school classroom, curricula need to be examined to ensure they are meeting the needs of diverse students. In this paper, we present how Universal Design for Learning (UDL) was used to develop and refine a programming enviro...
Conference Paper
Hash tables are a commonly used data structure used in many algorithms and applications. As applications and data scale, the efficient implementation of hash tables becomes increasingly important and challenging. In particular, memory capacity becomes increasingly important and entries can become asymmetrically chained across hash buckets. This cha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visual block-based programming environments allow elementary school students to create their own programs in ways that are more accessible than in textual programming environments. These environments help students write code by removing syntax errors and reducing typing. Students create code by dragging, dropping, and snapping constructs together (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present our analysis of 92 fourth graders' digital story projects completed in LaPlaya, a Scratch-like programming environment. Projects were analyzed for the way that students programmed the start of the story, and if the program integrated user-centered design by providing instruction to the user on how to interact with the digi...
Article
Quantum computing (QC) offers huge promise to accelerate a range of computationally intensive benchmarks. Quantum computing is limited, however, by the challenges of decoherence: i.e., a quantum state can only be maintained for short windows of time before it decoheres. While quantum error correction codes can protect against decoherence, fast exec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent growth of interest in computer science has created a movement to more readily introduce computer science in K-12 classrooms. However, little research exists on how to successfully bring computer science to lower grade levels. In this paper, we present advice for researchers and curriculum developers who are getting started working with c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent renaissance in early computer science education has provided K-12 teachers with multiple options for introducing children to computer science. However, tools for teaching programming for children with wide-scale adoption have been targeted mostly at pre-readers or middle school and higher grade-levels. This leaves a gap for 4th -- 6th gr...
Conference Paper
This workshop introduces our elementary school programming curriculum, KELP-CS, and the corresponding programming environment LaPlaya. KELP-CS (Kids Engaged in Learning Programming) is an innovative, modular computational thinking curriculum for 4th-6th grade students. Off-computer activities connect computer science concepts to students' every day...
Article
Investing in computing education research to transform computer science education.
Chapter
Full-text available
Computing has impacted almost all aspects of life, making it increasingly important for the next generation to understand how to develop and use software. Yet, a lack of research on how children learn computer science and an already impacted elementary school schedule has meant that very few children have the opportunity to learn computer science p...
Article
Full-text available
Cache-coherent shared memory is critical for programmability in many-core systems. Several directory-based schemes have been proposed, but dynamic, non-uniform sharing make efficient directory storage challenging, with each giving up storage space, performance or energy. We introduce SpongeDirectory, a sparse directory structure that exploits multi...
Conference Paper
Cache-coherent shared memory is critical for programmability in many-core systems. Several directory-based schemes have been proposed, but dynamic, non-uniform sharing make efficient directory storage challenging, with each giving up storage space, performance or energy. We introduce SpongeDirectory, a sparse directory structure that exploits multi...
Article
Society faces a severe environmental challenge posed by the rapid advance of technology scaling. The high cost in manufacturing energy, materials, and disposal is worrisome with the increasing number of smartphones. To mitigate the impact of future devices, the authors propose a design for reuse model in which obsolete devices will be reused for a...
Conference Paper
Recent hardware trends point to increasingly deeper cache hierarchies. In such hierarchies, accesses that lookup and miss in every cache involve significant energy consumption and degraded performance. To mitigate these problems, in this paper we propose Recalibrating Deep Hierarchy Prediction (ReDHiP), an architectural mechanism that predicts last...