# Deva Ramanan's research while affiliated with Carnegie Mellon University and other places

## Publications (234)

Preprint
Full-text available
Many perception systems in mobile computing, autonomous navigation, and AR/VR face strict compute constraints that are particularly challenging for high-resolution input images. Previous works propose nonuniform downsamplers that "learn to zoom" on salient image regions, reducing compute while retaining task-relevant image information. However, for...
Preprint
We extend neural radiance fields (NeRFs) to dynamic large-scale urban scenes. Prior work tends to reconstruct single video clips of short durations (up to 10 seconds). Two reasons are that such methods (a) tend to scale linearly with the number of moving objects and input videos because a separate model is built for each and (b) tend to require sup...
Preprint
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Predicting how the world can evolve in the future is crucial for motion planning in autonomous systems. Classical methods are limited because they rely on costly human annotations in the form of semantic class labels, bounding boxes, and tracks or HD maps of cities to plan their motion and thus are difficult to scale to large unlabeled datasets. On...
Preprint
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We propose pix2pix3D, a 3D-aware conditional generative model for controllable photorealistic image synthesis. Given a 2D label map, such as a segmentation or edge map, our model learns to synthesize a corresponding image from different viewpoints. To enable explicit 3D user control, we extend conditional generative models with neural radiance fiel...
Preprint
Self-driving vehicles rely on urban street maps for autonomous navigation. In this paper, we introduce Pix2Map, a method for inferring urban street map topology directly from ego-view images, as needed to continually update and expand existing maps. This is a challenging task, as we need to infer a complex urban road topology directly from raw imag...
Preprint
The general domain of video segmentation is currently fragmented into different tasks spanning multiple benchmarks. Despite rapid progress in the state-of-the-art, current methods are overwhelmingly task-specific and cannot conceptually generalize to other tasks. Inspired by recent approaches with multi-task capability, we propose TarViS: a novel,...
Preprint
We introduce Argoverse 2 (AV2) - a collection of three datasets for perception and forecasting research in the self-driving domain. The annotated Sensor Dataset contains 1,000 sequences of multimodal data, encompassing high-resolution imagery from seven ring cameras, and two stereo cameras in addition to lidar point clouds, and 6-DOF map-aligned po...
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We focus on the task of far-field 3D detection (Far3Det) of objects beyond a certain distance from an observer, e.g., $>$50m. Far3Det is particularly important for autonomous vehicles (AVs) operating at highway speeds, which require detections of far-field obstacles to ensure sufficient braking distances. However, contemporary AV benchmarks such as...
Preprint
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Contemporary autonomous vehicle (AV) benchmarks have advanced techniques for training 3D detectors, particularly on large-scale lidar data. Surprisingly, although semantic class labels naturally follow a long-tailed distribution, contemporary benchmarks focus on only a few common classes (e.g., pedestrian and car) and neglect many rare classes in-t...
Preprint
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Modern neural networks are over-parameterized and thus rely on strong regularization such as data augmentation and weight decay to reduce overfitting and improve generalization. The dominant form of data augmentation applies invariant transforms, where the learning target of a sample is invariant to the transform applied to that sample. We draw ins...
Chapter
Object detection with multimodal inputs can improve many safety-critical systems such as autonomous vehicles (AVs). Motivated by AVs that operate in both day and night, we study multimodal object detection with RGB and thermal cameras, since the latter provides much stronger object signatures under poor illumination. We explore strategies for fusin...
Chapter
We describe a data-driven method for inferring the camera viewpoints given multiple images of an arbitrary object. This task is a core component of classic geometric pipelines such as SfM and SLAM, and also serves as a vital pre-processing requirement for contemporary neural approaches (e.g. NeRF) to object reconstruction and view synthesis. In con...
Chapter
Motion planning for safe autonomous driving requires learning how the environment around an ego-vehicle evolves with time. Ego-centric perception of driveable regions in a scene not only changes with the motion of actors in the environment, but also with the movement of the ego-vehicle itself. Self-supervised representations proposed for large-scal...
Preprint
We tackle the problem of novel class discovery, detection, and localization (NCDL). In this setting, we assume a source dataset with labels for objects of commonly observed classes. Instances of other classes need to be discovered, classified, and localized automatically based on visual similarity, without human supervision. To this end, we propose...
Preprint
Lifelong learners must recognize concept vocabularies that evolve over time. A common yet underexplored scenario is learning with class labels over time that refine/expand old classes. For example, humans learn to recognize ${\tt dog}$ before dog breeds. In practical settings, dataset $\textit{versioning}$ often introduces refinement to ontologies,...
Preprint
Motion planning for safe autonomous driving requires learning how the environment around an ego-vehicle evolves with time. Ego-centric perception of driveable regions in a scene not only changes with the motion of actors in the environment, but also with the movement of the ego-vehicle itself. Self-supervised representations proposed for large-scal...
Preprint
Multiple existing benchmarks involve tracking and segmenting objects in video e.g., Video Object Segmentation (VOS) and Multi-Object Tracking and Segmentation (MOTS), but there is little interaction between them due to the use of disparate benchmark datasets and metrics (e.g. J&F, mAP, sMOTSA). As a result, published works usually target a particul...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe a data-driven method for inferring the camera viewpoints given multiple images of an arbitrary object. This task is a core component of classic geometric pipelines such as SfM and SLAM, and also serves as a vital pre-processing requirement for contemporary neural approaches (e.g. NeRF) to object reconstruction and view synthesis. In con...
Article
Real-world machine learning systems need to analyze test data that may differ from training data. In K-way classification, this is crisply formulated as open-set recognition, core to which is the ability to discriminate open-set data outside the K closed-set classes. Two conceptually elegant ideas for open-set discrimination are: 1) discriminativel...
Conference Paper
Preprint
Transformers have become prevalent in computer vision due to their performance and flexibility in modelling complex operations. Of particular significance is the 'cross-attention' operation, which allows a vector representation (e.g. of an object in an image) to be learned by attending to an arbitrarily sized set of input features. Recently, "Maske...
Preprint
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Object detection and forecasting are fundamental components of embodied perception. These two problems, however, are largely studied in isolation by the community. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end approach for detection and motion forecasting based on raw sensor measurement as opposed to ground truth tracks. Instead of predicting the current...
Preprint
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In the real open world, data tends to follow long-tailed class distributions, motivating the well-studied long-tailed recognition (LTR) problem. Naive training produces models that are biased toward common classes in terms of higher accuracy. The key to addressing LTR is to balance various aspects including data distribution, training losses, and g...
Preprint
Continual learning (CL) is widely regarded as crucial challenge for lifelong AI. However, existing CL benchmarks, e.g. Permuted-MNIST and Split-CIFAR, make use of artificial temporal variation and do not align with or generalize to the real-world. In this paper, we introduce CLEAR, the first continual image classification benchmark dataset with a n...
Preprint
Prior work for articulated 3D shape reconstruction often relies on specialized sensors (e.g., synchronized multi-camera systems), or pre-built 3D deformable models (e.g., SMAL or SMPL). Such methods are not able to scale to diverse sets of objects in the wild. We present BANMo, a method that requires neither a specialized sensor nor a pre-defined t...
Preprint
We explore how to leverage neural radiance fields (NeRFs) to build interactive 3D environments from large-scale visual captures spanning buildings or even multiple city blocks collected primarily from drone data. In contrast to the single object scenes against which NeRFs have been traditionally evaluated, this setting poses multiple challenges inc...
Preprint
Existing state-of-the-art methods for Video Object Segmentation (VOS) learn low-level pixel-to-pixel correspondences between frames to propagate object masks across video. This requires a large amount of densely annotated video data, which is costly to annotate, and largely redundant since frames within a video are highly correlated. In light of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent history has seen a tremendous growth of work exploring implicit representations of geometry and radiance, popularized through Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF). Such works are fundamentally based on a (implicit) {\em volumetric} representation of occupancy, allowing them to model diverse scene structure including translucent objects and atmosphe...
Conference Paper
Preprint
For machine learning models trained with limited labeled training data, validation stands to become the main bottleneck to reducing overall annotation costs. We propose a statistical validation algorithm that accurately estimates the F-score of binary classifiers for rare categories, where finding relevant examples to evaluate on is particularly ch...
Preprint
Efficient processing of high-resolution video streams is safety-critical for many robotics applications such as autonomous driving. Image downsampling is a commonly adopted technique to ensure the latency constraint is met. However, this naive approach greatly restricts an object detector's capability to identify small objects. In this paper, we pr...
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Full-text available
One common failure mode of Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) models is fitting incorrect geometries when given an insufficient number of input views. We propose DS-NeRF (Depth-supervised Neural Radiance Fields), a loss for learning neural radiance fields that takes advantage of readily-available depth supervision. Our key insight is that sparse depth su...
Preprint
Full-text available
Remarkable progress has been made in 3D reconstruction of rigid structures from a video or a collection of images. However, it is still challenging to reconstruct nonrigid structures from RGB inputs, due to its under-constrained nature. While template-based approaches, such as parametric shape models, have achieved great success in modeling the "cl...
Preprint
In this paper, we propose and study Open-World Tracking (OWT). Open-world tracking goes beyond current multi-object tracking benchmarks and methods which focus on tracking object classes that belong to a predefined closed-set of frequently observed object classes. In OWT, we relax this assumption: we may encounter objects at inference time that wer...
Preprint
Real-world machine learning systems need to analyze novel testing data that differs from the training data. In K-way classification, this is crisply formulated as open-set recognition, core to which is the ability to discriminate open-set data outside the K closed-set classes. Two conceptually elegant ideas for open-set discrimination are: 1) discr...
Preprint
Object detection with multimodal inputs can improve many safety-critical perception systems such as autonomous vehicles (AVs). Motivated by AVs that operate in both day and night, we study multimodal object detection with RGB and thermal cameras, since the latter can provide much stronger object signatures under poor illumination. We explore strate...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present streaming self-training (SST) that aims to democratize the process of learning visual recognition models such that a non-expert user can define a new task depending on their needs via a few labeled examples and minimal domain knowledge. Key to SST are two crucial observations: (1) domain-agnostic unlabeled images enable us to learn bette...
Preprint
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We present simple video-specific autoencoders that enables human-controllable video exploration. This includes a wide variety of analytic tasks such as (but not limited to) spatial and temporal super-resolution, spatial and temporal editing, object removal, video textures, average video exploration, and correspondence estimation within and across v...
Preprint
By design, average precision (AP) for object detection aims to treat all classes independently: AP is computed independently per category and averaged. On the one hand, this is desirable as it treats all classes, rare to frequent, equally. On the other hand, it ignores cross-category confidence calibration, a key property in real-world use cases. U...
Preprint
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Appearance-based detectors achieve remarkable performance on common scenes, but tend to fail for scenarios lack of training data. Geometric motion segmentation algorithms, however, generalize to novel scenes, but have yet to achieve comparable performance to appearance-based ones, due to noisy motion estimations and degenerate motion configurations...
Preprint
Monocular object detection and tracking have improved drastically in recent years, but rely on a key assumption: that objects are visible to the camera. Many offline tracking approaches reason about occluded objects post-hoc, by linking together tracklets after the object re-appears, making use of reidentification (ReID). However, online tracking i...
Chapter
Embodied perception refers to the ability of an autonomous agent to perceive its environment so that it can (re)act. The responsiveness of the agent is largely governed by latency of its processing pipeline. While past work has studied the algorithmic trade-off between latency and accuracy, there has not been a clear metric to compare different met...
Chapter
For many years, multi-object tracking benchmarks have focused on a handful of categories. Motivated primarily by surveillance and self-driving applications, these datasets provide tracks for people, vehicles, and animals, ignoring the vast majority of objects in the world. By contrast, in the related field of object detection, the introduction of l...
Chapter
We present a method that infers spatial arrangements and shapes of humans and objects in a globally consistent 3D scene, all from a single image in-the-wild captured in an uncontrolled environment. Notably, our method runs on datasets without any scene- or object-level 3D supervision. Our key insight is that considering humans and objects jointly g...
Preprint
We focus on the real-world problem of training accurate deep models for image classification of a small number of rare categories. In these scenarios, almost all images belong to the background category in the dataset (>95% of the dataset is background). We demonstrate that both standard fine-tuning approaches and state-of-the-art approaches for tr...
Preprint
Forecasting the long-term future motion of road actors is a core challenge to the deployment of safe autonomous vehicles (AVs). Viable solutions must account for both the static geometric context, such as road lanes, and dynamic social interactions arising from multiple actors. While recent deep architectures have achieved state-of-the-art performa...
Preprint
We present a method that infers spatial arrangements and shapes of humans and objects in a globally consistent 3D scene, all from a single image in-the-wild captured in an uncontrolled environment. Notably, our method runs on datasets without any scene- or object-level 3D supervision. Our key insight is that considering humans and objects jointly g...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a data-driven approach for 4D space-time visualization of dynamic events from videos captured by hand-held multiple cameras. Key to our approach is the use of self-supervised neural networks specific to the scene to compose static and dynamic aspects of an event. Though captured from discrete viewpoints, this model enables us to move aro...
Preprint
For many years, multi-object tracking benchmarks have focused on a handful of categories. Motivated primarily by surveillance and self-driving applications, these datasets provide tracks for people, vehicles, and animals, ignoring the vast majority of objects in the world. By contrast, in the related field of object detection, the introduction of l...
Preprint
Embodied perception refers to the ability of an autonomous agent to perceive its environment so that it can (re)act. The responsiveness of the agent is largely governed by latency of its processing pipeline. While past work has studied the algorithmic trade-off between latency and accuracy, there has not been a clear metric to compare different met...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key step in understanding the spatial organization of cells and tissues is the ability to construct generative models that accurately reflect that organization. In this paper, we focus on building generative models of electron microscope (EM) images in which the positions of cell membranes and mitochondria have been densely annotated, and propose...
Preprint
We present an unsupervised approach that enables us to convert the speech input of any one individual to an output set of potentially-infinitely many speakers. One can stand in front of a mic and be able to make their favorite celebrity say the same words. Our approach builds on simple autoencoders that project out-of-sample data to the distributio...
Article
Full-text available
We focus on the problem of class-agnostic instance segmentation of LiDAR point clouds. We propose an approach that combines graph-theoretic search with data-driven learning: it searches over a set of candidate segmentations and returns one where individual segments score well according to a data-driven point-based model of “objectness”. We prove th...
Preprint
The ability to autonomously explore and navigate a physical space is a fundamental requirement for virtually any mobile autonomous agent, from household robotic vacuums to autonomous vehicles. Traditional SLAM-based approaches for exploration and navigation largely focus on leveraging scene geometry, but fail to model dynamic objects (such as other...
Preprint
We explore the problem of real-time stereo matching on high-res imagery. Many state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods struggle to process high-res imagery because of memory constraints or speed limitations. To address this issue, we propose an end-to-end framework that searches for correspondences incrementally over a coarse-to-fine hierarchy. Because high...
Preprint
When building a geometric scene understanding system for autonomous vehicles, it is crucial to know when the system might fail. Most contemporary approaches cast the problem as depth regression, whose output is a depth value for each pixel. Such approaches cannot diagnose when failures might occur. One attractive alternative is a deep Bayesian netw...
Preprint
We focus on the problem of class-agnostic instance segmentation of LiDAR point clouds. We propose an approach that combines graph-theoretic search with data-driven learning: it searches over a set of candidate segmentations and returns one where individual segments score well according to a data-driven point-based model of "objectness". We prove th...
Preprint
Recent advances in 3D sensing have created unique challenges for computer vision. One fundamental challenge is finding a good representation for 3D sensor data. Most popular representations (such as PointNet) are proposed in the context of processing truly 3D data (e.g. points sampled from mesh models), ignoring the fact that 3D sensored data such...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the problem of automatically determining what type of shoe left an impression found at a crime scene. This recognition problem is made difficult by the variability in types of crime scene evidence (ranging from traces of dust or oil on hard surfaces to impressions made in soil) and the lack of comprehensive databases of shoe outsole...
Preprint
Joint vision and language tasks like visual question answering are fascinating because they explore high-level understanding, but at the same time, can be more prone to language biases. In this paper, we explore the biases in the MovieQA dataset and propose a strikingly simple model which can exploit them. We find that using the right word embeddin...
Preprint
We present Argoverse -- two datasets designed to support autonomous vehicle machine learning tasks such as 3D tracking and motion forecasting. Argoverse was collected by a fleet of autonomous vehicles in Pittsburgh and Miami. The Argoverse 3D Tracking dataset includes 360 degree images from 7 cameras with overlapping fields of view, 3D point clouds...
Preprint
Object tracking can be formulated as "finding the right object in a video". We observe that recent approaches for class-agnostic tracking tend to focus on the "finding" part, but largely overlook the "object" part of the task, essentially doing a template matching over a frame in a sliding-window. In contrast, class-specific trackers heavily rely o...
Preprint
We address the task of unsupervised retargeting of human actions from one video to another. We consider the challenging setting where only a few frames of the target is available. The core of our approach is a conditional generative model that can transcode input skeletal poses (automatically extracted with an off-the-shelf pose estimator) to outpu...
Preprint
Computer vision has undergone a dramatic revolution in performance, driven in large part through deep features trained on large-scale supervised datasets. However, much of these improvements have focused on static image analysis; video understanding has seen rather modest improvements. Even though new datasets and spatiotemporal models have been pr...
Conference Paper
Conference Paper
Preprint
We describe a latent approach that learns to detect actions in long sequences given training videos with only whole-video class labels. Our approach makes use of two innovations to attention-modeling in weakly-supervised learning. First, and most notably, our framework uses an attention model to extract both foreground and background frames whose a...
Preprint
CNNs have made an undeniable impact on computer vision through the ability to learn high-capacity models with large annotated training sets. One of their remarkable properties is the ability to transfer knowledge from a large source dataset to a (typically smaller) target dataset. This is usually accomplished through fine-tuning a fixed-size networ...
Preprint
We introduce a data-driven approach for interactively synthesizing in-the-wild images from semantic label maps. Our approach is dramatically different from recent work in this space, in that we make use of no learning. Instead, our approach uses simple but classic tools for matching scene context, shapes, and parts to a stored library of exemplars....