Dennis Twinomugisha's research while affiliated with Makerere University and other places

Publications (24)

Article
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Cambridge Core - Ecology and Conservation - Primate Research and Conservation in the Anthropocene - edited by Alison M. Behie
Article
en Anthropogenic influences have dramatically altered the environments with which primates interact. In particular, the introduction of anthropogenic food sources to primate groups has implications for feeding behaviour, social behaviour, activity budgets, demography and life history. While the incorporation of anthropogenic foods can be beneficial...
Article
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Globally, habitat degradation is accelerating, especially in the tropics. Changes to interface habitats can increase environmental overlap among nonhuman primates, people, and domestic animals and change stress levels in wildlife, leading to changes in their risk of parasite infections. However, the direction and consequences of these changes are u...
Article
Simian primates (monkeys and apes) are typically long-lived animals with slow life histories. They also have varying social organization and can slowly impact their environment by either being seed dispersers or by overbrowsing their food trees. As a result, short-term studies and those focusing on just 1 location only provide a snapshot of simian...
Article
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Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host’s ability to compete for food and mates. With such effe...
Chapter
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Tropical deforestation is occurring at a rapid rate and while many studies focus on primate adaptations to forest fragment, few studies investigate the impacts of highly degraded areas, where primates cohabit with humans. Here, we investigate how vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) survive and prosper in an extensively modified humanized lands...
Conference Paper
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The availability of food could significantly impact female reproduction, and seasonal variation in this resource can influence the timing of reproductive events. Here we examine the relationship between food availability and the timing of births in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) living in a forest-agriculture matrix at Lake Nabugabo, Ugan...
Article
Global change is affecting plant and animal populations and many of the changes are likely subtle and difficult to detect. Based on greenhouse experiments, changes in temperature and rainfall, along with elevated CO2, are expected to impact the nutritional quality of leaves. Here, we show a decline in the quality of tree leaves 15 and 30 years afte...
Article
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Group size affects many aspects of the ecology and social organization of animals. We investigated group size stability for five primate species in Kibale National Park, Uganda from 1996 to 2011 at three nested spatial scales. Survey data indicated that group sizes did not change for most species, with the exception of red colobus monkeys (Procolob...
Chapter
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Human modification of ecosystems is threatening biodiversity on a global scale. For example, it is estimated that, during the 1990s, 16 million ha of forest were lost globally each and every year, of which 15.2 million ha were tropical forest.
Chapter
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Given accelerating trends of deforestation and human population growth, immediate and innovative solutions to conserve biodiversity are sorely needed. Between 1995 and 2010, we regularly monitored the population size and structure of colobus monkey populations in the forest fragments outside of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Through this monitoring...
Article
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A series of articles by W.J. Freeland published in the 1970s proposed that social organization and behavioral processes were heavily influenced by parasitic infections, which led to a number of intriguing hypotheses concerning how natural selection might act on social factors because of the benefits of avoiding parasite infections. For example, Fre...
Article
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Animals can play important roles in structuring the plant communities in which they live. Some species are particularly influential in that they modify the physical environment by changing, maintaining, and/or creating new habitats; the term ecosystem engineer has been used to describe such species. We here assess the two major foraging strategies...
Article
Understanding the determinants of a species’ range use aids in understanding their ecological requirements, which in turn facilitates designing effective conservation strategies. The ranging behaviour of golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti) in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Uganda was studied from January 2003 to February 2004 to establish...
Article
Physical traits, such as body size, and processes like growth can be used as indices of primate health and can add to our understanding of life history and behavior. Accurately measuring physical traits in the wild can be challenging because capture is difficult, disrupts animals, and may cause injury. To measure physical traits of arboreal primate...
Article
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Introduction. The need for effective conservation in Africa is urgent because of ever-increasing human pressures on Africa’s forests and other ecosystems. The presence of long-term research programs can be one way to promote and support conservation. Scientific research has been a constant presence in Kibale Forest, Uganda for nearly 40 years. From...
Article
Given the degree to which tropical ecosystems are currently being disturbed by human activities, it is essential to set priorities for conservation and thus it becomes important to consider how best to set these priorities. From this perspective, this study provides the first detailed investigations of Cercopithecus mitis kandt i, the golden monkey...

Citations

... Long-term monitoring studies present improved opportunities for observing and quantifying effects of ECEs and human pressures on animal populations, with variables like population size, growth rate, and demographic composition enhancing the capability to forecast risk of population decline (Akçakaya and Brook, 2008). For primates there are several well-studied wildlife populations for which sufficient data may be available (e.g., Beza-Mahafaly Reserve, Lemur catta, Gould et al., 1999;Kinkazan Island, Macaca fuscata, Tsuji & Takatsuki, 2008;Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Rhinopithecus bieti, Li et al., 2012; Agaltepec Island, Alouatta palliata mexicana, Ameca et al., 2015; Monkey River, Alouatta pigra; Behie et al., 2019;Cayo Santiago, Macaca mulata, Testard et al., 2021). ...
... Harvesting trees is detrimental to the structure and composition of forests with implications for the ecological functioning of these habitats and the persistence of primate species (Brown & Gurevitch, 2004;Galat-Luong & Galat, 2005;Riley, 2007). This practice decreases mean tree diameter (Balko & Underwood, 2005;Cannon et al., 1998;Teichroeb et al., 2019), tree basal area (Cannon et al., 1994;Skorupa, 1986;Teichroeb et al., 2019), and tree height (Arrigo-Nelson, 2006;Balko & Underwood, 2005). It also promotes changes in canopy structure that result in the loss of canopy cover (Cannon et al., 1994;Skorupa, 1986;Teichroeb et al., 2019) and crown volume (Balko & Underwood, 2005;Milodowski et al., 2021). ...
... The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of habitats through human activities such as logging, animal husbandry, hunting, agricultural expansion and developmental projects and other such factors [5][6][7] intensify the conflict and affected primate populations [8]. Ecosystems and habitats are alarmingly dominated by humans, which trigger species, including primates, to exploit new human resources to survive [9,10]. ...
... Anthropogenic environmental changes causing habitat fragmentation may render primate populations more vulnerable to parasite infections, which can result in significant mortality and morbidity in some situations Trejo-Macias & Estrada, 2012). Human-macaque interactions can induce stress in the latter, making them more susceptible to illnesses Valenta et al., 2017). The macaques are less susceptible to parasites if accessible to nutritional crops, which reduces the stress (Wallis, 2000;Hahn et al., 2003). ...
... Unfortunately, the health and fitness effects of such exposures are not known because wildlife populations are seldom monitored for substantial lengths of time relevant to the accumulation of sublethal affects that ultimately lead to premature death (Chapman et al., 2017;Hayes and Carsten, 2017). As a result, comprehensive information on the effects of exposure to pesticides for tropical wildlife are lacking. ...
... Sickness-related social behaviors in monkeys have also been studied in the context of naturally occurring infection. For example, researchers have shown that red colobus monkeys infected with ringworm are lethargic, groom less, and copulate less (Ghai et al., 2015), and that deworming vervet monkeys of gastrointestinal parasites significantly increases their propensity for social interaction (Chapman et al., 2016). In zebrafish, infection with LPS decreases swimming and drastically reduces social preference (Kirsten et al., 2018;Petitjean et al., 2021). ...
... At the time of park establishment, encroachment was widespread, particularly in the corridor . Estimates vary widely, but abandoned farms (10.3%) and degraded forest (8.7%; largely representing secondary forest associated with agricultural encroachment) covered 146 km2 (Chapman et al. 2011), with 76% of these degraded lands found in the corridor . This corridor does not have an exclusive name, as it is a former game corridor now considered part of Kibale by UWA. ...
... We focused on adult and subadult males in three neighboring vervet monkey groups on the shores of Lake Nabugabo, Uganda (0°22′−12°S and 31°54′E). The area surrounding Lake Nabugabo is a human-modified landscape composed of grasslands, patches of forests, swamps, and human settlements (Chapman et al., 2016). ...
... 13,14 Researchers argue that there are many benefits to research at long-term field sites including improving the understanding of primate behavioral variability, understanding the effects of climate change, and measuring responses to selective logging, as well as establishing consistent funding and benefits to local human communities. 10,15,16 In addition, working at long-term sites can be attractive due to infrastructure, logistical support, baseline data to build on, and a community of researchers during fieldwork. These advantages, however, may bring with them a tradeoff of such spatially and taxonomically biased (clustered) research, that the broader picture of primates, their flexibility, and threats to conservation are neglected. ...
... Unlike most vervets studied to date, this population lives in a human-modified, forest-agriculture matrix and supplements their natural omnivorous diet with anthropogenic foods by crop foraging and eating food refuse and tourist handouts (Chapman et al., 2016). Previous analyses of births in one group suggested that, relative to other wild vervets, the Lake Nabugabo vervets breed less seasonally, and have IBIs more similar to those recorded in captive populations (Table I; Schoof et al., 2015). We aimed to characterize the reproductive seasonality of the Nabugabo vervets using eight years of data from three groups while considering external cues that may be used to time reproduction, how food availability may affect body condition, and how dominance influences female reproduction. ...