Dawn Burnham's research while affiliated with University of Oxford and other places

Publications (37)

Article
In a study of more than 3,000 participants from nine countries, we explored peoples’ preferences for the conservation of two groups of species that frequently interact with humans: large carnivores (n=29 species in the order Carnivora with average adult body mass > 15 kg), and wild canids and wild felids (n=73 species). We presented participants wi...
Article
Full-text available
The co-occurrence of felid species in Southeast Asia provides an unusual opportunity to investigate guild structure and the factors controlling it. Using camera-trap data, we quantified the space use, temporal activity, and multi-dimensional niche overlap of the tiger, clouded leopard, Asiatic golden cat, marbled cat, and leopard cat in the Htamant...
Article
An important line of scholarship concludes that stemming the biodiversity crisis requires widespread nonanthropocentric modes of action and decision-making. In this regard, knowing what would even constitute a nonanthropocentric economic decision-making framework is hobbled by failing to recognize a conflation in the taxonomy of capital as supposed...
Article
Full-text available
Averting the biodiversity crisis requires closing a gap between how humans tend to behave, individually and collectively, and how we ought to behave—“ought to” in the sense of behaviors required to avert the biodiversity crisis. Closing that gap requires synthesizing insight from ethics with insights from social and behavioral sciences. This articl...
Article
Leopard print is a proliferating fashion design with perpetual, cross–market appeal. But as demand for textiles replicating the leopard’s pattern soar, leopards themselves have disappeared from more than 75% of the historic range. This study quantifies the fashion interest in leopard print to evaluate whether its popularity reflects an interest in...
Preprint
Full-text available
At least nine felid species can co-occur in Southeast Asia, thus providing an unusual opportunity to investigate poorly known guild structure and the factors controlling it. Using camera-trap data, we quantified space use, temporal activity, and multi-dimensional niche overlap of tiger, clouded leopard, marbled cat, leopard cat, and Asiatic golden...
Article
Full-text available
Context After decades of political and economic isolation, Myanmar is now the focus of large international investments, particularly from China, which raises questions of how to balance national development with safeguarding the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Objective To evaluate the impact of five major developments in Myanmar on forest ecosys...
Article
Full-text available
Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) have a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, but little is known about their natural predators. During a camera-trap survey in 2018 in Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary, Myanmar, we photographed a male leopard (Panthera pardus) carrying a sun bear cub by the throat. This is the first reported case of probable predation on...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Deforestation is rapidly altering Southeast Asian landscapes, resulting in some of the highest rates of habitat loss worldwide. Among the many species facing declines in this region, clouded leopards rank notably for their ambassadorial potential and capacity to act as powerful levers for broader forest conservation programmes. Thus, identifyin...
Article
Full-text available
Public reason is a formal concept in political theory. There is a need to better understand how public reason might be elicited in making public decisions that involve deep uncertainty, which arises from pernicious and gross ignorance about how a system works, the boundaries of a system, and the relative value (or disvalue) of various possible outc...
Article
Wild lions are threatened by loss of habitat and prey and various forms of human-caused mortality. Despite examples of locally effective lion conservation, many populations have declined drastically over recent decades, and prospects for averting those threats over the long-term and at large spatial scales are not especially bright. Yet, many maint...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation and natural resource management are increasingly attending the ethical elements of public decisions. Ethical considerations are challenging, in part, because they typically require accounting for the moral consideration of various human and nonhuman forms of life, whose interests sometimes conflict (or seem to conflict). A valuable too...
Article
We reviewed recent work concerning the impact of geopolitics on wildlife conservation (and vice versa) and identified future priorities in conservation geopolitics research. Geopolitics is understood as both an analytical focus on geopolitical practices (especially concerning the behavior) of countries with respect to territory and national securit...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their iconic status, lion (Panthera leo) populations continue to decline across the majority of their range. In the light of the recent decision (in October 2017) to add lions to the Appendices of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), this paper identifies the new and existing legal protections afforded to lions through five global tre...
Article
Full-text available
Can moments of viral media activity transform into enduring activist movements? The killing of Cecil the lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in 2015 attracted global attention and generated enduring conservation activism in the form of monetary donations to the research unit that was studying him (WildCRU). Utilizing a longitudinal survey design, w...
Article
Full-text available
Link to article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000632071732116X | Efforts to realize conservation are often met with stakeholders contending that particular conservation actions are unfair for conflicting with their basic interests. A useful lens through which to view such conflict is social justice, which may be considered t...
Article
The clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa is a potent ambassador species for conservation, occurring from the Himalayan foothills eastwards to Indochina, between which Myanmar is a biogeographical land bridge. In Myanmar's Northern Forest Complex, the species co-occurs with the tiger Panthera tigris , leopard Panthera pardus , marbled cat Pardofelis ma...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation relies heavily on external funding, much of it from a supportive public. Therefore it is important to know which species are most likely to catalyse such funding. Whilst previous work has looked at the physical attributes that contribute to a species’ appeal, no previous studies have tried to examine the extent to which a species’ symp...
Article
Full-text available
The lion (Panthera leo) is featuring ever more prominently on the agendas of international wildlife treaties like the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). Lion range and numbers have declined markedly over the last two decades. In this revi...
Article
Full-text available
On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed "Cecil" prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and...
Article
Defaunation, the emptying of ecosystems of fauna, has been highlighted as a likely threat to the conservation of carnivores, but the magnitude of this threat has yet to be quantified. We quantify the potential threat defaunation presents to wild felids. Global. For the 32 wild felids that feed primarily on mammals, we used 5,330 prey records from 2...
Article
Many contemporary species of large-felids (>15 kg) feed upon prey that are endangered, raising concern that prey population declines (defaunation) will further threaten felids. We assess the threat that defaunation presents by investigating a late Quaternary (LQ), ‘present-natural’ counterfactual scenario. Our present-natural counterfactual is base...
Article
Full-text available
Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservation Index (MCI) that assesses the spatial, ecological and financial contributions of 152 nations towards conservation of the world’s terrestrial megafauna. We chose megafauna because they are...
Article
Full-text available
The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed "Cecil", a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University's Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated w...
Article
Full-text available
Effective conservation requires value judgements as well as science (Dickman et al. 2015). The furore over the killing of ‘Cecil’ the lion highlighted the complexities of such judgements. It demonstrated that some people view trophy hunting as morally wrong, and revealed public ignorance that it is a legal, widespread component of African wildlife...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation resources are limited, making it impossible to invest equally in all threatened species. One way to maximise conservation gains is to focus upon those species with particular public appeal, using them to generate funding and support that could also benefit less charismatic species. Although this approach is already used by many conserv...
Article
Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or p...
Article
Threats faced by mammalian species can be grouped into one of a handful of categories, such as habitat loss, unsustainable hunting and persecution. Insofar as they face common threats, diverse species may benefit from the same conservation intervention, thereby offering efficiencies in conservation action. We explore this proposition for primates a...
Article
Sympatry between primates and felids is potentially relevant to both their behavioural ecology and their conservation. This paper briefly introduces felids and primates, for the purposes of assessing their interrelationships and the patterns in their spatial congruence using IUCN spatial data. First, we review evidence and opportunity for predator-...
Article
Full-text available
The apparent paucity of accounts of predation, particularly by felids, on nocturnal primates is confirmed by a quasi-systematic review of 1,939 publications which revealed just 1 case of a felid eating a nocturnal primate. This instance was amongst only 51 direct reports of predation by vertebrates on nocturnal primates (90% were on Madagascar, whe...
Article
Full-text available
Primates and felids often occupy the same landscape, hence evolutionary theory predicts that proximate predator-prey mechanisms will influence both groups' ecology. Erythrocebus patas are potentially vulnerable to a number of predators and exhibit an array of morphological and behavioural predator avoidance strategies. Here, two concurrent studies,...

Citations

... Leopard cats are preyed upon by larger carnivores, including leopards (Panthera pardus; Rostro-García et al. 2018) and dholes (Cuon alpinus; Kamler et al. 2020b), but little is known about the negative impacts of large carnivores on this small felid. Previous research gave conflicting results because some studies found high spatial overlap between both leopard cat species and large felids (Sunarto et al. 2015;Kyaw et al. 2021), whereas another study found that leopard cats avoided large felids (Vitekere et al. 2020); no studies have investigated the interactions of dholes and leopard cats. Also, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are sometimes abundant within protected areas of Southeast Asia, and they can have severe negative impacts on wildlife (Hughes and Macdonald 2013;Doherty et al. 2017;Gompper 2021). ...
... The management of human-wildlife interactions (HWIs), the effects of which include collisions with vehicles, damage to property and agricultural production, zoonotic diseases, and the use of animals as a resource, is becoming more challenging (Broad et al., 2014;Aguirre, 2017;Pooley et al., 2017;IUCN, 2020). Behind this trend are the rapid and profound changes in the physical environment and societal values associated with the Anthropocene and modernization, including factors such as climate change, expanding infrastructure, urbanization, economic globalization, the digital revolution, and the expanding scope of ethical considerations (Vucetich et al., 2021a). One view, that we share, is that in an increasingly complex and interconnected human-dominated world, turning HWI into large-scale coexistence requires thorough planning . ...
... Temporal segregation across activity levels was evident only between the beech marten and the other much larger mesocarnivores. This highlights the role of body size in shaping competition across mammalian carnivores, with the smallest species of the guild being more at risk (Palomares & Caro 1999;Bischof et al. 2014;Kyaw et al. 2020). ...
... Based on these calibrations, we specified a dispersal threshold of 170,000 cost units for the resistant kernel analysis of current and 115,000 for recent historical lion landscape connectivity. The LCP network was calculated with a dispersal threshold 3.25 times higher than the threshold defined for the cumulative resistance kernels, (Cushman et al., 2018;Kaszta, Cushman, Htun, et al., 2020), to simulate the long-range dispersal of individuals recorded as dispersing between protected areas (mean 261 ± 77 km, range 150-347, n = 8). The resultant LCP density layers (current and recent historical) were smoothed using a focal mean of 5 km radius (ArcGIS, ESRI) to more realistically highlight linkage width for highly mobile species such as African lions and termed "corridors" hereafter (e.g., Cushman, Landguth, et al., 2013). ...
... They might also help explain further how or why Sunda clouded leopards are able to persist in areas of relatively high human disturbance [25,49,64,65]. Like Sunda clouded leopards, Malayan sun bears are dependent on forests with high tree canopies; they did not appear to avoid tigers in our study, despite that tigers elsewhere are reported to prey on sun bears [2,66,67]. However, it is possible that the apparent overlap between tigers and sun bears, or any species pairing for that matter, is facilitated by elevational segregation, differential use of vertical strata, variation or heterogeneity in microhabitats, different activity patterns, and use of different prey or prey of different size [2]. ...
... The considerably smaller number of retrospective case studies, i.e. studies actually having been implemented or developed on behalf of designated decision-makers. We did not trace the prospective studies to detect whether they affected decisions in later stages of the decision making process, but the overall balance between prospective and retrospective studies does support Coals et al. (2019) finding that; over the years, "inquiries focused on methods for DMDU have largely focused on developing technical tools for evaluating robustness and better forms of adaptive planning" (p. 10) rather than implementing DMDU methods in practice. ...
... This creates a stochastic draw of simulated occurrence points and habitat suitability weighted connectivity modeling ) which may be parallel to the idea of using density-weighted connectivity modeling (Morin et al. 2017). Potential source locations were created in such a way as we assumed that higher predicted habitat suitability means more dispersing individuals (Macdonald et al. 2019;Kaszta et al. 2020). The selected source locations were spatially rarefied to simulate the presence of the species across the study area. ...
... As such, hunting might be an expression of the positive valuation of predators. Other are concerned that carnivore hunting tends to be an expression of the negative valuation of carnivores (Downes, 2013;Chicago Tribune, 2021), and that hunting too often works against conservation due to the apparent difficulty of reliably implementing a well-designed hunt (Creel et al., 2016, see also Vucetich et al., 2019). Regardless of concerns associated with valuing carnivores for the opportunity to hunt them (or other consumptive valuations, e.g., Coals et al., 2019a,b), the sum total positive valuation of carnivores has been insufficient to reverse their dismal and deteriorating state. ...
... Penjor et al. (2022) show in their empirical analysis of carnivore groups in Bhutan that human settlements strongly shape movement patterns and spatial distribution, but that the effects are contrasting and varied. Integrating several methods from landscape ecology and landscape genetics in studying the anthropogenic impact on Sunda clouded leopards, Kaszta et al. (2019) find that management decisions using resistance-based connectivity models 'might be misleading and may in some cases lead to decrease in population size', if other factors like mortality risk are not accounted for. Rostro-García et al. (2016), in an empirical study showing how the relative movements of tigers, humans and leopards are varied and complex, conclude: 'it should be realized that all maps are partial truths, and their ability to approach reality can only be judged when ground-truthed.' Maps are representations built with particular methodologies; they are not the landscape itself (Patel and Moore 2017;Ingold 1993). ...
... We also recommend that when values can be reasonably quantified and traded-off, then deliberative decisionaiding processes such structured decision making may be useful (Gregory et al., 2012). When values are not so readily or reasonably quantified, an especially useful tool for synthesizing disparate facts and competing values into potential policy statements is formal argument analysis (e.g., Coals et al., 2019). We recommend that efforts aimed at solving policy problems like that described here incorporate such techniques into their processes. ...